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Full text of "Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for the year .."

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JOURNAL OF THE 



NORTH-CHINA BftANCH 






OF THE 



BOYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY 



VOLUME L 1919 



CONTENTS. 



\ 



PROCEEDINGS 

THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA. By Charles Keyser 
Edmunds, Ph. D ... 

CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY. By C. A. S. Williams 

THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS. By 
Charles Sumner Lobingier, D.C.L., Ph. D 

NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY AND THE ZOO- 
LOGY OF CrfltfA. By B. W. Skvortzow 

THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM. By Charles Kliene, F.R.G.S. 

RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR. By John C. 
Ferguson 

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE. By 
Yan Tsz Chiu 

A LIST OF THE BIRDS IN THE MUSEUM OF THE ANGLO- 
CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA. By C.R. 
Kellogg 

FORMOSA. By Old Cathay 

THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY. By Alfred Moore, B.A. 

A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA AND FAUNA 
OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY. By N. Gist Gee 

NOTES ON KANSU. By George E. King, M.B.CH.B. 

AN EXHIBITION OF PICTURES BY A RUSSIAN ARTIST 

By E. B. Howell 

REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS » 

NOTES AND QUERIES 

ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

OBITUARY 

LIST OF MEMBERS 



PAOE 

vii 

I 
26 



35 

49 

108 

122 
133 

144 

158 
162 

170 

185 

189 
191 
236 
237 
241 
249 



BYE- LAWS RELATING TO COMMUNICATIONS 
TO THE SOCIETY. 



1. Every paper which it is proposed to communicate to 
the Society shall be forwarded to the Hon. Secretary for the 
approval of the Council. 

2. When the Council shall have accepted a paper, they 
shall decide whether it shall be read before the Society and 
published in the Journal, or read only and not published, or 
published only and not read. The Council's decision shall in each 
case be communicated to the author after the meeting. 

3. The Council may permit a paper written by a non-member 
to be read and, if approved, published. 

4. In the absence of the author, a paper may be read by 
any member of the Society appointed by the Chairman or nominated 
by the author. 

5. No paper read before the Society shall be published 
elsewhere than in the Journal, without the permission of the 
Council, or unless the Council decide against publishing it in 
the Journal. 

6. All communications intended for publication by the 
Society shall be clearly written, on one side of the paper only, with 
proper references, and in all respects in fit condition for being at 
once placed in the printers' hands. 

7. The authors of papers and contributors to the Journal 
are solely responsible for the facts stated and opinions expressed in 
their communications. 

8. In order to insure a correct report, the Council request 
that i each paper be accompanied by a short abstract for newspaper 
publication. 

9. The author of any paper which the Council has decided 
to publish will be presented with twenty-five copies : and he shall 
be permitted to have extra copies printed on making application to 
the Hon. Secretary at the time of forwarding the paper, and on 
paying the cost of such copies. 



Agents for the Sale of the Society's Publications : — 

Shanghai, Hongkong, Yokohama & Singapore: 

KELLY & WALSH, LIMITED. 

London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ld. 

Paris : Ernest Leroux, Bue Bonaparte, 28. 



Application for Membership, stating the Name (in full) 
Nationality, Profession and Address of Applicants, .should be 
forwarded to "The Secretary, North-China Branch of fche 
Royal Asiatic Society, Shanghai.- The nam, should be 
proposed and seconded by members of the Society, but where 
circumstances prevent the observance of this Rule, the 
Council is prepared to consider applications with such 
references as may be given. Remittances of Subscription 
for Membership {So per annum, which entitle, the Member 
to a complete annual set of the Journal for the year in which 
payment is made) should he addressed to "The Treasurer, 
North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Shanghai." 
A Member may acquire "Life Membership" by payment 
of a composition fee of $50. 



Editors and authors wishing to have their works reviewed 
in the Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society are requested to send two copies to the Editor 
of the Journal, one copy being presented to the reviewer, the 
other remaining in the Society's Library. Papers intended 
for the Journal should be sent to the Editor. 



It has been decided by the Council that the Society's 
publications shall not for the future be issued to any Member 
whose Subscription is one year in arrear. 

It is requested that Subscriptions be sent to the 
Treasurer at the beginning of each year. Forms for pay- 
ments may be obtained from the Secretary, by which mem- 
bers having a Bank account in Shanghai, can authorize a 
Bank to make the necessary payment at the appointed time 
every year. This is a great convenience to members, and 
to the Honorary Officers of the Society. 

For information in connexion with the publishing depart- 
ment, Messrs. Kelly and Walsh, Limited, Shanghai, should 
be addressed. 



0C1 4 1919 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



NOKTH-CHINA BRANCH 



OF THE 



ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR 1919 



VOL. L. 



Shanghai : 

KELLY & WALSH, LIMITED 

1919 



OFFICEES FOE 1919-1920. 



President A. Stanley, m.d. 

Vice-Presidents Rev. F. L. Hawks Pott, d.d 

Samuel Couling, m.a. 
Curator of Museum A. Stanley, m.d. 

Librarian Mrs. F. Ayscough. 

Honorary Treasurer Mr. A. C. Hynes. 

Editor of Journal Rev. Evan Morgan. 

Councillors h.e. V. Grosse. 

Mr. H. A. Wilden. 

Mr. G. Lanning. 

Mr. L. Lyall. 

Rev. A. P. Parker, d.d. 
Honorary Secretary Mr. Isaac Mason. 



VOL, L.— 1919. 

EDITED BY EVAN MORGAN. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Proceedings ......... 

Thirty Thousand Miles in China. (Illustrated). By Charles Keyse'e 

Edmunds, Ph.d , 

Chinese Metaphorical Zoology. By C. A. S. Williams 26 

The Early Malays and Their Neighbours. By Charles SUMNEB 

Lobingier, d.c l.. Ph.d 35 

Notes on the Agriculture, Kotauy and the Zoology of China (Illus") By 

B. W. SKVORTZOW ' ... * | () 

The Land of Peach Bloom. By Charles Klikne, f.r.g.s 108 

Recent Books by a Chinese Scholar. By John C. Ferguson 122 

Chemical Industry in Kwangtung Province. By Yan Tsz Chiu L33 

A List of the Birds in the Museum of the Anglo-Chinese College of 

Foochow, China. By C. R. Kellogg " ... 144 

Formosa. By Old Cathay i;,8 

The Attractions of Entomology. By Alfred Moore, b.a 162 

A Beginning of the Study of the Flora and Fauna of Soochow and 

Vicinity. By N. Gist Gee 170 

Notes on Kansu. By George E. King, m.b.ch.b 185 

An Exhibition of Pictures by a Russian Artist. (Illus.). By E. B. Howell 189 

Reviews of Recent Books : — 

The New Atlas and Commercial Gazetteer of China — Totemic 
Traces Among the Indo-Chinese — Origin of Tibetan Writing — 
An English-Chinese Dictionary of Peking § Colloquial — Indian 
Archaeology-^ Berthold Laufer — The Kan Ying Pien — Ancient 
Chinese Paper Money as Described in a Chinese Work on Numis- 
matics — China and the World War — Greek-Chinese-English 
Dictionary of the New Testament — Index to the China Review — 
The Mentor Department of Ait — Timber Raffs on the Lower 
Yangtze — An Anglo-Chinese Glossary for Customs and Commercial 
Use — The New China Review — Sport and Science on the Sino- 
Mongolian Frontier — bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies — 
The Awakening of Asia — Chinese Pottery of the Han, Tang and 
Sung Dynasties— La Temperature en Chine et a Quelques Stations 
Voisines — Foreign Finaucial Control in China — Lectures on 
Biology — The History of China's Pictorial Art — Sayings of the 
Mongols— The International Relations of the Chinese Empire — 
The Land Tax in China — Some Aspects of Japanese Feudal 
Institutions— Gramatica Chino-Espanola— Poetry — Letters to a 
Missionary— Recherches sur les Superstitions en Chine— List of 
Chinese Moslem Terms— The Chinese Isles of the Blest 191 

Notes and Queries x 236 

Additions to the Library 237 

94.1 
Obituary "* l 

List of Members ... • •• •-■ ••• " 



CON TEN T S— continued. 
PLATES. 



Temple Angka vat Cambodge : Inner Court, Bathing 
Cave. Stairway. Angka vat Cambodge: A Bridge 
of Boats Kuanghsi : On the Yunnan Railway, 
Central Section 

Kuei Lin. Cassia River : A Luck in the Grand Canal 

The Agriculture, Botany and the Zoology of China 



PAGE 



Plate I 

A Lamoia Wearing the Curious Head-dress used by 
Mongolian Buddhist Dignitaries 

A Chinese Actress ... 



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PROCEEDINGS 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 



The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Thursday, June 12th, 1919, at the Society's hall, Dr. Arthur 
Stanley presided in the absence of the President, Sir Everard 
H. Fraser, k.c.m.g., and was supported by Mrs. Ayscongh 
and Mr. I. Mason, Hon. Secretary. 

The Chairman in his introductory remarks announced 
that Sir Everard Fraser's resignation of the Presidency had 
been accepted with regret, owing to his leaving for home. 
The Society was much indebted to the retiring President for 
having held the office for six years, and for the interest he 
has taken in the Society for a much longer period. 

The Honorary Librarian's Report. 

Mrs. Ayscough read her report which was as follows : — 

During my absence in America Mrs. McGrath performed 
most ably the duties of Hon. Librarian and last year pre- 
sented the Annual Eeport. In August 1918 she left China 
for good and I beg to express, on behalf of the North China 
Branch of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, deep appreciation for 
the services which she has rendered during the past six years. 

I have now the honour of presenting to the Members 
of the North China Branch of the Eoyal Asiatic Society the 
Eeport from June 1918 to date. 

A number of interesting publications; which are all 
reported under "Library Accessions" have been acquired by 
gift and bv purchase. 

During my absence it was decided that the rule which 
decrees that onlv works presented to the Library should be 
reviewed in the Journal, was made operative. Therefore, 
several important books which have been obtained by pur- 
chase are not reviewed in the forth-coming Journal. A 
letter 'is beino- addressed to publishers in Europe and America 
informing them of the rules of the Society and a certain 



VIM PROCEEDINGS 

number of specimen Journals are being forwarded in the hope 
that in future the presentations to the Library may be more 
numerous. 

Since the Armistice various books delayed in publication 
on account of the war, have appeared; notably Vols. II and 
III of The International Relations of the Chinese Empire, 
by H. B. Morse ; the 2nd edition of Hillier's Pocket Dictionary 
which has been edited by Messrs Backhouse and Barton; 
and the 2nd edition of Prof. Giles' invaluable History of 
< 1 liin e s e Pict o r ia 1 A rt . 

A very fine catalogue which has been presented is 
Chinese Pottery of the Han, Tang, and Sung Dynasties, 
issued by Parish-Watson & Co. Inc. the letterpress is 
excellent and the plates above praise. The result of the 
great interest taken in the West in Chinese Art is that in the 
Metropolitan Centres of Europe and America one can see. in 
three hours, more examples of Great Chinese Art than one 
can see in China in three years. 

An interesting table of Meteorological Observations has 
been received from an Observatory at Chen Shan Nan-tung 
which has been newly established by a public-spirited Chinese- 
gentleman and which promises to do good work. 

Several important works have been obtained by pur- 
chase; notably "The Ajanta Frescoes, being Reproductions 
in Colour and Monochrome of Frescoes in some of the Caves 
at Ajanta after Copies taken in the Years 1909-1911" by 
Lady Herringham; "The Beginnings of Buddhist Art" by 
Foucher ; and the fine Japanese publication reproductions of 
Chinese Sculptural Works of Art, which has lately appeared. 

The most important new exchange is "The New China 
Review" Edited by the Mr. Samuel Couling, m.a., an ex- 
Secretary of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, which promises to fill a long felt want, and which we 
are very glad to welcome. 

Several years ago the Librarian commenced to compile 
a classified mde\: of articles in various Journals, but was 
interrupted by the exigencies of War Work. During the last 
winter this work has been taken up by Mrs. Maurice Price 
who has completely indexed the Chinese Repository and who- 
has brought up to date the indices of the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland, and the North China 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. For this valuable work 
the thanks of the Society are due. 

It is hoped, during the coming year, to issue a new and 
more perfect class Catalogue, of the books in the Library. 
Members in Shanghai can always consult the Card Catalogue 
in the Library, but members who live in other places and 
who yearly use the Library more and more are dependent 



PROCEEDINGS IN 

upon the printed Catalogue, which appeared m L908 and 
which is, naturally, completely out of date. 

Each year the number of members who use the Library 
increases. A fact which is most gratifying, and which is 
most hopeful for Sinology. New that the War is over it 
seems quite legitimate to hope that much tune will he given 
to the study of Far Eastern affairs and tfeat importanl works 
will appear. 

The last week has witnessed the manifestation of an 
extraordinary movement throughout China. 

Foreigners have been puzzled at the sudden homogenitv 
of public opinion and at the silent force behind its expression, 
which gave it power. The lack of comprehension of the 
movements about them arise not so much from lack of in- 
telligence as from lack of information. Locally, the majority 
of foreigners have but a superficial knowledge of China and 
her politics — past and present — they therefore fail to com- 
prehend perfectly logical developments. A careful perusal of 
the volumes on the shelves of the North China Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society would help to provide the information 
needed, and in these days, when mutual undersanding is so all 
important, the foreign residents in the Far East would do 
well to avail themselves of the opportunities at their hand. 

It is hoped that authors and publishers will not forget 
the existence of a Society which was formed in 1857 and 
which has devoted itself to the furtherance of understanding 
between the East and West, and that the books which treat of 
Far Eastern subjects may, as a matter of course, be sent for 
review in the Journal and for use in the Library. The 
clerical work in the library has been efficiently conducted by 
.Mr. Wn and Mr. Chao. 

The Honorary Treasurer's Report 

In the absence of the Treasurer, Mr. A. C. Hynes, the 
Financial Statement for the year was read by the Secretary, 
and is given herewith : — 



X 



PROCEEDINGS 



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PROCEEDINGS X| 

The Honorary Editor's Report. 

Ample material has come to hand from contributors to 
make a bulky Journal. These contributions obviated the 
necessity of using several articles dealing with various aspect 
of Chinese thought that had been prepared and held in 
reserve m case there might be a paucity of material. Some 
contributors have given us their reminiscences of events 
long gone by : others their experiences in travel far and wide 
over this empire : pictures of Chinese life and so on. These 
form the lighter and more popular side of the Journal. A 
young Eussian writer has contributed a lengthy article on the 
Agriculture and Zoology of certain parts of China. We have 
lists of birds and beasts by other writers. These articles 
it is true, are encumbered by long Latin names. It is the 
scientific habit. In spite of this somewhat forbidding aspect 
the editor ventures to think that these articles should prove 
acceptable to merchants and others. For the bird that bears 
the mcumberance of a strange name, for which he is in no 
sense responsible, may give an indication of climate and help 
us to know how the wind blows. Agriculture also, the rices 
and barleys and other things may labour under the same 
difficulty of names, and yet the multitude of items supplied 
may have an important bearing on scholarship and com- 
merce. 

The Honorary Secretary's Report. 

Mr. Isaac Mason, the Hon. Secretary, then read his 
report which was as follows: — 

The past Session has been a quiet one, yet the good 
attendance at the public meetings, and the increase in 
membership indicate that the Society's activities are very 
well appreciated. 

Eight meetings of the Council have been held, at which 
the ordinary business of the Society has been transacted. 
Our Honorary Treasurer Mr. E. E. Hynd having gone on 
leave, the Council conveyed to him the warm thanks of the 
Society for his valuable services during the past few years. 
Mr. A. C. Hynes kindly consented to accept the Treasurer- 
ship for the 'unexpired 1 ' portion of Mr. Hynd's term. Mr. 
Maybon also left for home during the session, and his genial 
presence and helpful counsel have been missed by his 

colleagues. 

We have to record with deep regret, the death ot our 
honoured Vice-President Dr. Timothy Eichard, in England 
on April 17th. Dr. Eichard has been a member of this 
Society for 25 years, and for 50 years has been connected 



XI 1 PROCEEDINGS 

with China where his honest efforts for the good of the 
Chinese have met with an appreciation such as few men have 
been privileged to see. 

Dr. J. C. Ferguson has been elected to honorary member- 
ship In consideration of his valuable services to the Society 
during many years, and we are sure that members will 
cordially approve this action. 

Six public meetings have been held during the Session. 
The Papers read and Lectures given were as follows : — 

"'The Land of Ararat," by Dr. G. M. Daniel. (October 
Hist). 

"Touches of Life in China," by Dr. W. L. Hall. 
(1 )ecember 5th). 

"The Land of Peach Bloom," by Mi'. C. Kliene, f.r.g.s. 
(January 16th). 

"The Caucasus and its Peoples," by Mr. E. St. John 
Catchpool. (February 13th). 

"The Chatham Islands," by J. Huston Edgar, f.r.g.s. 
(March 20th). 

"A Local Biological Survey," by Mr. N. Gist Gee, m.a. 
(May 8th). 

Two excellent exhibitions of paintings and drawings of 
China and Chinese by Mr. A. Iacovleff were given by the 
kindness of the artist, each lasting several days, and attract- 
ing a large number of visitors. 

The membership of the Society continues to increase. 
Forty-six new members have been elected during the year,, 
subject to the approval of this meeting. The names are : — 

William Ironside, William. Nicholson, C. C. Williams, 
Dr. A. H. Skinner, J. B. Nicholson, W 7 . S. P. Deas, A. T. 
Milhorat, T. Kashiwada, W. E. Leete, Miss E. S. Lester, 
G. D. Drago, B. W . Skvortzow, E. C. Grierson, E. E. 
Wilson, E. B. Bruce, A. T. Beltchenko, E. P. Gish, D. W. 
Lvon, Dr. King, H. K. Wright, E. C. Kopp, J. A. E. Bates,. 
W. A. Stursberg, W. E. Kellogg, M. E. W'eatherall, Mrs. 
A. Q. Adamson, Mrs. J. E. Denham, A. W. Hummel, 
W. L. Oakes, E. T. A. Stedefcrd, Mrs. C. H. W 7 ebb, G. W. 
Fisk, G. W. Bishop, F. S. Upham, J. Woets, A. C. Hynes, 
C. A. S. Williams, Mrs. M. Benjamin, Miss S. M. Bosworth, 
E. W. Perry, Capt. Cockell, Mrs. M. Price, W. E. Wheeler, 
G. Ei chert,' A. J. Cominys and H. E. Morriss. 

There have been seven resignations, and deaths have 
been recorded as under: — A. H. White, J. Jackson, H. W. 
Brazier, K. G. Kring, J. Dyer Ball, G. M. H. Playfair, and 
T. Eich'ard. 

A number of other names have lapsed for various 
reasons : the present membership is 528 a net gain of 8 over 
last vear. 



PROCEEDINGS xiii 

The financial position of the Society is good, enabling us 
to spend a little more liberally on the library and in equip- 
ment for the benefit of members and the public generally. 

The Eeport and Accounts were adopted on the proposal 
of Rev. A. P. Parker, d.d., seconded by Mr. Gr. Lanning. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the Council and Officers 
for their services during the past year, proposed by Mr. 
S. Couling, and seconded by Miss H. C. Bowser. 



Election of Officers. 

On the proposition of Mr. Mencarini, seconded by Dr. 
Noel Davis, the following officers were elected to serve during 
the forthcoming year : — 

President. — A. Stanley, m.d.; Vice-Presidents — Eev. 
F. L. Hawks Pott, d.d., Samuel Couling, m.a. ; Curator of 
Museum — A. Stanley, m.d. ; Librarian — Mrs. F. Ayscough ; 
Honorary Treasurer — Mr. A. C. Hynes; Editor of Journal — 
Rev. Evan Morgan; Councillors — h.e. V. Crosse. Mr. 
H. A. Wilden, Mr. C. Lanning, Mr. L. Lyall, Rev. A. P. 
Parker, d.d.; Honorary Secretary — Mr. Isaac Mason. 

The Honorary Curator's Report. 

The Report of the Curator, Dr. Stanley, was next given. 
I ))•. Stanley said : — 

The Museum collection has been satisfactorily main- 
tained. The trouble entailed in caulking all the cracks and 
crevices in the cases, and not permitting any opening up 
between April 1 and October 31, has been repaid by absence 
of destruction by parasites and dust. 

The list of acquisitions presented show that interest in the 
Museum continues unabated notwithstanding the unsettled 
conditions that prevailed. The disturbed state of Fokien 
province, where the regular Museum collector has been work- 
mo- for some years has, however, rendered his collection less 
interesting than usual. 

Y taxidermist is not now maintained throughout the year 
available for the public wanting birds and animals prepared 
and mounted The Museum Collector now comes for a 
limited period during the winter months to overhaul the bird 
and mammal collections, and is then sometimes available tor 
taxidermist work for the public. This latter work m the 
Das t has had a detrimental effect on the Museum and it is 
considered generally desirable for the Museum to discontinue 
the mountinc of birds and other animals for the public. 
\, , taxidermist unconnected with the Museum has been 



XIV PROCEEDINGS 

available of late no inconvenience to the public in this respect 
seems likely to result. 

The policy has been to maintain the Museum as a 
Natural History Museum almost exclusively, with a practical 
educational purpose. By means of descriptive labels in 
simple scientific language the main object is to stimulate 
an interest in and love of Nature. The mere labelling a 
specimen with its Specific name of course has its special use 
and importance, particularly where special knowledge is 
available in respect to particular sections of the work; but 
not necessarily for exhibition to the public. Such collections 
are, where possible, kept for the use of specialists. For the 
public, and especially for the young, a general outlook on 
Nature without unnecessary detail is vastly more interest- 
ing and educative. 

A visit to Weihaiwei during the past summer afforded an 
opportunity of roughly working out the natural history of the 
island (Liu Kung tao). Specimens of practically all the 
reptiles and amphibians were obtained, of which the pretty 
little Argus lizard (Eremias argus) and the extraordinarily 
beautiful Fire-bellied Toad '(Bombinator orientalis) may be 
specially mentioned as particularly abundant. The moment 
of first finding the latter species, which I have been trying 
for in China for many years, was the brightest spot in the 
year's nature study. Unfortunately this animal loses much 
of its beauty lying dead in spirit. I had hoped to show it 
alive but the last of 30 specimens brought to Shanghai 
succumbed a few days ago. 

From time to time suggestions are made for the estab- 
lishment of a museum on a larger scale than the present, 
including an art section. Were a liberal endowment pro- 
vided such a Museum could probably be established and 
maintained commensurate with the size and importance of 
the place. Shanghai is, however, mainly a place of tem- 
porary sojourn even in the case of the Chinese population. 
Private collections are seldom left behind. Moreover, there 
is a considerable demand from abroad for Chinese works of 
art and archeology. The suggested Museum would probably 
have to depend mainly on purchase for the acquisition of its 
exhibits. The endowment of the suggested Museum would, 
therefore, have to be on an especially liberal scale. 

The Society's Museum may be regarded as a symbol of 
the effort to study practically Chinese subjects. Its purpose 
is not to collect and exhibit curiosities, but rather to stimu- 
late that divine curiosity which leads to knowledge and 
wisdom. It may be noted that the Society has by means of 
occasional exhibitions and lectures been able to maintain a 
keen interest in Chinese Art. 



PROCEEDINGS 



X\ 



MUSEUM ACQUISITIONS. 
From June 1, 1918. to May 31, 1919 



Clutch of 5 eggs of Suya crinegera, Smoky quartz 
Large snail shell, Cochlostyla roussvana. 
Cochlostyla mtorta, Gilt tiles from 'Golden 
lagoda' (2), Glazed tile from Ming Tombs, 
Clay tablets from Lama Temple (5), Pair of 
modern silver ear-rings, Old Chinese hair 
ornament, Glazed faience fragments from the 
ruins of Yuan Ming Yuan, Pair of old 
Chinese iron stirrups, Sung pottery jar. 
Ten-cash copper coin Hung-hsien period. 

Specimens of Szechuen decorated woodwork and 
veneer (4), 'Insect' tea from Luchow, Sze- 
chuen. 

Miscellaneous molluscs, crinoids, sponges, etc., 
from Chijiwa, Japan Bats (2), Solitary wasps 
with nests and various specimens of insect 
life from Shanghai. Native sulphur, Molge 
pyrrhogaster, snakes (3) and one snake cast 
from Unzen, Japan. 

Hemiptera (14 species) from Mokanshan. 

Photograph of crane from Japan. 

Eremias argus (3) from Weihaiwei. 

Various shells from Weihaiwei. 

East India Company Copper cent from Pootung 

Cemetery. 
Gordian worm from Shanghai. 
Molge pyrrhogaster (2) from Kiukiang. 
Tropidonotus tigrinus from Kihungshan, S. Honan. 
Petrophila manilla and Japanese Green Pigeon 

from Nagasaki. 

Gallinago solitaria (shot Oct. 25) and pig mon- 
strosity from Hunchun, Manchuria. 

Zamenis mucosus (2), Naia naia atra (2), Tachy- 

dromus sexlineatus, from Hongkong. ' 
Skin of Crocodilus porosus, Malay War Drums (2). 
Iridescent Anthracite coal, Specimens of shale 

with fossil ferus from Hongay Coal Mine, 

Tonking. 
Anthercea pernyi and cocoons (3) from Manchuria. 
Gecinus guerini from Shanghai. 
Zaocys dhumandes ; Tropidonotus piscator, Coluber 

phyllophis from Hwaiyuan. 

Thibetan Tsanpa dish and charm locket, Chinese 
child's life-preserving locket from West China. 

Water beetles, shells and crustaceans from Foo- 
chow. 



Presented by 



Peter J. Bahr. Esq. 

Walter T. Herbert. 
Esq. 



Dr. A. Moore. 
Prof. Gist Gee. 
B. T. Prideaux. 

Esq. 
Reginald Stanley 
Miss B. Walker 

G.T. Turnbull, Esq. 
K. S. Kov, Esq. 
Dr. Ida Kahn 
Bishop AVhite 

I. P. Christiansen 
Esq. 

H. K. Lindholm. 

Esq.. 

Dr. Heanlev 

H. F. Pringle, Esq. 



Capt. H. E. Laver 
Miss Hilda Bowser 
Charles Hill, Esq. 

Dr. Samuel 

Cochrane 

Rev. James Hutson 

B. W. Skvortzow, 

E^q, 



XVI 



PROCEEDINGS 



Presented by 

Bronze and iron arrow heads of Yuan, Han and 
Chow dynasties (11), Flint nodule with 
adherent chalk. E. Luthy, Esq. 

Various echinoderms, Tropidonotus tigrinus (2), 
Bombinator orientalis (10) from Weihaiwei, 
Specimens illustrating the complete metamor- 
phosis of the Privet Hawk moth and various 
insects. Brian Stanley 

Various rock specimens, echinoderms, arachnids, 

etc., from Weihaiwei. Dr. Stanley 

Porpoise from Shanghai River (Skeleton prepared). Purchased 

Various insects (3,000) amphibians, molluscs, ech- 
inoderms. crustaceaus, reptiles, birds and fish 
nest. Collected 



ARTHUR STANLEY 

Honorary Curator. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES 
IN CHINA 



CHARLES KEYSER EDMUNDS, PH.D. 

President of Canton Christian College and Observer- 

in-Charge Magnetic Survey of China, Carnegie 

Institution of Washington, 1906-1917 



Coming to China fourteen years ago, after several years 
of experience as a physicist in the field as well as in the 
laboratory and classroom in America, I naturally desired to 
exercise the same dual functions in China. Urged by the 
Editor, I presume to recite some aspects of such field work 
as the interims in my increasing scholastic duties and 
absences in America have allowed. 

Among the many problems which China faces to-day, 
some of the most pressing are of a physical nature, such as 
reforestation, control of rivers and canals to prevent floods, 
construction of railways, development of mines, and many 
others of a similar sort. In connection with the surveys 
which are necessary in any comprehensive or co-ordinated 
development along these lines, it is highly desirable that the 
magnetic field of the earth be known as accurately as possible 
throughout the country. For it is with the aid of the 
compass that the most rapid and economical surveys can be 
made. Hence the proper corrections to apply to compass 
and dip needle pointings on land are of value to surveyors 
and railroad and mining engineers, just as they are to the 
mariner for sea areas. 

As the reputed inventors of the compass for use on both 
land and sea, it is quite appropriate that the Chinese after 
a long period of arrested development along such lines, 
should have the assistance of scientists from the West in 
securing as soon as possible an accurate knowledge of the 
magnetic elements throughout their territory in which these 
physical developments are being inaugurated and throughout 
the adjacent seas on which so many Chinese risk their lives. 

Besides these practical applications, a detailed know- 
ledge of the earth's magnetic field is essential for any 
adequate conception of the cause or causes of such magnet- 
1 



2 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

ism, and for the solution of this large problem data must be 
had for all parts of the globe both on land and sea. 

Therefore, when in 1904 "The Department of Eesearch 
in Terrestrial Magnetism" was created by the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington with the special object of securing 
magnetic data in the regions of the globe where most needed 
and where no organizations are prepared to undertake this 
work, I was glad to offer my services to the Director, Dr. 
L. A. Bauer, for such work in China as he might authorize 
and support. 

Already some observations had been made by the Obser- 
vatories at Hongkong and Zikawei, by various naval officers 
at coast and river ports, and by an occasional party of travel- 
lers from abroad ; but nothing like an adequate or comprehen- 
sive survey had been thought of. 

Thanks to the liberal support accorded by the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, and to the aid given by the Hong- 
kong and Zikawei Observatories in the loan of instruments 
for the first few years, by the Chinese Government through 
its customs and postal services and local civil officials 
generally, and to the co-operation of consuls and missionaries 
wherever encountered, as well as to the courtesy of the 
Canton Christian College in granting furloughs, it has been 
possible to carry to a successful conclusion not only the whole 
programme for a preliminary reconnaissance of China proper 
but to extend the survey into Manchuria, Mongolia, Chinese 
Turkestan, French-Indo-China and Siam, and to do so 
practically "on time," in spite of the fact that the period of 
our work has been one of almost constant political unrest 
in China. 

From the first, care has been taken to avoid giving the 
Chinese any impression that we are intending to invade their 
field, but only to encourage and assist them in the accom- 
plishment of the preliminary stages of a work which, when 
their government is sufficiently organized to maintain a 
scientific service on its own account, will properly fall under 
their meteorological department. With this end in view 
I have always included in my party a Chinese student to act 
as recorder and assistant observer. 

In French-Indo-China and Siam, the hearty co-operation 
of the respective Governments was accorded and free trans- 
portation provided for the expeditions. 

The results secured in the period 1905-13 have been 
published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington with 
similar observations in other parts of Asia and of the globe 
under the title "Land Magnetic Observations" in Volumes 
I and II of Publication No. 175, by L. A. Bauer, Director 





TEMPLE ANGKA VAT CAMBODGE. 





INNER COURT, BATHING CAVE, STAIRWAY, 
ANGKA VAT CAMBODGE. 




A BRIDGE OF BOATS KUANGHSL 





ON THE YUNNAN RAILWAY : CENTRAL SECTION. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 3 

of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. A third volume 
is in course of preparation. 

At each station astronomical observations of the sun, 
usually by means of a theodolite, are made so as to determine 
the latitude and longitude of the station, and the azimuth 
or true bearing of some distant fixed mark as seen from the 
station. Elevation above sea level is determined by hypso- 
meter or aneroid barometers. Standard mean time is given 
by a battery of watches and chronometers very carefully 
carried. With a magnetometer the magnetic declination or 
deviation of the compass from the true or astronomic north 
is determined and also the intensity of the earth's magnetic 
force at that place, while with a dipcircle the dip or inclin- 
ation of the magnetic needle in the vertical plane is observed. 
These three elements — declination, dip, and intensity — give 
a full knowledge of the earth's magnetic force at that place 
both as to its magnitude and its direction for the time when 
the observations were made. But the case is greatly com- 
plicated by the fact that both the direction and the magnitude 
of the earth's force at a given place undergo cyclical changes 
throughout the day, with monthly and secular variations 
superposed. It becomes then a difficult task to ascertain 
the precise correction to apply to any given compass reading in 
order to ascertain the true bearing at the time of observation. 
Continuous records of these changes in the earth's field must 
be secured at as many permanent stations as possible while 
at a large number of well distributed points throughout the 
intervening territory detailed observations must be made and 
repeated from time to time, so that both the absolute values 
and the rate of change may be determined. The only station 
in China where continuous records are being secured is at 
Lukiapang, under the Zikawei Observatory, itself an integral 
part of the missionary establishment of the French Catholic 

Church. 

The extensive observations already made throughout the 
world, both on land and sea, under the auspices of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington will, when combined with 
the results of surveys maintained by the various govern- 
ments, give the first comprehensive magnetic survey of the 
alobe and thus afford the basis of a much more intelligent 
solution of the problems of terrestrial magnetism than has 
hitherto been possible. Any more detailed reference would 
be out of place here; but it is a cause for congratulation that 
China has been included in the areas studied even ahead oi 
the time when her own government will be able to undertake 
&uch work and thus contribute her just share as a full-nedged 
modern nation to the solution of a world problem. 



4 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

In this magnetic survey of China and adjacent territories 
some 65,300 miles have been travelled not counting trans- 
oceanic voyages. Eliminating duplications, for some of the 
routes have been traversed more than once, gives 43,240 miles 
as the total of our lines, not counting 2,600 miles in India by 
my colleagues D. C. Sowers and C. G. Fuson who journeyed 
from Peking to Bombay by way of Kansu, Chinese Tur- 
kestan, Kashgar and the Karakorum Pass. My assistant 
Mr. Frederick Brown has traversed Mongolia in two direc- 
tions and has done Kweichow besides filling gaps in other 
provinces. The total number of stations where observations 
have been made (not counting repeats) is 394 plus 63 
occupied by Sowers and Fuson within Chinese Dominions. 
The average interval between stations is about 60 miles, 
varying from 15 to 150 miles according to* circumstances. 
Average cost per station has been about U.S. $50, not count- 
ing observer's salary. 

My own share of travel has been a total of 45,500 miles r 
of which about 12,000 have been in repetition so that irres- 
pective of duplication my single routes amount to about 
33,500 of which 3,500 have been in Indo-China and 30,000 
in China. In Siam I have gone only where railways could 
carry me, but in French-Indo-China I have traversed every 
province, while in China proper and Manchuria I have 
traversed every province except Kansu (the S.E. corner of 
which I have just entered) and Kweichow, and have skirted 
the real physical boundary of Inner Mongolia and of the 
Szechwan-Tibetan borderland. 

Naturally a great mass of data has been collected, 
especially with reference to the physical features of China, 
and I cherish the hope that some day the pressure of my 
college work will lessen sufficiently to permit the preparation 
of a comprehensive volume. For the present I must content 
myself with only a brief outline of the field that has been 
covered, with some indication of the most striking features. 

The Eule of Five. 

According to ancient custom most id.eas in China come 
in fives. One might substitute "funf" for "drei" in the 
German saying and apply it to Cathay. Life consists in the 
five relationships : between sovereign and subject, husband 
and wife, parent and child, brother and brother, friend and 
friend. There are five classes of society, five orders of no- 
bility, five rites, five degrees Of mourning, the five-clawed 
dragon (which doesn't exist) and the so-called five-coloured 
porcelain (which isn't five-coloured!). There are the five 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 5 

elements: metal, wood, water, fire, earth; though the all 
surrounding air is omitted ! There are the five senses, the 
five virtues, the five planets, five colours, five musical notes 
aad toe five classics, the learning of which bv a cast-iron 
method has in several hundred years wasted enough energy 
for ten millenniums of true education. There are the five 
races, the five cereals, the five seasons and of special value 
to the traveller the five points of the compass: North, East 
bouth West and Center; indicating that it is just as im- 
portant to know where you are as it is to get your direction ! 
Hence even under the risk of being considered too artificial 
1 shall present my subject according to the ancient rule of 
rive. 

m The five corners of my own area of travel are significant 
m their contrast. 

In the south-east Hainan, the Island of Palms; in the 
north-east Dolonnor and the Salt Marshes of Inner Mon- 
golia; in the north-west the Snow Mountains of Sungpan 
Pass, the Switzerland of China; and in the south-west the 
jungles of Laos and Siam, and in China proper, the elevated 
lakes of Yunnan. 

My separate expeditions might be characterized as 
follows: (1) Along the China Coast from end to end; (2) 
Overland from Peking to Canton via Hankow, Changsha, 
Kweilin and Wuchow ; (3) The Yangtsze Kiang from Tibetan 
Borderland to the sea; (4) The Yellow River's Middle 
Course; (5) Over the Meiling from Canton to Kiukiang; 
(6) Across Shantung, China's Holy Land; (7) A Loop in 
Inner Mongolia, via Hannor Pass, Dolonor, and Jehol; (8) 
From Canton to Mandalay, but stopped half way by a 
Revolution; (9) Partout en Indo-Chine; (10) China's Far 
West, Shensi, Kansu and Szechwan. 

These journeys have taken me to the five Sacred Moun- 
tains of China : — Taishan in Shantung, Hengshan in Hunan, 
Wutaishan in Shansi, Omeishan in Szechwan and Hwashan 
in Shensi. Of these Omei is the highest (10,000 ft.) and 
affords the greatest variety of scenery, Hwashan (6,000) 
presents the most interesting ascent because of the steepness 
of the artificial way prepared for devotees, while Tai Shan 
(5,000) has the most valuable historical connection with 
China's Chief Sage, Confucius, who ascended this mount 
about 500 B.C. Each bears numerous temples and each is 
visited annually by thousands of pilgrims from far and near. 
The lastnamed is now very accessible even for the tourist 
since the Pukow-Tientsin railway passes through Taian which 
lies at its base. 



6 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

The five great engineering feats of the Chinese have been 
seen. 

1. — The Great Wall, begun as early as 240 b.c. and 
added to as late as a.d. 1547, to keep out invaders who never- 
theless have made an effective entry, has been followed for 
long distances in widely separated sections of its tortuous 
course of 1,250 miles. 

2. — The Grand Canal, the oldest and longest artificial 
waterway in the world, built in three sections in three differ- 
ent periods (from 550 b.c. to a. p. 1283) and finally completed 
for the inland transport of grain from Hangchow in the South 
to the Capital in the North, has been traversed practically 
from end to end of its 1,000 miles, in spite of the dilapidated 
condition of its northern section. 

3. — The Hangchow Bore Wall, built about a.d. 915 and 
still protecting millions from a twice-daily flood from the sea, 
has, though less known impressed me as worthy of a greater 
share of fame than the Grand Canal or the Great Wall, 
because of the dynamic difficulties to be overcome in the 
construction of 180 miles of a wall which so effectively shuts 
out one of the most gigantic and powerful tidal bores in the 
world. 

4. — The exceedingly clever and extensive irrigation system 
of Kwanhsien inaugurated probably about 200 B.C. and still 
responsible for so much of the prosperity of Szechwan has 
been investigated from the headwaters of the Min that feeds 
it to the by-canals of the Chengtu plain where it supports 
millions on what would otherwise be barren land. 

5. — The brine wells of Tzeliutsing also in Szechwan, 
sunk by hand to a depth of 3,000 feet and operated by crude 
machinery with water-buffalo as the motive power have been 
seen and marvelled at. Dating, as some of the wells do, 
from as early as a.d. 250 this region still supplies an enormous 
quantity of that most essential commodity, which in China 
is the Government's one monopoly, salt, which under the 
recent administration of Sir Eichard Dane has added so 
greatly to the nation's revenue. 

Note, please, three significant characteristics of these 
engineering feats : Each is of fairly ancient origin; each is of 
great magnitude; and each is a work of utility, all but one 
{i.e. the Great Wall) being of important use to-day. Con- 
trast these with the useless monuments which the ancient 
Egyptians have left as marks of their former prowess and you 
will readily admit the superiority of the Chinese. Remember 
too that the Chinese are the only great nation to-day that has 
survived from any remote past. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 7 

Remember that before Abraham left Ur of the Chaldees, 
China s system of education began, which with a revision in 
a.d. 627 continued until 1905 to drill all the scholars and 
statesmen of the realm in a system of ethics the cardinal 
principle of which is filial piety, and then compare their 
history with the promise contained in the Hebrew decalogue 
which says "Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days 
may be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth 
thee," and I, for one, believe that you have noted at least 
one of the reasons for the survival of the Chinese people. 

Five Imperial Burial Grounds have been visited. Near 
Peking in three different directions are three such areas: 
The Ming Tombs near Nankow, much visited by tourists and 
possessing the finest setting of any of the imperial graves by 
reason of a great ampitheatre of mountains; the Tungling 
or Eastern tombs at Malanyu, east and slightly north of 
Peking by cart, where the late Empress Dowager lies buried 
behind a series of ornate buildings with most gorgeous roofs 
of yellow glazed porcelain; and the Shihling or Western 
Tombs to which one may journey practically all the way by 
rail via Kaopeitien on the Peking-Hankow line. Here the 
last Emperor lies buried. At both the Eastern and the 
Western tombs there are immense graves of cypress in the 
midst of which stand the shrines. 

At Nanking are the tombs of the Southern Mings with a 
mile of huge stone figures flanking the avenue of approach 
just as at Nankow in the north. 

In Southern Shensi and Western Honan are the enormous 
but simple mounds of earth which mark the resting places of 
the Elans and the Tangs. These and the two Ming burying 
grounds are of Chinese kings, while the Eastern and the 
W 7 estern tombs are of Manchu monarchs. All are truly 
imperial in their conception and dimensions. 

Nor can we forget our pilgrimage to the birth and burial- 
place of Confucius, at Kufu, in the ancient Kingdom of Lu 
(now the province of Shantung) where the 75th lineal des- 
cendant of the Sage so worthily bears to-day the title of 
Duke, and cares for the graves of his ancestor marked by a 
stone bearing the simple yet majestic inscription "Most Holy 
Ancient Teacher. 

There are five principal kinds of highways in China, just 
as elsewhere in the world; though up till now the relative 
importance of certain ones is much greater in China than in 
most other countries : Waterways, footpaths, pack trails, 
cart roads, and railways. Roughly speaking China is a 
country of no good roads. The chief reasons are not far to 
seek. In the great delta regions of the West and Yangtze 



8 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

Rivers, in the best sections of the Great Plain and in Sze- 
chwan land is so valuable for cultivation that as little as 
possible is spared for highways. Then, too, these are the 
very regions where the population is so dense and labor so 
cheap that most transport on land is by human bearers who 
need only a footpath. And finally the frequency of water- 
ways on which the cheapness of transport in boats of all sizes 
controls the situation for both short and long hauls even up 
stream. 

The Five Rivers of First Importance. 

Waterways both natural and artificial are tremendously 
used wherever available and China for the most part is well 
supplied. Of rivers one thinks first of the mighty Yangtze, 
a veritable aorta of trade that traverses the entire width of 
China proper from Tibet to the sea, and is navigable for ocean 
going vessels for 600 miles, by smaller steamers for 400 more 
and by still smaller steamers for another stretch of 400 miles, 
while junks of fair size can proceed still another 100 miles 
or so. 

The navigation beyond the first 1,000 miles is, however, 
quite precarious. We think secondly of the Si Kiang or 
West River and its tributaries in South China. Rising in 
Yunnan this stream is a great river by the time it reaches the 
Kwangsi-Kwangtung border. Marked in its upper and middle 
courses by fine gorges and in its lower course by a magnifi- 
ciently fertile delta, it is navigable for coasting vessels as far 
as Canton and for smaller steamers as far as Wuchow while 
launches ascend the higher courses of its tributaries as well 
as of the main stream for another 150 miles or so and smaller 
craft go clear to the Western boundary of Kwangsi and to the 
Northern boundary of Kwangtung. This river system is 
second in importance only to that of the Yangtze from an 
economic point of view. 

Next in importance is the Han, which joins the Yangtze 
at Hankow. This rises on the Shensi-Szechwan boundary. 
It is navigated by small steamers as far as Siangyang a 
distance of 300 miles, and during summer by cargo boats and 
houseboats and by smaller craft in all seasons up to Han- 
chung GOO miles further. In its course across Shensi it 
traverses abrupt gorges and its bed is rock-stream. It be- 
comes readily navigable only at Laohokow where it widens 
rapidly to a width of 2,600 feet. Further down it again 
narrows and at its mouth is but, 200 feet wide in low-water 
season. In this lower part of its course, it has the peculiar 
feature enjoyed also by the Yellow River, of a bed higher than 
the adjoining plain so that embankments are necessary. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 9 

During the summer the water-level of the Han rises 20 feet, 
sometimes more, above the adjacent plain. 

Of the Yellow Eiver one can hardly speak as of a high- 
way; for the most part it is useless except as a means of 
■drainage and irrigation, and is one of the most unmanageable 
rivers in the world. In length it is but little inferior to the 
Yangtze, being 2,500 miles. 

Eising in Tibet it is already a stream 200 yards wide 
when it enters north-western Kansu where its bed is 8,000 
feet above sea level from which it drops 5,000 feet in its 
north-easterly passage across the province. From Kansu the 
Yellow Eiver runs north to the high land of Mongolia where 
its course is changed to almost due east. At Hokow the 
river turns sharply to the south and continues in that 
•direction for about 480 miles until it is joined near Tungkwan 
by the Eiver Wei and turns again sharply to the east. 

The Wei rises in Eastern Kansu and flows south-eastly 
to Shensi, and crosses that province in a nearly straight line 
from west to east. Its well-watered valley was the birth- 
place of Chinese civilization and is full of relics of the past. 
It has also the reputation of being the most fertile land in 
China. About nine miles from the river on its right bank, 
and half-way across the province, stands the great city of 
Sian. 

At the Tungkwan bend the bed of the Yellow Eiver is 
still 1,300 feet above sea-level. At the Sanmen rapids, which 
no boat can ascend, the river again enters the hills, to leave 
them finally at Mengching, a place above Menghsien, in 
Honan, about 200 miles below Tungkwan. Here the great 
river, running from four to six miles an hour, finds itself on 
the level plain, with still 400 miles to go before it can reach 

the sea. 

This is where it is most to be dreaded, because the mud 
and sand carried down by its stream have actually raised the 
bed of the river until it is several yards above the level of the 
surrounding country. Consequently there are few important 
towns on its banks. At its crossing with the Grand Canal, 
its bed is 16 feet above the level of the Canal. 

During the whole known historical period, this river has 
frequentlv^hanged its course for the last 350 miles. These 
chances have swept over a fan-shaped area of 60 degrees m 
one of the most densely populated and highly cultivated 
regions in all China, and have, consequently caused great loss 
oAife both directly bv flood, and indirectly by consequent 
famine through destruction of standing crops as well as of 
stored food supplies. This has earned for it the title of 
"China's Great Sorrow." 



10 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

To hinder its overflowing, embankments hem it in, some 
nearer, others farther, ranging one behind another at variable 
distances. In this manner, if one gives way, another pre- 
vents the inundation. In their present state, these works are 
still very inefficient, the dikes being weak and constructed 
with materials that offer insufficient resistance. 

Nowhere throughout its length is the Yellow River navig- 
able without difficulty. Its highest reaches are rock strewn 
and only rafts can be used with any degree of safety. In 
the long southward reach between Shansi and Shensi naviga- 
tion in crude boats can be accomplished downstream but only 
with considerable difficulty owing to the many rapids, and at 
one point navigation is completely interrupted by the young 
niagra of Lungwang or Dragon King, 250 miles below Paote. 
Above the falls the river is about 200 yards wide, and the 
channel is broken up by rocky ledges. The bulk of the 
water, a tumbling mass of a coffee colour, flecked with foam, 
plunges into a narrow crack in its bed near the Shensi shore. 
The depth of the fall is about 60 feet, but the bottom is a 
seething cauldron which cannot properly be seen owing to the 
clouds of spray that rise from it. The remainder of the water 
falls into the same fissure at right angles to the main fall in 
a series of cascades 500 yards long. There is a spot some 
distance below the fall where, standing on the roadway by 
the river-bank and looking upstream, one sees a cloud of blue 
mist rising from the middle of the water without apparent 
cause, while at one's feet the whole volume of a great river 
rushes for three miles down a narrow canyon in places not 
more than 15 yards, and nowhere more than 40 yards wide. 

A day's journey below the falls is the famous Lungmen 
gorge, ending in the straits of Yumenkow. This gorge is 
about 10 miles long. The river is a deep, still stream 150 1 
yards wide, and races between precipices of reddish-grey 
sandstone 800 feet high. Above the precipices the cone- 
shaped tops of the hills covered with green scrub rise for 
another 800 feet. At Yumenkow the banks contract to 50 
yards, and upon each side of the strait there is a fine temple. 
Coming down-stream, when one's boat rushes through this 
strait there is a striking transformation, the river suddenly 
leaving the hills and spreading out over a sandy flat to a 
breadth of three miles. 

At Yumenkow coal brought by mulepack from the mines 
of Southern Shansi is loaded on so-called "Honan" barges, 
curiously bedecked with bells, which carry their cargoes to- 
Tungkwan and also up the Wei. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 1 1 

In its lower reaches the Yellow Eiver is reallv navigable 
only m two stretches : to the north of Honan and in the last 
25 miles of its course. But even in these parts shoals pre- 
vent boats except of very light draft from passing. 

The control of the Yellow Eiver is to-day one of the most 
pressing of China's physical problems. Experience has shown 
that the diking of such rivers is insufficient and almost futile. 
Captain William Tyler, coast inspector of the Chinese light 
house service, has presented a report on the Yellow Eiver 
published by the Inspectorate-General of Customs at Shang- 
hai in 1906, in which he proposes to control the river's lower 
reaches by providing for the depositing of the silt by de- 
liberate flooding of large areas along the river, that is, to 
regulate its floods. 

Of the Grand Canal we have already spoken. In the 
great delta regions natural and artificial waterways are as 
frequent as the cross roads in an American country. 

In the south the highways are mere "single-file" foot- 
paths on the tops of low ridges between cultivated fields. 
In some sections these are paved with stone slabs. The 
only native carts I have seen south of the Yangtze are the 
low slung ox-carts in the southern part of the Island of Hai- 
nan and the high hung ox-carts of mid Hunan, and of these 
the chief part is their "squeak." In the Yangtze basin, 
Central China, and especially Shantung, wheelbarrows are 
used both for passengers and for goods; and some of these 
affairs are veritable "ships o' the land." In some sections 
of the Chengtu plain in Szechwan smaller one-passenger low 
slung barrows were encountered and used, though the sedan- 
chair is the "palace car" here as in most parts of China. 
In these regions the roads are generally wider than in the 
south, but hardly any better. 

In the north generally, both east and west, carts are 
much used. Village and city streets as well as roads are 
hence of a better width than in the south. Throughout 
mountainous regions pack animals, usually mules or donkeys, 
are used, though in some regions human carriers alone can 
negotiate their way. While across the desert regions camels 
are the monarchs of the road. 

In some regions, as in the loess country, the roads have 
become deep ruts worn below the general level of the 
land to a depth of 10, 20, 30 and even 70 feet ! And these in 
the dry season are dusty beyond description and in ramy 
weather are deep in mud of a peculiar stickiness. 

Along with the development of railways China needs- 
improved roads everywhere. , 



12 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

There are, as might be expected, five sorts of native 
transport; some though few of them could be called trans- 
ports of delight ! which I have used extensively, as follows : 

I. — Boats : junks, houseboats, triple-deck passage boats, 
canoes, slipper boats, footpower boats (2 kinds : rotary and 
direct), sampans, cargo boats and rafts, engine-driven, rowed, 
towed, yulowed, sailed and poled. In many provinces. 

II. — Carts : closed and open, narrow (3 ft. 6 in.) and 
wide (6 ft. 8 in.), drawn by one, two or three animals (not 
•counting the driver !) and always springless. In North China 
especially. 

III. — Wheelbarrows : single platform, double-sided, small 
wheeled, large wheeled, pushed by man, pulled by man or 
donkey or both, sometimes aided with a sail. In Central and 
North China. Avoided by me as much as possible. 

IV. — Bipeds : men and women, with loads carried on the 
iback, across the shoulder at the two ends of a balanced rod, 
or between two carriers using one pole or two parallel poles. 
Sedan chair, two, three or four bearers; mountain chair, two, 
three or four. In every province. 

V. — Quadrupeds : Horses, mules, donkeys, oxen, cows, 
camels and yak; with or without pack saddles, but for riding 
purposes always with a foreign saddle. Used for riding, pack 
or draft or for carrying a chair or litter slung between two 
^animals. In Northern and Western China. 

During the travel by cart, mulepack or carriers I have 
for the most part gone myself on foot, partly from preference 
.•and partly to insure a more gentle transport of the chrono- 
meters in my belt or hand. 

One of the most remarkable developments in the way of 
more rapid transportation in China has been the installation 
of so-called "launch trains," especially in the middle and 
lower sections of the Grand Canal and throughout the Canton 
delta. For instance, in the custom house at Canton hundreds 
of steam launches are registered as towing between it and 
neighbouring cities and villages, and anywhere distant from 
10 to 100 miles. These launch-towed are exceedingly well 
patronized both for passengers and for freight. Launch 
building ship -yards have been rapidly developed in Shanghai, 
Canton and elsewhere. But, for the more rapid and ade- 
quate development of that class of communication upon which 
so much depends for the binding together of China, we must 
look to the railways. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 1*J 

Kail ways in China. 

Kailroads and other ways of transportation of commod- 
ities are related to the life of a nation in pretty much the 
same fashion as the circulatory or blood system of the human 
body is re ated to the life of the individual; and similarly the 
lines ot electric transmission of intelligence and the postal 
lines correspond pretty closely to the nervous system whose 
functioning is so intimately a part of our bodily life Each 
of these systems, the circulatory and the nervous has a 
dominating centre which has a relationship of mutual de- 
pendence with all parts of the body and all functions of its 
life. No part can live alone. So the development of a 
national life in China depends necessarily largely upon the 
development of these two systems within her borders, the 
one for the easy, cheap and rapid distribution of commodities, 
so that the people of one region may readily relieve the 
hunger or want in another region, and the other for the quick 
and effective transmission of intelligence which will cause the 
thrill of the new national life to be felt in the remotest parts 
and by every individual. 

In a study of the present development of railways in 
China several features at once impress themselves upon us. 
First, most of the lines already in operation serve the north- 
eastern quarter of China; the great trunk lines that will 
connect the far west with the seaboard and the north with 
the south have yet to be completed. Second, very little has 
been accomplished or is even projected under purely native 
auspices ; and third in arranging for the financing and con- 
struction of these arteries of trade on the basis of concessions 
to foreign capitalists China has become involved in a com- 
plicated five-fold international web which is without parallel 
elsewhere in the world. In this allotment (present and 
future) of so-called "spheres," or more correctly "strips" of 
influence, the associated French, Eussian and Belgian in- 
terests have a predominating share, followed by Japanese and 
by British in close rivalry, while German interests are small. 
American were almost nil until increased by concessions to 
the American International Corporation through the Siems- 
Carev Company to some of which considerable opposition has 
been' offered from other quarters. The lines to be built with 
American capital and by American engineers are widely se- 
parated and total about 1,600 miles supplemented by con- 
cessions as to priority in certain other regions for which the 
lines are, however, not yet defined. 

For China's sake it is to be hoped that this co-operation 
in railway building will be properly fostered. 



14 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

The lines now in operation or contracted for will serve 
to join the capital to at least nineteen out of the twenty-one 
provincial capitals and to the great sea-ports of both the 
Northern and the Southern coasts. At present nine of the 
provincial capitals are connected with Peking by rail. 

After the War in Europe ends there will surely be a 
revival of activity in China on the part of the various con- 
cessionaries, and a great development of trade. 

Five Experiences on the Eoad in China. 

One incident will illustrate the difficulty of getting in 
•China reliable information as to the nature of the road even 
from those who live nearby. On the afternoon of September 
22, 1915, we made an early halt for the night on account of 
a heavy rain. We were told by the innkeeper that we were 
within easy reach of Jehol, that the road was free from any 
hills worth mentioning and that by starting at dawn we 
should reach Jehol by sunset. Instead of this, however, 
noon of September 23 found us on the ascent of a steep pass, 
the road bed consisting of great slabs of smooth rock up which 
it was impossible for the horses to pull the carts as they were. 
After feeding both the animals and the men and emptying 
the carts, we had to hitch the four horses to one empty cart 
and with all hands pushing and all mouths yelling we man- 
aged to get the carts over and then down on the other side of 
the pass, and after carrying the equipment and stores, box 
by box, over the pass and reloading the carts at the bottom 
we were able to proceed after four hours of very hard work. 
We then expected to make Jehol by 10 p.m. ; instead, that 
hour found us again on the slope of another such pass, only 
steeper than before. Fortunately there was a good moon and 
by repeating the process of the afternoon we at last got over 
this barrier to easy travel and made Jehol at one on the 
morning of September 24, having been 21 hours on the go, 
and we had not been off the main highway, said to be a good 
cart road ! 

On a certain day in Western Chihli two connected in- 
cidents illustrating how wary the traveller must be in making 
bargains for his transport would have greatly amused us if 
they had not caused such delay in our progress. The first 
was that although we had the day before bargained for an 
open cart with three mules and a closed cart with two, and 
had made the man state definitely that only big mules would 
be supplied, when in the morning the vehicles arrived, the 
first was drawn by two cows and the second by a single small- 
sized mule, and yet the price agreed on was demanded! 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 15 

Evidently the carter did not realize that we were experienced 
travellers in China and could not be thus played with. Still 
it required more than an hour of argument and even threats 
of official punishment before suitable animals were brought 
and even then we had to be content with one less than the total 
number bargained for, but we had the satisfaction of with- 
holding a dollar at the end of the day's journey. 

The second was that on reaching the small village at the 

foot of the mountains where pack-mules were to be engaged 

to carry our equipment to Yingchow in Shansi, the young 

muleteer with whom our advance agent from the inn at 

Liangkochwang had begun negotiations, shouted out in front 

of a whole crowd of onlookers that the price would be seven 

dollars (Chinese Currency) a day per mule ! Now the ordinary 

price for which a native could hire them would be about 70 

cents. We therefore could only laugh at his offer, as did all the 

bystanders. His ridiculous claim being thus publicly made 

he could not accept any reasonable offer from us without 

great loss of face. I had finally to seek out the headman of 

the village, invite him to our inn to have tea, and get him to 

talk the whole matter over with the muleteer who finally 

under pressure accepted my original offer of one dollar per 

mule per travelling day and 40 cents per mule per day of halt. 

Having thus "overcome" him at the very start he and his 

associate muleteers proved to be the best set we have ever 

employed, in spite of their initial intention to swindle us. To 

the headman of the village we presented a tin of salmon, with 

great ceremony on our part and great appreciation on his ! 

Thus ended a half -day devoted to the "diplomacy" of the 

road in China. 

In 1907 before the building of the Tientsin-Pukow Bail- 
way we journeyed by cart from Tsinan the capital of Shan- 
tung to Tsining on the Great Canal and at Taian on the way 
ascended the Sacred Tai Shan. Evidently the day of leisure 
which our carters had enjoyed while we visited the Holy 
Mountain had been too much for them and had spoiled their 
sweet dispositions, for the next morning, when we expressed 
our desire that they should proceed southward as agreed 
thev refused unless they were paid more money. They had 
already been paid a half of the full bargain and had not yet 
proceeded half way on the journey. They would not listen to 
reason and became violent, locking up the inn and attempt- 
ina to prevent our exit. However, we produced our passport, 
which we handed to the keeper of the inn and asked him to 
convey our compliments to the nearest magistrate and re- 
quest 'his presence to settle the dispute. We finally went to 
the magistrate ourselves with the paper and after some parley 



16 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

with the officials secured reprimand for the carters, but were 
forced to agree to the payment of another allotment on the 
contract. This was a mistake, as was afterward proved, for 
it only made the carters that much worse. 

The magistrate furnished us a supposed military guard 
of two men to see that the carters behaved themselves during 
the rest of the journey, but as a matter of fact, this guard 
was of very little use and were nearly quite as bad as the 
carters themselves. The carters would not start early in the 
morning, sometimes not before 8 or 10 o'clock, and then 
would wish to stop for the day at 4 or 5 p.m. and not proceed 
any further, in spite of the fact that they were being paid 
more than double the proper rate. Matters went from 
bad to worse on this section of the trip, until finally when we 
knew that we were within one day's march of another magis- 
trate, we secured the soldiers' acknowledgement that they 
were in charge of the expedition and charging them to take 
care of our things, we hastened on on foot, covering some 
25 miles by two in the afternoon. 

We laid our complaint before the magistrate and were 
very courteously received. We were utterly exhausted by 
our rapid march and evidently our looks bore witness to* this 
fact. For without any preliminary enquiries or warning, the 
servants began bringing in plateload after plateload of fried 
eggs and bowl after bowl of tea. We did more than justice 
to this simple but ample fare. I'm sure that I ate between 
ten and twenty eggs and drank at least six bowls of tea ! 
Between bites and sips we explained our plight. A deputy 
on horseback was sent to secure the carters and bring them in 
and they were questioned separately and then severely re- 
primanded and lightly beaten. They were not allowed any 
further pay and we were advised to take carrying coolies from 
this point on, which we did, and in a forced march of 24 hours 
we reached Tsining on the Grand Canal. Here, through the 
magistrate, we hired another team, this time of two mules in 
tandem, which guaranteed to make the trip to Kufu, the birth 
and burial place of Confucius, in three days for a price way 
below what we had been paying the previous carters. 

In February, 1916, we reached Lungan in Northern Sze- 
chwan and desiring to cross the Snow Pass to Sungpan we 
found that it would be impracticable to take our pack-mules 
over this route because of its elevation and the narrowness of 
the trail which in many places is cut out of the face of a 
rock wall. So my student-assistant, Ip, and I accompanied 
by one coolie to carry a minimum of cooking gear and food, 
together with four others to carry the observing tent and 
instruments and our two cots and blankets, proposed to nego- 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IX CHINA 17 

tiate the pass and from Sungpan to descend the Min to Mo- 
chow where we would be joined by our mules which in the 
charge of our cook would travel first south and then west 
over easier roads while we went first west and then south. 
All went well with us in spite of our ascent to 13,000 feet in 
the middle of February. I had anticipated a trying time 
because each of the two parties who to my knowledge had in 
recent years traversed this route had reported that the wind 
and cold and snow on the pass were quite severe in May and 
in August when they had crossed. To our surprise we found 
it much easier and whereas these narrators had said that a 
few minutes on the pass "sufficed" for them (some members 
■of one party even succumbing and later dying from the effects 
of their experience in this crossing to Sungpan) we spent a 
half day and a night just a little way below the summit on the 
Eastern slope to make magnetic observations and the next 
morning stopped for half an hour on the actual summit to 
determine its altitude. These more favourable conditions 
were doubtless due to the fact that the precipitation and the 
wind are both less in mid-winter than in summer at this 
altitude. 

But though we fared well in getting over the pass and in 
descending the Min as far as Mochow, there our troubles 
began ; for there we had expected to meet our mules and also 
to replenish our purse and our larder from a remittance 
through the Chinese post, but on arrival we found no mules, 
no money, no mail and no missionary, though one was 
"stationed" there. He, we found, had left ten days before 
on account of the disturbed state of the region. We had just 
enough money to pay for transport to Weichow the next place 
where a missionary was stationed, and stopping but one day 
for observations we pressed on. Arriving at Weichow we 
could get no word of our mules though they were now accord- 
in" to & original schedule some five days overdue. When we 
were heartily welcomed by Eev. J. H. Edgar, the pioneer 
missionary of Batang, we made bold to suggest that a little 
loan would be a help as we had just paid out our last com to 
the coolies and didn't know where our mule-caravan was; he 
.aid curiously enough, that he was just on the point of asking 
a loan of us » He and his colleague were anxious about the 
state of the region and had been discussing which of them 
should go to Chengtu and return with funds sufficient to 
enable them to take their families to the capital for safety 
Having heard of mv approach they had waited thinking that 
[ might have extmmoney and here I had arrived in distress 
I , ivsclf ! It was very evident, however, that much less money 
' 2 



IS THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

would be required to get me and my small party and light 
equipment to Chengtu than to transport two whole families 
and their gear. So they managed to put thirty dollars at my 
disposal and I undertook on reaching Chengtu to send back 
to them three hundred. 

Mr. Edgar in his wholehearted manner accompanied us 
some ten li on the road and directed us where to look for the 
castles of the independent Tibetan lord high up on a bluff 
on the opposite bank of the stream. We had journeyed only 
an hour or two after he left us,, when we met coming north- 
ward our long-lost mules who should have been travelling 
southward. The cook's arm was in a sling and with much 
weeping he related how the caravan five days before had been 
attacked by a large number of armed bandits (50 he said; 
ex-soldiers of Szechwan, I suspect) at about nine in the 
morning at a point some 15 li north of Mienchuhsien where 
two small houses stood, one on either side of the road. As 
the caravan came opposite the farther end of these houses 
the bandits without warning' opened fire and began by killing 
one of the military escort of eight who were accompanying our 
train of mules, and who had no chance to put up a defence. 
Two of them were taken prisoners and have never been heard 
of since, while the other five with the cook and the four 
muleteers made good their escape, the cook injuring his arm 
badly in falling from his perch on top of a pack saddle. From 
a safe distance our men watched the robbers and later re- 
turned to gather up the fragments that remained ! Every 
box had been smashed in with stones and the contents of all 
thrown out. All money, various small articles of value (such 
as my safety razor, cuff-links, etc., and all Chinese clothing 
were taken, but none of the foreign style clothes of Ip and 
myself. All my records of observations for several months 
back were thmwn out, but thanks to the diligence of the 
cook and the muleteers on their return to the scene of the 
encounter every sheet was recovered though many were 
crumpled and muddy. You can imagine how anxious and 
even ill I felt until I reached Chengtu and had an opportunity 
to go carefully over everything and how relieved I was to 
find no essential sheet of observation missing ! I did, how- 
ever, lose the photographic negatives of a month's taking and 
one of the chronometers, which since it needed repairing had 
been discarded and was to be returned to Washington from 
Chengtu. All the other instruments, fortunately, were with 
me on the more western road.' It has been suggested that if 
I had been with my caravan probably it would not have been 
attacked; as foreigners, in recent years at any rate, have 
very rarely been subject to attack in Szechwan, and that my 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA I '.l 

caravan was probably taken for that of a Chinese. I do not 
know what credence to give to this idea. 

After gathering up what the bandits had left, the cook 
and muleteers reported the incident to the magistrate at 
Mienchuhsien who immediately sent out a posse of two 
hundred to hunt for the robbers. He also ordered the road- 
side houses to be razed on the principle that their tenants 
were responsible to know what sort of characters congregated 
there, even if they were not actually in league with the band. 
The magistrate made a complete inventory of all that was 
left, forwarding one copy to the Commissioner of Foreign 
Affairs at Chengtu and one to me. He also furnished suffi- 
cient funds to feed the mules and men as far as the next 
magistracy where again money to carry the caravan to the 
next place on their way to join me was given. 

We made an early halt for the night on the day that I 
met the mules and on going hastily through the boxes I 
found things in such a state that about two or three entire 
boxloads had to be thrown away as debris, and the cook and 
"crew" had to be supplied with an entire new outfit of 
blankets and bed-skins and extra clothing as they had been 
left only what was on their backs. 

When we reached Kwanhsien in the late afternoon of 
February 29, we found the city in a state of siege and it was 
only after considerable difficulty and long waiting that we 
managed the next morning to get to the China Inland Mission 
in the suburb for assistance and advice. It was rumored 
that a band of 1,800 ex-soldiers were threatening the 
city for its loot. As soon as our observations were finished 
and we had inspected the irrigation works at Kwanhsien 
as the best we could under circumstances we hastened 
on to Chengtu. Arriving there in the mid-afternoon we were 
forced to wait hours at the city gate. Finally we were allowed 
to enter and found a hearty welcome from the foreigners 
residing there, especially from Postal Commissioner Doodha 
and his staff, the French and British Consul-Generals, and 
the Faculty of the West China Union University. 

All of these were exceedingly helpful in their respective 
ways. The University folk made me feel entirely at home 
and on their campus I established my observing station. 
Mr. Doodha had heard of the attack through Chinese sources 
and had at once sent word to the post-offices in that region 
to render me every possible aid in case I turned up in their 
district and had even on his own initiative sent fifty dollars m 
notes to the office where I was most likely to apply, so that 
I mioht have money to come on with. Mr. Smith, His 
British Majesty's Consul-General, counselled me regarding 



20 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

the representations to be made to the Chinese authorities, 
not with any view of claiming indemnity but of spurring them 
on to more active measures for the suppression of such bands 
in the interests of all good citizens, foreigners and Chinese 
alike. The Commissioner of Foreign Affairs, who by the way 
had been educated in Berlin and spoke German but not 
English, promised to take such steps as were possible to 
capture the culprits and to recover the property, but I felt 
that the proposition was hopeless and have not been surprised 
that no result has followed. 

Szechwan unfortunately has been in a very disturbed 
state-, even at the Capital itself, for the last year and a half 
and still is in some respects in several districts. This is due 
not only to the maraudings of discontented soldiers turned 
bandits, but also to the conflicting political aims of several 
military leaders within Szechwan itself and also from Yunnan 
who have been attempting to gain supremacy in this fairest 
of the provinces. Meanwhile the people suffer. 

It would be very erroneous to infer, however, that there, 
off the beaten track in China is entirely made up of incidents 
like those just recorded. While many if not most innkeepers 
and professional roadmen such as carters, muleteers, etc., are 
ready to "do" the unwary traveller and to impose on him in 
every way, still I have found many exceptions to this spirit 
even among these classes, and from the peasant folk per se 
I have never received any but the kindest and most helpful 
treatment, being furnished food and shelter and guidance (for 
raiment I always preferred to rely on my own "stock" — for 
obvious reasons) not only on reasonable terms but often with 
most positive refusal to accept any compensation. Off the 
beaten track especially the native hospitality is most hearty 
and sincere, tinged only with an element of curiosity concern- 
ing the ways and things of the foreigner, which is only natural 
under the circumstances. 

My first real experience with this element of curiosity 
was on the west coast of the Island of Hainan. When ob- 
serving near Hiongpo, I had erected as is usual for magnetic 
work a small tent to shield my instruments from the sun. 
A great crowd gathered to watch and it proved utterly im- 
possible to keep them from pressing as close to the tent on all 
sides as they could. Careful inspection showed that none 
carried any iron articles. or implements and the only trouble 
, came from their constant chatter, because during part of the 
observations I had to listen io the tick of the box chronometer 
placed some feet away and carry the tick in my head while 
my eye was at the telescope pointed on the oscillating magnet. 
The unexpected and strident noises which proceed from a 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 21 

Chinese crowd do not aid one in such observations ! Some 
idea of the numbers present and of their chief or at least 
secondary occupation while watching me may be had from 
the fact that next morning having need to return to the same 
spot I had no difficulty whatever in locating my station for 
in the midst of a great field all covered with the refuse of 
chewed sugar-cane there was a bare spot eight feet square 
that marked where my tent had stood. 

For the most part we lived in the regular inns when on 
the main roads, though when not on a trade route and inns 
were not available we often spent the night in the open dur- 
ing warm whether and during wet or cold weather sought 
shelter in some lone hut or cave-dwelling or if in a village 
applied to some friendly shop-keeper or house-holder for space 
to spread our cots and cook our meals. While often we had 
to search for such accommodation this was usually only 
because anything like a suitable space was hard to find, not 
that the people were unwilling to aid us. In most cases in 
fact, where we had to rely on the goodwill of a householder 
and not on that of a regular innkeeper our entrance neces- 
sitated a shift of a considerable part of his household or of 
his goods, and taking everything into consideration the hospi- 
tality afforded us was more than could reasonably be ex- 
pected. 

But in some regions, especially in Northern Shansi and 
Northern Shensi also, we encountered a peculiar and dis- 
agreeable anti-foreign attitude on the part of many inn- 
keepers even in the larger towns. Generally when approach- 
ing a town or village in which we intended to stop for the 
night 1 would let the cook go on so as to arrive well ahead of 
us and have time to select and secure a proper place. Several 
times it happened that even though his patronage had been 
eagerly solicited by rival inn-keepers and there was evidently 
no°lack of room, and he had definitely engaged his choice, 
when I appeared and the inn-keepers saw that I was a 
foreigner, a fact which the cook had been careful not to 
reveal, we were flatly refused admittance and often had the 
outer doors locked against us with an utter refusal to treat 
with us at all. In such cases we would seek out the Christ- 
ian Chapel if there were one and hope for better treatment at 
the hands of the caretaker or if a mission chapel were not 
available which was more often the case, we would seek the 
assistance of the highest official in the town or of the head- 
man in a village. But even under official pressure it was 
difficult to gain an entrance to an inn in some of the towns 
of northern Shansi and Shensi and sometimes it was 10 p.m. 
before we secured a resting place though our caravan had 



"22 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

.arrived hours before. On the other hand in some places we 
were readily accommodated even on arriving late in the night. 
One difficulty encountered frequently throughout Shensi 
and Szechwan during the winter of 1915 and the Spring of 
1916 was the prevalence of large numbers of soldiers not only 
along the main routes but often also in out of the way places. 
Since they were not in camps, but were quartered on the 
villages and towns inn-space and even house or shop-space 
available for us was difficult to find and under such circum- 
stances we secured accommodation only by applying to the 
officer in command who always did what he could for us, even 
moving a small company of soldiers to make room for us, 
but as a rule the individuals so dislodged were not over 
friendly. The ranks of the Chinese army as a rule are not 
composed of the very best material. 

The Outlook. 

Doubtless there will be -within a reasonably short period 
tremendous development of railways in China and they in 
turn will have a tremendous welding effect upon the country. 
It is necessary that within her borders there should be devel- 
oped well equipped technical schools in which the Chinese 
may be taught the arts and sciences necessary for the con- 
struction and maintenance of railways and other works. 

There is hardly space to refer in detail to the develop- 
ment of the postal system or telegraph lines in China, 
except to point out the tremendous success with which the 
postal system has been developed in that full-fledged post 
offices with the various departments are in operation all over 
the country and at lower rates than in Europe and America. 

Telegraph lines connect all provincial capitals with 
Peking and this system is being extended. It is not thorough- 
ly understood as yet by all the people just how these things 
work and I am reminded of two instances which have come 
under my own observation to illustrate this. 

An old man in Shantung hearing of the function of the 
line of wire that ran across his fields declared that men who 
could devise such a method for the transmission of intel- 
ligence could do anything; whereupon one of his neighbours 
remarked that he did not think much of it, for he himself 
had sat for two weeks watching that line very closely and had 
not yet seen anything go by. 

The other instance was of Hunan carrying coolies tossing 
their worn out straw sandals on the telegraph lines to secure 
for themselves a fleetness of foot equal to the speed of the 
electric message. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 23 

The telegraph and the postal system have already, in 
combination with the development of the public press in 
China, done a great deal toward unifying the people and 
may confidently be counted on for a much larger effect in 
the future and this combined with more adequate railway 
facilities will surely foster a greater feeling of nationhood and 
of closeness of relationship between the various provinces. 

We have seen something of the various physical pro- 
blems which China faces. It is significant that the greatest 
physical feat of the ancient Chinese, the Great Wall, which 
was executed to shut out foreign intruders, has been broken 
down in all essential respects, and China is to-day fairly ready 
for foreign assistance in solving her problems, if it be friendly 
.and not predatory. 

The solution of China's physical problems largely de- 
pends on education; the education of the people to furnish 
the background of general enlightenment and the education 
of the native leaders upon whom must rest the responsibility 
for carrying out in detail such plans as may be formed for 
the alleviation of the conditions I have referred to. In order 
to determine just what remedial methods should be followed, 
there should be first a thorough study of present conditions 
by the best consulting engineers and scientists who can be 
secured. There is at the present time, it seems to me, a 
most important function for foreign experts to fill in con- 
nection with the development of China, and their work is 
■ a necessary preliminary and hence it is all important that 
China seek and use the assistance of such men, although it is 
also true that her need for such assistance will be temporary, 
and the application of the remedies, which they in their 
wisdom suggest after a study of the field, will still depend 
upon native talent. 

The new national flag of China embodies, I believe, some 
significant lessons in the present connection. The sewing 
together of five stripes of silk to form one flag is easy, but to 
make, a united nation of five peoples so widely separated, 
linguistically and geographically, in a country so greatly 
accidented by mountains, and so harassed by flood and 
famine, and so lacking the ways of quick transport and 
general modern education which must precede the develop- 
ment of resources and of ways of communication, requiring 
native captains of industry and native leaders of all sorts— a 
verv much greater task. It is just here that one of the 
functions of our mission colleges in China comes m— to tram 
these leaders in situ, without loss of connection with China; 
for thev need to know China as well as Western science and 
institutions and methods. They need to be qualified and 



24 THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 

unselfish, then the five points of the compas assumed by the 
Chinese may be rightly adopted — for the. north, east, south 
and west will then all be centered around the common pole 
of service to China, and from the provinces to Peking and 
from Peking to the most distant provinces, the people will 
be united in an efficient, peaceful and helpful state, at least 
within the boundaries left them by their at present more 
powerful and predatory neighbours. 



China is destined to become one of the foremost pro- 
ducing nations of the world, a vast market, a huge stabilis- 
ing, peaceful power if allowed to develop her great wealth 
in her own way. The problem of China is a world problem, 
culturally as well as commercially. 

The issue in the Orient is sharply drawn : Independent 
national development for China, and continued progress of 
the other free Asiatic states;. or the subjection of China, and 
the endangering of all free nationality in Asia. 

The loss of free nationality in Asia would probably be a 
calamity to mankind. However justly the occidental may 
pride himself on his mastery of the art of living, however 
truly he may rejoice in his achievement throughout the whole 
reach of life, a sane modesty, taught him by his own science, 
should keep him from regarding Western peoples as the whole 
race of man, or from looking with scorn upon entire divisions 
of the race, whom his training has not fitted him to appre- 
ciate. 

A proper reverence for humanity will not allow him to exalt his 
own position at the expense of the entire East, or to attempt crudely 
to force upon a whole continent external domination or those forms of 
civilization which are the product in some part of himself. 

From the higher level of human development, expansion 
and domination we may well feel that the world is destined 
to profit greatly by events in the Far East if they result in 
restoring to humanity the whole Continent of Asia, free to 
join in making the history of the next hundred years, free to 
be itself and to supplement, with all of good there is manifest 
or dormant in it, the strength and goodness of the West. 

The shortest road to a partial success in this endeavour 
to preserve free nationality in Asia is the development of 
China's material resources, which will not only enrich China 
and the world, but will help to arouse the people from their 
age-long sleep; and it may be that military development 
consequent upon this awakening will serve to maintain the 
nation's independence. 




KDEI LIN, CASSIA RIVER. 




A LOCK IN THE GRAND CANAL. 



THIRTY THOUSAND MILES IN CHINA 20 

But China's independence should concern her friends in 
the West chiefly because such independence is essential to 
something far more important : true freedom for the Chinese 
people. 

The dormant powers now awakening in this race and promising 
such a future for it in the commercial and political affairs of the world 
demand imperatively that there be set in motion, side by side with 
this material transformation, forces far more subtle that shall bring 
about a true renaissance of the nation by influencing profoundly the 
intellect and the soul of the race. Only so can the Chinese people be-- 
speedily restored to the modern world. 



CHINESE METAPHORICAL 
ZOOLOGY 



C. A. 8. WILLIAMS. 



"Man, by nature, is never satisfied, 
Like a snake swallowing an elephant ; 
In Life, when all is said and done, 
The praying-mantis pounces upon the cicada." 

( A <K> ? £ *B $ H Ht $ a S5 & ffi UP ) 

From a poem by Lo Hung-hsien (ff£ }ij§ ^fe). 

Figurative description has' been reduced to a fine art by 
trie Chinese, and owing to the almost total absence of 
abstract nouns in their language, they have borrowed largely 
from nature in order to give point to their written and spoken 
ideas. 

Animals and birds, both natural and mythical, are 
perhaps more frequently utilised for this purpose than any 
other objects of nature, and the different characteristics of 
the denizens of the zoological kingdom have provided apposite 
similies for almost every phase of the human emotions. 

The dragon ( ft ), according to the Chinese, has the head 
of a camel, the horns of a deer, eyes of a rabbit, ears of a cow, 
neck of a snake, belly of a frog, scales of a carp, claws of 
a hawk, and palm of a tiger. It is the type yar excellence 
for the highest qualities of man, was emblematic of the 
Emperor, and represents masculine beauty and boldness in 
general. 

The phoenix ( H. Mi ) occupies an exalted place in the 
national estimation, and is a fabulous bird of good omen, 
said to resemble a wild swan before and a unicorn behind; 
it has the throat of a swallow, the bill of a cock, the neck 
of a snake, the tail of a fish, the forehead of a crane, the 
crown of a mandarin drake, the stripes of a dragon, and the 
vaulted back of a tortoise. The feathers have five colours, 
which are named after the five cardinal virtues, 1 and it is 



1 Charity {i.e. natural goodness of heart), duty to one's neighbour, 
propriety, wisdom, and truth ( £1 ft i! t? fs). 



CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 27 

five cubits in height; the tail is graduated like Pandean oil 

five t r^* the " of ^ instrument In.', 
fi.e modulations. It is generally adopted as a si m,l, fo 
feminine beauty and purity. 

hnliJl 11 ^^ 11 r d i the P hoenix tether are often sym- 
bolical of the husband and wife. 

The unicorn (lt),isa mythical creature which brings 
good fortune, and holds an important place in the thoughts 
ot the Chinese. It is recorded to have the body of a deer, 
the tail of an ox, the scales of a fish, and one horn covered 
with flesh (denoting that though anxious for peace it is 
ready for war). It is typical of general excellence, and is 
often metaphorically applied to a filial son, or a distinguished 
man. 

The Chinese regard the tiger as the king of beasts, and 
this animal, together with the fox, monkey, deer, tortoise, 
■crane, eagle, and parrot, are the possessors of many mythical 
attributes, such as power to change their shape, etc. The 
tiger typifies ferocity, the fox witchcraft and trickery, the 
monkey cunning, the deer, crane, and tortoise longevity, the 
•eagle boldness, and the parrot wisdom. 

When a man is said to be anxiously hoping for the 
unicorns appearance ( $t Sifc & ^ ), it is evident to the 
Chinese mind that he wishes to be blest with a son of his 
own, to carry on the line and worship him after death. 
Should this son sent by the unicorn ( 4ft JH *£ ■?• ) turn out to 
be a credit to his father, and become a great man, he will be 
called a crane among the chickens ( %% 3£ Wt §), or, as we 
should say, "a Triton among the minnows"; should he prove 
to be a better man than his father, he is styled the calf of a 
brindled ox ( ^ ^ £ ■£), or a colt ivhich passes beyond the 
hoof -marks of its sire (Hi^^), and it is then his duty 
to be a son who controls his father's weevil-like depredations 
(§fc ii £ ■?■ ), and make up for his shortcomings by virtuous 
conduct. Since even a lamb kneels to take its mother's milk 
(^ ^ Et % ), so should a son be filial. If the father is 
advanced in years at the time of his son's birth, he is said 
to be an old oyster producing a pearl ( 42 *fc & & ), and if this 
precious child carries out his filial obligations, his constant 
care will be to ensure that his aged parents will live to see 
as many springs as the tortoise and the crane ( & HI f»I # ) ; 
as the tortoise, according to Chinese records, lives to be 
1.000, and the crane to be 500 years old, the son will have 
his work cut out to accomplish this happy result. The death 
or departure of a brother is signified by the figurative break- 
ing of a column in a flight of wild geese (M If #f SI )• 



28 CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 

A beautiful girl is often said to cause the fish to dive and 
the geese to settle — from envy at her fairness ( #C J& t£ )H§), 
while if she is the proud possessor of a head like a cicada and 
moth-like eyebrows (if II), together with a wasp-like 
waist and the lissom back of a gibbon ($&, Jg! !» If ), she is 
considered fully up to the standard necessary to take a prize 
in a beauty show. It would not, however, be fully in 
accordance with the Book of Etiquette to compare a strictly 
virtuous lady to a pheasant, as this bird is apt to fly rather 
wild ! A young man fascinated by a charming woman is 
certainly in the position of a moth caught by the lamp 
( H i§£ $£ ■%" ). Of a woman, who is trying in vain to get 
married, it would be remarked that she was seeking for a 
male phoenix without success' ($M^c^). A widow is 
described as a mateless goose flying alone ( 3& M S M .) 
To have only one wife is generally advised — though the 
Chinese are polygamous — on the principle that one saddle is 
sufficient for each horse ( — S ~* He). 

Birds in their little nests should agree, but unfortunately 
they occasionally fall out ! Family characteristics vary, or, 
as the Chinese express it, the dragon has nine kinds of 
offspring (— fl % fl ), 2 and the members of a human family 
cannot always be said to resemble the badgers of one mound 



2 According to the Ch'ien Ch'iieh Lei Shu ( ^ J|| ^ fl|), by Ch'en 
Jen-hsi (g^ f" $fj,), the dragon has nine kinds of offspring, which are 
not regular dragons, and each has its peculiarities. They are res- 
pectively :— 

(1) The P'u-lao (|j|2£), carved on the tops of bells and 
gongs, in token of its habit of crying out loudly when attacked 
by its arch-enemy the whale ; 

(2) The Ch'iu-niu (UJ^f*), carved on the screws of fiddles, 
owing; to its taste for music ; 

(3) The Pi-hsi (^ Jjfl[), carved on the top of stone tablets, 
since it was fond of literature ; 

(4) The Pa-hsia (§§ "j*) 3 carved at the bottom of stone 
monuments, as it was able to support heavy weights ; 

(5) The Ch'ao-feng (n§{j S5,), carved on the eaves of temples, 
owing to its liking for danger ; 

(6) The Ch'ih-wen (BUfljJ), carved on the beams of bridges, 
because of its fondness for water, and also placed on the roofs of 
buildings as a charm to keep off fire. Sometimes symbolised by 
the figure of a fish with uplifted tail ; 

(7) The Svan-ni (^§^), carved on Buddha's throne, on 
account of its partiality for resting ; 

(8) The Yai-tzu (@ ftlfc), carved on sword-hilts, in memory 
of its lust for slaughter ; 

(9) The Pi-han (^Jf), carved on prison gates, as it was 
addicted to litigation and quarrelling. 

A slightly different collection of these nine monsters is given in the' 
Sheng An Wai Chi (fV )& fc%). 



CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 29 

(— * Jr. £. $& ) in the similarity of their natures. When the 
good wife is inclined to indulge in a little hen-pecking, or 
when the hen crows at dawn — instead of the cock — ( 4b %. 
o] H), the peace of the family is apt to be somewhat dis- 
turbed, and the downtrodden husband may be driven to 
extremities, like the dog in danger, which jumps over the wall 
( $J it $fc W ), and may possibly take refuge in companionship 
with bad characters, forming one among a parcel of foxes and 
a company of dogs ( % H $J H), with many teeth and claws 
( /R 3r t?§c £ ) — a decided case of going to the dogs ! His 
better half will no doubt eventually think better of it, and, 
for fear of pining away like the mandarin duck in the absence 
of her beloved drake ( $£ ffc M H ), it is more than likely that 
the plaintive and bird-like tones of her -voice — her oriole notes 
and sw allow -like twitterings (!> n$ ^ IS ) — may result in a 
reconciliation, and the male and female phoenix will sing in 
harmony (38 E ffl 1l), and the wedded pair will agree like 
the fish with the water ( J& 'K $j It ) , and — perhaps — live 
happily ever afterwards. 

The government officials have frequently been a butt for 
Chinese sarcasm. Thus a cruel and oppressive official will 
be called a fierce beast of the hills (Hi $ U Wt ), or a person 
with a human face but a bestial nature ( A ® ft >b ), preying 
on his district as on fish and flesh ( fa ^ *fi 2f ). An avari- 
cious official is often called a wolf stopping the road ( & SI 
^ M ). a man with a wolf's head and dog's lungs ( & »fr it Jffi) 
or accused of gulping like a wolf and sivallowing like a tiger 
(3g#JSfcnB). When very much occupied with official 
business, it is said that affairs are as numerous as the prickles 
of a hedgehog ( 9 in *l $)• In speaking of an honest and 
illustrious official, he is said to have the gall of a dragon and 
the marrow of a phoenix ( H M HL ft), i-e. rare ability, or to 
have spread his wings like the great Roc ( * II g H) 3 and 
risen to a high and honourable position. When a virtuous 
official is unjustly discharged, the ingratitude of the govern- 
ment will be denounced in the words the fish is caught but 
the fish-trap is forgotten (»&&£), when the bird is killed 
the bow is discarded ( M> SB 9 ft ), or when the hare is caught 
the doq goes into the cooking-pot ( 16, K W &). 

The literati or student classes, have always been highly 
respected in China, and many fables are extant which illus- 
trate the ultimate rise of the plodding scholar to a high official 
position \ determined student is said to possess the merit 
If the f 're-flies and the snow ( * « 2. # )-a reference to the 
~~^The P'enn. or Rukh, is a fabulous bird of enormous size, capable 
of flying 10,000 li at a stretch. 



30 CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 

story of Chii Yin ( l£ HI) of the Chin Dynasty, who studied at 
night by the light of a bag full of fire-flies, as he could not 
afford a lamp, and Sun K'ang (^ H), who worked by light 
reflected from snow. They both naturally rose to be em- 
minent officials, and provided a stimulating example for 
subsequent generations ! A great scholar is compared to 
a rising dragon and a soaring phoenix (H $£ IS JE), and a 
literary hack will humbly designate himself as one who 
spends his time engraving worms with little skill ( fill & 'b ■££), 
though the actual fact may be that his yen moves like the 
dragon and the snake (If ^ fl SfB), and his literary efforts 
are exceedingly brilliant. A literary style full of delicate 
allusions and recondite obscurities is compared to a dragon-fly 
sipping water ($f $j£ l&k tK ), while a book-worm or pedantic 
scholar may be said to love learning as a duck loves duck-tveed 
(•jfe M ^ db). The student who is successful in passing a 
literary examination is referred to as the fish which has leapt 
the Dragon Gate ($t ^ II R) — an allusion to the belief that 
the carp of the Yellow Eiver make an ascent of the stream 
in the third moon of each year, and that those which succeed 
in passing the rapids of Lung -men (ft f*J) in Honan, become 
changed into dragons. 

As might be expected, ferocious creatures such as the 
tiger, leopard, bear, etc., are generally emblematic of great 
courage. One who is credited with a leopard's head and 
tiger's eyes (it/ M Ik HH), a tiger's back and bear's loins 
( 8t W M ® ), or the gall of a soaring eagle (R H 2. M) 
is valiant beyond compare, while he v/ho' moves like a dragon 
and paces like a tiger ( SI ff J^ # ) has a brave and martial 
bearing. 

The poor and needy are decidedly in the majority in 
China. In a lecture on "Chinese Customs," delivered at the 
request of the Senate of University College, Liverpool, 
Mr. E. H. Parker stated that "90 per cent, of the Chinese 
families live on annual gross incomes of less than £10 in 
cash and in produce combined. Most of the peasants, living 
as they do upon the produce of their own labour, probably 
turn over less than £2 a year in actual cash ! It is no 
exaggeration to compare a poor man to a fish out of water 
(#n $t & 7jc), and, while he may be so fortunate as to be 
suddenly enriched by an unexpected windfall, such as, figura- 
tively speaking, a fat pig wriggling in at the door (BE ffi M PI), 
there is no doubt that, most men being greedy, like a snake 
swallowing an elephant (fit) 8& # 1ft), he would regard the 
succulent porker as his rightful squeeze, especially in view 
of its being as helpless as a sheep fallen into a tiger's mouth 

(^ mm p). 



CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 3] 

Bad characters abound in this world, just as a number 
of mosquitoes make a noise like thunder (314* j£©), and 
revolution breaks out in China like ivasps rising in a swarm 
(&$lffiii). Evil men become banded together for en! 
purposes like the wolf and the Pel (SI 31 2$ $f)_ the latter 
being a legendary animal with short forelegs and long hind 
ones, supposed to ride on the back of the wolf, which, con- 
versely, has long forelegs and short hind ones, so that each 
profits by the advantages of the other. These kind of villains 
are sometimes in league with the police, which is indeed a 
case of the cat and rat sleeping together (3S H fSJ HE). They 
lay themselves out to deceive, and will even go so far as 
to palm off fishes' eyes as pearls (^ B *& ££), or to call a deer 
a horse ( £§ ,B§ % J!), if such curious proceedings could further 
their wicked and malignant designs; this last metaphor is 
derived from the story of Chao Kao (H if&), a notorious 
eunuch of the Ch'in dynasty, who presented the Emperor 
Erh Shih Huang Ti (- ft I f ) — of the 3rd century b.c 

— with a stag, saying that it was a horse. Those among the 
surrounding courtiers who were bold enough to contradict the 
great man, and insist that it was a stag, were marked down 
by Chao for destruction as his enemies. If a man is too 
cunning, however, his friends desert him, for no fish can be 
found in clear ivater (?Jt $r M &)■ Specious and crafty 
individuals with the head of a snake and the eyes of a rat 
(Wo 51 M, BR), speaking fair words with the benevolent mouth 
of a Buddha, but having a serpentine nature (#& P ^ »&»), 
full of trickery and deception, with the head and brain of a 
monkey ($S @ $S US), should be regarded with as much 
aversion as snakes and scorpions (IB fe ££ UR), while the un- 
settled and unreliable vagabond, with an ape-like disposition 
and thoughts as restless as galloping steeds ('Mi ffi), 
or those * happy-go-lucky rolling stones floating about in 
an aimless manner like a duck on the water (^ 3g= 7 N •&) 

— a mixed metaphor, taking us rather out of our depth — 
should always be avoided under any circumstances, as they 
never come to any good. The only way to deal with all such 
persons is to make examples of them as rogues and vaga- 
bonds and thereby kill a chicken to warn an ape (%* $£ W W)v 
a general feeling of security will then ensue, and the fowls 
ami dogs will not be alarmed in the villages and hamlets 

f$i ^c ^ ft)- 

The ways of the world are as tortuous as the guts of a 
sheep (Hfc Sfr ¥> B§), and in making acquaintances due caution 
should be observed; friends of foxy and canine natures 
m I«S) should be given a wide berth, as they are merely 
wine and flesh friends (M * M Jfc), who only show cupboard 



32 CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 

love, and are mere sycophants who cleave to one only as 
long as the money lasts, like ants which settle on the mutton 
fat (W. #i Pft ifi); entertaining them is equivalent to letting 
a tiger into the house (ffi£ )% A HE), and rearing the brute to be 
a source of trouble (fl J% Wi &), or, as we should say, 
"nourishing a viper in the bosom." It is easy to mistake a 
rogue for an honest man, or to take a wolf for a dog ( 12 $1 
J§» it), yet many a harum-scarum fellow is but a wild horse 
without a bridle (W M M ?M), and repentance in time, or 
holding in the horse at the brink of the -precipice (5U1 S I& l&) 
may have good results, since from being a menace to society, 
like the horse which is a danger to the herd (|1 ^L %) 
he may be brought to see the error of his ways; no longer 
behaving in a mischievous manner like a devil or a water 
kelpie (#P % % M), 4 he will regulate his behaviour, and take 
thought for the morrow, like the clever hare with three holes 
to its burrow (I^Hl) and leave a good reputation after 
his death, so that instead of eliciting crocodile tears as when 
the cat mourns for the rat ($S 9£ $& -J"), general sorrow will 
be shown, in the same way as the fox grieves when the 
hare dies (^ £E <E ijfc), out of fellow-feeling. 

The pusilanimous person, who can never make up his 
niind about anything, like the rat with his head looking first 
one way and then the other ( JL "M" M $s), with a gall as small 
as a rat's (JPL >h fin JL), or a rat's stomach and chicken's 
entrails (H Ui H St), going about in a hang-dog manner 
with the appearance of a dove and the face of a heron 
(M ft£ n% ®), will always be at the mercy of the unscru- 
pulous, like a sheep in a pack of wolves (^ A 3J£ W). He 
who lives an honest and sober life, neither careless in his 
work, never making, as it were an incomplete sketch of a 
tiger (ft ^ ^> J35), drawing a tiger like a dog (W[ 1% M it) 
nor adding feet to a snake ( H ^ $?S M ), but insisting on 
perfection and demanding a horse in exact accordance with 
the picture (j& SI % SI), always aiming at accuracy, and 
never missing the heron in the centre of the target ( ^ %z 
IE *|), will be a success in life, whereas the devil-may-care 
person walking into any kind of danger, such as treading on 
a tiger's tail ( 3=f Ba ^ M . ), or peering into its mouth ( hi •$§ 
J3s P), venturing unabashed into such fearsome spots as 
the dragon's pool and. the tiger's den (nt M )% si), should 
learn to restrict himself to his proper sphere, taking a lesson 
from the dragon which never leaves its pool ( ft 7fc Hi j$), 

4 The Yil (|JS«$), or water-kelpie, is a mythical creature, which is 
supposed to spirt sand from its mouth on a person's shadow, causing 
Mm either to sicken or to die. From the Shih Shuo (Jfe fft). 



CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 33 

and the tiger which remains in its den (Jk'XWX). By 
tempting^ providence like rushing against a horse's head 
(ffl M fe M), in the long run there is no possible doubt 
whatever that he will find himself in serious difficulties, like 
a sheep caught in a bamboo fence (^ & %. @), or a person 
seated between a bullock's horns (^ & fa ft)] or, like the 
lady of Kiga, in the unpleasant -position of ridinq a tiqer 
(It 2ft £ »). 

By keeping a clear conscience, one may be free of 
imaginary fears, such as were conjured up by the snake in 
the cup and the tiger in the market (U 3$ tfJ fit)— a reference 
to a man, who, seeing the reflection of a bow in a cup of 
wine, imagined he was about to swallow a snake, and of 
another who was afraid there was a tiger in the market — or 
imagining that every sound of the wind and screech of the 
jiassing cranes was an enemy ( E W JH m), or being the victim 
of illusions like the Kiangsu buffaloes which pant at the moon 
(^ ^ P& B ) — in mistake for the hot sun — or resembling 
the Szechuan dogs which bark in fear at the unexpected 
appearance of the sun (M it 8ft ). 

There are many people of limited intelligence in this 
world, like the frog in the well (^ g !8 $|), which sits looking 
at the sky (4fe #• M 2c). Their ideas are as restricted as 
the view of a weevil in a hollow bamboo (^ & £. JL), and so 
narrow-minded that they would look at a leopard through a 
tube (if tf» H Wi) and thus only perceive one spot at a time. 
They are certainly never likely to set the Yangtze on fire, 
nor to catch the three-legged toad (H ISP £g $H), which only 
exists in the moon. 

A very talkative person is compared to a roaring lion 
with open jaws (13 D 1$ ^), and while he holds the floor 
there will certainly be dead silence, and no sound of sparrows 
or crows (3£ St 3H H), yet he is better than the speechless 
dummy, who has not acquired the art of conversation, and 
merely resembles a wooden chicken in appearance ( J(£ M 
?k $&). However if he makes indirect insinuations and 
curses a dog while pointing at a chicken ($1 8£ H $/ )» 
no doubt he will not find ready listeners on a second occasion, 
for they will be like the bird which fears the bow (ft ^ t M), 
or "once bit twice shy"; they will choose their associates 
with better care in future as good birds choose their branches 
to roost upon (5 & *f *), and flee away from the scene as 
if transformed into yellow cranes (4b ^ ^ II). 

When the heavenly dog eats up the sun (2c $ £ ), 

resulting in a total eclipse of that luminary, one would 

hardly suppose that any amount of gong-beating would force 

him to disgorge this somewhat indigestible piece de resis- 

3 



34 CHINESE METAPHORICAL ZOOLOGY 

tance, even in the year of the donkey and the month of 
the horse (Si ¥• 0j M), or, as we should express it, "when 
pigs begin to fly." When the weather is rainy, the flying 
dragons are said to be in the sky (M at ^t 5c), and, under 
similar meteorological conditions, the nine dragons are play- 
ing in the water {% ft Wl jfc). When the earth-ox shifts his 
burden (the earth) to the other shoulder (S& *¥ W M), what 
could be a more natural result than an earthquake? This 
bovine Atlas was referred to in the Chinese press at the time 
of the Amoy earthquake. 

It will now be evident that the Chinese are certainly 
adepts in the application of the law of association of ideas, 
and when they see the saddle they think of the horse ( JL W 
JS $$); even a nondescript article is immediately classified as 
being neither donkey nor horse ( ^ H % M), or, in our 
parlance, "neither flesh, fowl, nor good red herring." 

The earliest fable on record in Chinese history is probably 
that of the oyster and the bird known as the oyster-catcher. 
The politician Su Tax (H flt), of the 3rd century B.C., was 
once advising the ruler of the State of Chao ( M ) to cease his 
hostilities with the State of Yen ($5). He said, "this morn- 
ing I was crossing the Eiver I ( f& ) when I saw an oyster 
open its shell to sun itself. Immediately an oyster-catcher 
thrust in its bill to eat the oyster, but the latter closed its 
shell and held the bird fast. 'If it does not rain to-day or 
to-morrow,' said the oyster-catcher, 'there will be a dead 
oyster,' and 'if you don't get out of this by to-day or 
to-morrow,' retorted the oyster, 'there will be a dead oyster- 
catcher.' In the meantime up came a fisherman and 
carried off both of them. I fear lest the State of Ch'in ( ifc) 
should be our fisherman." 5 Hence references to the 
quarrelling of the oyster and the oyster -catcher (f§ 4$ £, W) 
are frequently made in the newspapers, implying that while 
internal dissensions are rife in the country, it is possible that 
outsiders may take the opportunity to walk in and seize any 
available profits or advantages. The saying do not slaughter 
the ploughing ox (tyl a£ $f 4* ) and thereby destroy the liveli- 
hood of the people, might also be applied at the present time. 
The government of China may be compared to a whirlpool, 
since the more it changes, the more it is the same thing, 
but it is to be hoped that all administrative difficulties will 
eventually be solved, and the phoenix will roost upon the 
wu-t'ung tree (M, fls In ffll), and happiness and concord will 
replace disorder and distress.' 

5 From the Chan Kuo Ts l t (■&&&)• 



THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR 
NEIGHBOURS* 

A Brief Survey of Primitive Cultural Influences Affecting the 

Filipinos . 

(With an Incidental Revieiv of the Philippine 

Academy's Work). 



CHARLES SUMNER LOBINGIER, D.C.L., PH.D., 

Chancellor of the Academy 1909-1914; 
Now Chancellor Emeritus. 



The Philippine Academy was organized in 1909 and 
incorporated under the laws of the archipelago in 1910 for 

"the promotion of advanced research in subjects pertaining 
to Filipinology, to effect a union of scholars and investigators 
interested therein, to aid in the establishment of a complete and 
consolidated Library of 'Filipiniana,' to encourage the prepara- 
tion and publication of scientific treatises thereon, to provide 
uniform standards and devise improved methods in conducting 
such investigations and to co-operate with scientific organizations 
elsewhere." 1 

From the first it was fortunate in attracting to its ranks 
the leading investigators along the lines mentioned and their 
work, now representing an accumulation of more than a 
decade (for as individuals many of them had been working 
before the Academy was formed), affords a valuable nucleus 
of material relating to the ethnology and history of the 
Philippines. This is especially true of the Pre-Spanish 
period, for there the Philippine Academicians were among 
the pioneers. 

Beginning with the contributions of Dr. N. M. Saleeby 2 
on the history and culture of the Moros of the south, a 



*Kead before the Society. 

1 Extract from the Articles of Incorporation. 

2 Studies in Moro History, Law and Eeligion (Manila, 1905) ; The 
History of Sulu (1905) Origin of the Malayan Filipinos, Philippine 
Academy Publications, Vol. I, No. 1 (1912). 



"36 THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 

collection of monographs has gradually appeared which con- 
stitutes almost the first scientific attempt to penetrate 
the mystery that shrouds the origin of the present inhabitants 
of the Philippines and their cultural sources. 

Malay Origins. 

Among the most recent of these publications, though 
relating to the earliest period, are those 3 compiled by the in- 
genious Professor of History in the University of the Philip- 
pines, — Austin Craig- — who is also known for his painstaking 
and authoritative life of Rizal, 4 and other works. His 
pamphlet on "Malays" is largely extracted from a work 5 
by General Forlong which deals with the origin of the Malay 
race and its primitive religious ideas. Like Dr. Saleeby, 6 
General Forlong believes that the Malays originated on the 
Asiatic mainland (the latter holding that they entered India 
from the north) and long remained under the influence of 
Indian civilization. This general theory finds abundant 
philological evidence in its .favor and in addition to that 
mentioned by General Forlong much more might be cited 
from the Philippine languages. 

The pioneer in this interesting field appears to have been 
Dr. Kern, Professor of Sanscrit in the University of Leyden, 
who, in 1881, published the results of his observations on the 
presence of Sanscrit words in Bisaya and Tagalog. As re- 
gards the latter, Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, a member of 
the Philippine Academy, took up the same line of investi- 
gation a few years later. 7 The presence of Sanscrit words in 
other Philippine languages was noticed by still another and 
charter member of the Academy and recently chosen as its 
Chancellor — Dr. David P. Barrows. 8 But it was reserved 
for Dr. Saleeby to carry this fascinating investigation to the 
farthest extent yet reached. Selecting as his particular 
subject the Magindanaw language of the south Philippines 

3 The Pre-Spanish Philippines, by Austin Craig, (Manila, 1914) ; 
Particulars of the Philippines' Pre-Spanish Past, by the same author, 
(Manila, 1916) ; Malays, by the same author, (Manila, 1916). 

4 Manila (Philippine Education Company), 1913. 

5 Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions. 

6 Origin of the Malayan Filipinos, Academy Publications I, 1, 37. 

7 See his monographs El Sanscrito en la lengua tagalog. (Paris, 
1887, 55 pp.) ; Consideraciones sobre el origen del nombre de los 
numeros en tagalog (Manila, 1889,, 26 pp.). 

8 History of the Philippines, 92, 93. Dr. Barrows also found "a 
few Sanskrit or Indian words" in the Ilongot language of North Luzon. 
See his "Ilongot or Ibilaw," Popular Science monthly, (December, 
1910) LXXVII, 537. 



THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 37 

he has not only collected an extensive vocabulary 9 of common 
words therein, which are cognate with Sanscrit, but he 
marshals other evidence in support of his conclusion that 
Malay speech m general "is an Indian tongue closely allied 
to, or originally derived from Sanscrit-tbe language of Vedic 
worship and Vedic days." " And he sumg th ^ resultg Qf 
ins researches in the following inquiry : 

+ u /T hat conclu 1 sion ca n we then, at present draw, other than 
that the ancient home of these peoples and the birth place of 
their forefathers was in the land where the Vedic gods were 
worshipped and an Indian language was spoken, which land can 
be no other country than that extensive continent of India— 
the cradle of the Malay race." 1X 

Moreover, the term "Malay" itself, instead of being 
derived, as General Forlong seems to think, from the Indian 
mala (hill), is more probably connected with the Tagalog 
malayo (far) with its allusion to the long wanderings of the 
race which General Forlong emphasizes. 

"They have" he says 12 "thronged East Africa above 1,000 
years, and have even a colony at the Cape of Good Hope. They 
traded everywhere throughout Madagascar— their Malagasa, 13 — 
and the Mala-dvipas or Maldives. They colonized 500 miles of 
the West Coast of India, still known as Mala-bar ; the great 
islands of Sumatra and adjoining mainland known as the Malaka 
Peninsula, extending over some 700 miles; all the large island 
kingdoms of Java, Celebes and their dependencies and the epony- 
mous extensive Molucca group." 

Contact with the Negritos. 

When the Malays entered the archipelago now known as 
the Philippines 14 they found there an aboriginal race, dark 
skinned, of short stature and curly hair, resembling, and 
probably akin to, the Papuans of New Guinea, the aboriginal 
Semang of the Malay peninsula, 15 the Mincopies of the 
Andaman Islands 16 and perhaps to the blacks of Australia. 

9 Origin of the Malayan Filipinos, Academy Publications, I, 22-35. 

10 Id. 37. 

11 Id. See also the "comparison of the Korean language with that 
of Dra vidian peoples of southern India" in Hulbert's Passing of Korea^ 
Chapter II. 

12 Malays, 2. 

13 The similarity between Tagalog and Malagassy was the subject 
of a monograph by Eenward Brandsteller, entitled "Tagalen und Mada- 
gassen" (Luzern, 1902). 

14 This name was not applied until long after Spanish occupation 
when it was given in honor of the reigning monarch Felipe II. Magel- 
lan, who discovered the group on San Lazaro's day, named it after 
that saint. 

15 Barrows, The Negrito and Allied Types in the Philippines, 
American Anthropologist, (N. S.) XII, 375, citing Skeat and Blagden's 
Pagan Paces of the Malay Peninsula. 

16 Keed, Negritos of Zambales (Philippine Ethnological Survey 
Publications, Vol. II, pt. I) 13 et seq. 



o8 THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 

Long afterward this race received from the Spaniards the 
name of Negritos (little blacks). 17 Once numerous and dis- 
tributed throughout the islands 18 they are now confined to a 
few provinces while their number is very small 19 and believed 
to be rapidly diminishing. Yet it is long since active warfare 
between them and the Malay intruder has decimated the 
former's ranks. Their present decline seems rather due to a 
prolonged process of amalgamation, largely at their expense, 
with the incoming race. Dr. Barrows long since expressed 
his conviction that 

"Much has been made of the 'Indonesian' theory and far too 
much of Pre-Spanish Chinese influence, but the result to the 
physical types found in the Philippines of the constant absorp- 
tion of the Negrito race into the Malayan, and the wide prev- 
alence of Negrito blood in all classes of islanders, has been 
generally overlooked. . . 

"I shall not attempt here" he adds "to estimate the pro- 
portion of Negrito blood in the Christian peoples of the Philip- 
pines — Bisaya, Bikol, Tagalog, Ilokano, etc., — further than to 
express my conviction that in certain regions it is very large and 
has greatly modified the primitive Malayan type." 20 
This mixture of blood has produced in certain parts of 
the Philippines, groups which, though not pure Negritos, 
resemble them to a degree more or less considerable according 
to the amount of Malay infusion. The Bataks 21 of Palawan 
are practically Negritos 22 while the Tagbanuas 23 of the same 
island are predominantly Malayan with a Negrito strain. 24 

17 They are known among the other natives by various names, as 
Baluga, Aeta, Dumagat. Id. 18. 

18 Meyer, Distribution of Negritos (1899), 4. 

19 Dr. H. Otley Beyer in his recent work on the "Population of the 
Philippine Islands in 1916" estimates (p. 22) the Negritos at about 
36,000 or less than ^ of 1% of the total population. 

20 The Negrito and Allied Types in the Philippines, American 
Anthropologist (N. S.) XII, 358, 364. 

21 On this small but interesting group see Venturello, Manners and 
Customs of the Palawan Tribes, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
Vol. 48, pt. 4 ; Miller, The Bataks of Palawan, Philippine Ethnological 
Survey Publications, Vol. II, pt. II. 

22 Reed, Negritos of Zambales, 22 ; Barrows, The Negrito in the 
Philippines, 363. 

23 See Venturello (M. H.) Manners and Customs of the Tagbanuas 
and other Palawan Tribes, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
Vol. 48, pt. 4. Judge Norberto Romualdez, a member of the Philip- 
pine Academy, has written a monograph on the "Tagbanwa Alphabet" 
which, he says, "bears such similarity to the ancient Filipino writing, 
that no room for doubt exists of its community of origin with the 
latter." He adds in a note : 

"The Mangyans of Mindo'ro also still use their own alphabet, 
which is substantially the same as the Tagbanwa. The Mangyan 
characters, however, are more angular, probably due to the 
material in which they write, chiefly bamboo." 

24 Barrows, The Negrito in the Philippines, 363 ; Reed, Negritos of 
Zambales, 22. 



THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 39 

Dr. Barrows has also made some valuable anthropological 
researches among that most interesting group the Igorot 25 
mountaineers of North Luzon who, he believes, constitute 

"an old, thoroughly fused mixture of the aboriginal Ne- 
gritos, who still survive in a few spots of the cordillera, and an 

25 An extensive literature relative to this group has now appeared, 
including : 

General. 

Meyer (Hans) Die Igorroten (in Appendix to "Eine Welt- 
reise," 2nd ed., Leipzig und Wien, 1890). 

Perez (Angel) Igorrotes : estudio geografico y etnografico 
sob re algunos distritos del norte de Luzon (Manila, 1902). 

Worcester (Dean C.) The Non-Christian Tribes of Northern 
Luzon ; reprinted from Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. I, 
(Manila, 1906). 

Beyer (H. Otley) Origin Myths among the Mountain Peoples 
of the Philippines ; reprinted from the Philippine Journal of 
Science, VIII, sec. D. (Manila, 1913). 

Iftjgao. 

Yillaverde (Juan Fernandez) The If ugaos of Qiangan and 
Vicinity. (Written in Spanish many years ago but translated by 
Dean C. Worcester and published in 1909 and reprinted from 
Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. IV). 

Super sticiones de los Igorrotes Ifugaos, published 
in 1912 in El Correo Sino-Annamita, Vol. 38, 
pp. 281-455. 

Camspa (Buenaventura) Los Mayoyaos y la raza Ifugao 
(Madrid, 1895) ; also in El Correo Annarnita (1892-3) and La 
Politico de Espana en Filipinos (1894). 

Barton (Roy F.) The Harvest Feast of the Kiangan Ifugao; 
reprinted from the Philippine Journal of Science, VI, sec. D. 
(Manila, 1911). 

Beyer (H. Otley) and Barton (Eoy F.) An Ifugao Burial 
Ceremony ; reprinted from the Philippine Journal of Science, VI, 
sec. D. (Manila, 1911). 

BONTOK. 

Jenhs (Albert E.) The Bontoc Igorot (Manila, 1905). 

Clapp (Rev. Walter Clayton) A Vocabulary of the Bontok 
Igorot Language, (Division of Ethnology Publications, Vol. V, 
pt. Ill), Manila, 1908. 

Seidenadel (Carl W.) Bontoc Grammar and Vocabulary 

(Chicago, 1909). 

Bengtjet. 

Scheerer (Otto) The Nabaloi Dialect, Philippine Ethnological 
Survey Publications, Vol. II (Manila, 1905). 

Lepanto. 

Bobertson (James A.) The Igorots of Lepanto, reprinted 
from Philippine Journal of Science, IX, sec. D 

Vanoverbergh (Morice) A Grammar of Lepanto Igorot 
spoken at Bauko (Manila, 1916). 

Kalingas. 

Blumentritt (Ferdinand) Die Calingas; Ausland, Vol. 64, 
pp. 328-331 (Stuttgart, 1891). 

Wilcox (Cornells D.) The Headhunted of Northern Luzon 
from Ifugao to Kalinga (Kansas City, 1912). 



40 THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 

intrusive, Malayan race, who, by preference or by press of foes 
behind them, scaled the high mountains and on their bleak and 
cold summits and canyon slopes laboriously built themselves 
rock-walled fields and homes, in which they have long been 
acclimated. The culture of the Igorot," he adds, "has been 
greatly modified and advanced by the rigors of his habitat, but 
it is Malayan at base, as are the languages which he speaks." 26 

The Negrito infusion seems to have advanced even farther 

in the case of another interesting tribe of the same general 

region — the Ilongots or Ibilaos. Dr. Barrows has pursued 

his investigations among these as well and has given us the 

benefit thereof in two suggestive monographs. 27 

"In these peoples we have, I am quite sure," he says, "a 
mixture of primitive Malayan and Negrito, with more Negrito 
than in the case of the Igorot. Stature, curly hair, short head, 
and broad, flat nose — these are all negritic characters, as is also 
the hairiness of the face and body. In fact there can be no 
doubt of the presence of Negrito blood in the Ilongot, for the 
process of assimilation can be seen going on. The Negrito of a 
comparatively pure type is a neighbor of the Ilongot on both the 
south and the north. Usually they are at enmity, but this does 
not, and certainly has not in the past, prevented commingling. 
The culture of the Ilongot is intermediate, or a composite of 
Malayan and Negrito elements. He uses the bow and arrow of 
the Negrito and the spear of the Malayan as well. There are 
few things in the ethnography of the Ilongot that seem unusual 
and for which the culture of neither Malay nor Negrito does not 
provide an explanation." 2S 

Here then we have revealed before our eyes what is 
probably the closing chapter in the silent though pregnant 
process, now centuries old, of blending two distinct and even 
hostile races and eliminating the weaker through absorption 
by the stronger. Truly this is a rare opportunity for the 

26 The Negrito and Allied Types American Anthropologist (N. S.) 
XII, 372. 

27 The Ilongot or Ibilaw of Luzon, Popular Science Monthly, 
LXXVII, 36 (1910) ; The Negrito in the Philippines, American Anthro- 
poligist (N. S.) XII, 358 et seq. (1910). 

Besides these contributions of Dr. Barrows the following have been 
written on the Ilongots : 

Blumentritt (Ferdinand) Gaddanen, Ilongoten Ibilaos und 
Negritos (Wien, 1884). 

Katechismus der hatholischen Glauhenslehre in der Ilongoten 
Sprache (translated from the Spanish of Padre Fray Francisco 
de la Zarza (Wien, 1893). 

■Cam/pa (Buen ventura) Una Visita a los Bancherias de 
Ilongotes, El Correo Sino-Annamita, Vol. 25, pp. 561-646 
(Manila, 1891). 

Scheerer (Otto) On a Quinary Notation Among the Ilongots ; 
reprinted from the Philippine Journal of Science (Manila, 1911). 

Jones (William) Letters, reports, etc., re Italon Ilongots, in 
Rideout (Manila, 1912). 

28 American Anthropologist (N. S.) XII, 375. 



THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS j 1 

anthropologist and the historian and one which throws a flood 
people UP ° n G ^ ^ develo P men * of the Filipino 

Northward Migration. 
The less familiar, but (in its results) more important, 
migration of the Malays northward is developed by Professor 
Craig m his two other pamphlets, especially the first 29 The 
strong Malay influence in Formosa is noted and, what is more 
interesting, the extension of the Malayan wave to Japan 
lb quote irom one of his authorities : 30 

"The Japanese people are a mixture of several distinct 
stocks. Negrito, Mongolian, Palasiatic and Caucasian features 
more or less blended, sometimes nearly isolated, are met with 
everywhere. The Negrito is the least prevalent. Prof. Baelz 
who has drawn attention to this type along with the Malayan 
physiognomy, found it comparatively more pronounced in Kyu- 
shu (island of which Nagasaki is the port), where a Malayan 
immigration is believed to have taken place." 

Apparently this author confuses Negrito with Malay but 
any one familiar with certain racial types in southern Japan 
and their resemblance to Filipinos may well believe that a 
"Malayan immigration" reached there. An author 31 not re- 
ferred to in the pamphlet says : 

"The first immigrants landed in Izumo (southwest coast of 
Hondo) having come by way of Korea from the central plateau of 
Siberia. The second, who arrived long after the first, came (to 
Hiuga on the east coast of Kiyushu) from a more southern part 
of the continent by way of Formosa, whence with the help of the 
Kuro Siwo (Japan current) they could easily reach Japan. Some 
authorities have endeavoured to show that these immigrants were 
of Malay origin, and have found marked similarities in both the 
physical and mental characteristics of the modern Malays and 
Japanese to support their theories. While, however, they un- 
doubtedly acquired a strong Malay element in their southern 
wanderings the fact that, when the two colonies at last met, their 
languages and customs were so similar that no difficulty was 
experienced in the amalgamation of the two, shows(?) that the 
origin of the preponderating elements of the second must be 
found in the same race as that of the first." 



29 The Pre-Spanish Philippines. 

30 Munro, Prehistoric Japan. The "Caucasian features" mentioned 
in this excerpt refer to the Ainu who once "occupied the greater part 
of the main island of Japan and probably overflowed into Shikoku 
and Kyushu" but later "retreated before this new invasion" from the 
south (much as did the Negritos before the Malay invasion of the 
Philippines) "until at the beginning of the nineteenth century they 
were practically confined to Yezo (where, 'years ago' it was 'estimated 
that only 17,000 of them remained') and the islands farther north." 
Starr, (Frederick), The Ainu of Japan, Asia, XIX, 381-387. 

31 Longford, The Story of Old Japan (1910) 5, 6. 



42 THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 

But it does not seem to have occurred to this author that 
the "immigrants . . . from the central plateau of Siberia" 
might also have been Malays, at least in part, nor that 
"physical and mental characteristics" which are so apparent 
to the observer of Malays and southern Japanese could hardly 
have been acquired from mere wanderings among the former. 

But the northward movement of the Malays appears not 
.to have stopped even in Japan. To quote further : 

"Oppert was the first to note that in Korea are two types of 
faces, the one distinctly Monogolian, and the other lacking many 
of the Monogolian features and tending rather to the Malay 
type." 32 

Following the Malay migration the same author says : 

"From the Malay Peninsula we may imagine them spreading 
in various directions. Some went north along the coast, others 
into the Philippine Islands, then to Formosa, where Mr. 
Davidson, the best authority, declares that the Malay type 
prevails. The powerful Black Current, the Gulf Stream of the 
Pacific, naturally swept northward those who were shipwrecked. 
The Liu-Kiu Islands were occupied, and the last wave of this 
great dispersion broke on the southern shore of Japan and Korea, 
leaving there the nucleus of those peoples who resemble each 
other so that if dressed alike they cannot be distinguished as 
Japanese or Korean even by an expert. The small amount of 
work that has been so far done indicates a striking resemblance 
between these southern Koreans and the natives of Formosa, and 
the careful comparison of Korean language with that of Dravid- 
ian peoples of southern India reveals such a remarkable similar- 
ity, phonetic, stymologic and synthetic, that one is forced to 
recognize in it something more than mere coincidence." 

Thus the diffusion of Malays appears to have skirted 
practically the entire inhabited coasts of Asia and to have 
left a trail stretching from South Africa to Korea. 

Of the cultural influences affecting this widely scattered 
race the Indian, as has been mentioned, was the first and 
most powerful. But in spreading northward the Malays 
naturally encountered the civilization which was then dom- 
inant in eastern Asia — the Chinese. 

Chinese Influence. 

Professor Craig shows how, as early as the third century 
of our era, Chinese writers mention what we know as the 
Philippines, grouping them with Formosa, and his chrono- 
logical leaflet, 33 issued separately from the other pamphlets, 
indicates that there has hardly been a century since in which 
reference to the Philippines fails to appear in some Chinese 
work. 

32 Hulbert, The Passing of Korea, Chapter II. 

33 Pre-Spanish Philippine Chronology. 



THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 1:5 

Meanwhile communication between the two countries 
appears to have continued, persistently even, if intermittent- 
ly, until checked by unwise and ill-adapted immigration re- 
strictions; and one begins to understand from the antiquity of 
this contact how it is that the Chinese people and their 
civilization have come to exert such an extensive and per- 
manent, though withal unobtrusive, influence upon the 
Philippines. The motive of this contact seems to have been 
primarily^ commercial. The "New History of the T'ang 
Dynasty, ' ' dealing with the period from the seventh to the 
tenth centuries of our era, states that : 

"When Chinese merchants arrive there, they are entertained 
as guests in a public building and the eatables and drinkables are 
abundant and clean." 34 

This takes as a matter of course the presence of Chinese 
merchants in the Philippines and points to long established 
•custom. Incidentally it affords an early instance of the pro- 
verbial Malay hospitality. A later work describes in greater 
detail the manner in which this trade was conducted, relating 
how the traders, 

"live on board ship before venturing to go on shore, their 
ship being moored in midstream^ announcing their presence to 
the natives by beating drums. Upon this the savage traders 
race for the ship in small boats, carrying cotton, yellow wax, 
native cloth, cocoanut-heart mats, which they offer for barter. 
If the price (of goods they may wish to purchase) cannot be 
agreed upon, the chief of the (local) traders (JCjfl) must go in 
person, in order to come to an understanding, which being 
leached the natives are offered presents of silk umbrellas, por- 
celain, and lattan baskets; but the foreigners still retain on 
board one or two (natives) as hostages. After that they go on 
shore to traffic, which being ended they return the hostages.. 
A ship will not remain at anchor longer than three or four days, 
after which it proceeds to another place ; for the savage settle- 
ments along the coast of San-su are not connected by a common 
jurisdiction." 35 

One need not wonder, after tracing this phase of the 
subject, that the retail trade of the Philippines remains 
to-day in the hands of Chinese merchants. 

But these old writers whose work is here made accessible 
have something more to record than commerce. Social 
customs, religious beliefs and practices and even juridical 

34 Particulars of the Philippines' Pre-Spanish Past, 10. 

35 The Pre-Spanish Philippines, 4, reproducing extracts from the 
work of Chao Ju-kua on the Chinese and Arab Trade (in the 12th and 
13th centuries). See a translation of part of this work in Blair and 
Robertson's Philippine Islands, XXXIV, 183-191. The book was also 
translated and Annotated by Friedrich Hirth and W. W. Rockhill, 
(St Petersburg, Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 
Vass. Ostr., Ninth Line, 12, 1911). Mr. Rockhill's last appearance 
before the Royal Asiatic Society was to deliver an address on the 
theme of that work. 



44 THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 

conceptions find a place in their narratives. Thus the 
historian of the T'ang Dynasty above quoted informs us that 
these primitive inhabitants of the Philippines 

"have no corporal punishments, all transgressions being 
penalized with fines in gold which vary according to the nature 
of the offence. Only robbers and thieves are made to suffer 
death." 36 

It is the agreement of all this with what we know from 
other sources that stamps the descriptions as accurate and 
genuine and it is just here that the work of Dr. Robertson 
connects with that of Professor Craig. Formerly Chancellor 
of the Philippine Academy and Insular Librarian the former 
is too well known to need extended mention here. As co- 
editor of the most voluminous publication 37 yet issued relat- 
ing to the archipelago, and as an explorer in other depart- 
ments 38 of Far Eastern history his place in that field is amply 
secure. His latest work 39 appears to be a contribution to a 
comprehensive treatise 40 covering the Far East and much 
more. Dr. Kobertson's portion is devoted to "the social 
structure of, and ideas of law among, early Philippine 
peoples" and embodies the text and translation of "a recently 
discovered Pre-Hispanic criminal code of the Philippine 
Islands" which, he says "is really the excuse for this paper" 
and "forms part of a manuscript written during the years 
1837 and 1838 by a Spanish friar, Jose Maria Pavon, who 
was stationed for some years in the town of Himamaylan in 
the province of Occidental Negros." 41 

Like Professor Craig, Dr. Eobertson recognizes the re- 
sults of "contact with the Chinese, with whom they had 
carried on an intermittent trade for centuries", 42 and like 
Dr. Saleeby and General Forlong he sees also the possibilities 
of "contact with the peoples of Asia to the West of China". 43 
Of Chinese influence the monograph contains not a few in- 



36 Particulars of the Philippines' Pre-Spanish Past, 10. 

37 Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 (Cleve- 
land, 1903-1909) 55 vols. 

38 Magellan's Journey around the World, (Cleveland, 1906) ; 
Bibliography of Early Spanish- Japanese Relations. Transactions, 
Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. XLIII, Pt. I (1915). 

39 Early Philippine Law and Custom (1917). 

40 The Pacific Ocean in History, (The MacMillan Company, 1917^ 
Edited by H. Morse Stevens and Herbert E. Bolton. 

41 P. 160. The author adds : e Tt was sent to the Philippine 
Library at Manila by Mr. Jose E. Marco, whose zeal and enthusiasm 
in the preservation of historical materials relating to the Philippine 
Islands is most commendable, and alas, only too rare." 

42 Id. 161. 43 Id. 



THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS | ;, 

sWes. Thus, referring to the translator of the primitive 

"Pavon says that those of the early Bisaya who knew how to 
write and possessed documents were those who overtopped the ? 

A -?Tf y r" Tu ght and abiHt ^ and wh0 w *re generally of 
Chinese ancestry ; the priests ; the rowers ; and the chief men " « 

As in China "the political structure (among these prim- 
itive Malays) rested on the family as a unit". 45 The very 
first "order" or article of the code in question thus provides 
tor enforcing that peculiarly Chinese virtue— veneration for- 
age : 

"Ye shall not kill ; neither shall ye steal ; neither shall ye do 
hurt to the aged : lest ye incur the danger of death. All those 
who infringe this (order shall be condemned) to death by bein<* 
drowned with stones in the river, or in boiling water." 46 

Again more specifically in the seventh "order" death is 
prescribed for one "who shoots arrows at night at old men 
and women". 47 As in China, moreover, a peculiar sanctity 
attaches to burial places. Thus the fourth "order" enjoins : 

"Observe and obey ye : let no one disturb the quiet of 
graves. When passing by the caves and trees where they are, 
give respect to them." 48 

This code then is a most interesting document and leads 
up to various topics of archaic and comparative jurispru- 
dence, like tabu, the ordeal and primitive marriage. 

The last named has been treated elsewhere by the 
present writer 49 but it will hardly be irrelevant to point out 
here that while the early Malays had not passed out of the 
stage of marriage by purchase 50 and while as viewed by the 
Chinese writers the former lacked one familiar factor — the 
matchmaker 51 — in other respects their marital customs dis- 



!1 Id. 188. 45 Id. 164. 46 Id. 186. 47 Id. 187. 

* s Id. 186. Dr. Robertson adds in a note : 

"Burial in caves, at least for the chief men, was common 
among the early Bisaya, a fact that is well attested by the many 
burial caves that have been, and are being, discovered. In some 
of these caves well preserved coffins and bones have been found. 
Quite recently, Mr. Luther Parker, of the Bureau of Education 
of the Philippines, found a number of skulls and other bones in 
several of these caves, and he has written a very illuminating 
paper concerning them, which it is hoped will be published." 

49 See his "Primitive Malay Marriage Law" American Anthropol- 
ogist, XII, 250-256 

50 Id. p. 250. 

51 "It is not the custom to use go-between, or match-makers, in 
contracting a marriage. Some gold is paid to the relations of the girl 
and then she is married." Particulars of the Philippines' Pre-Spanish 
Past, 10. 



46 THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 

close a resemblance to those of China. Thus, as stated by 
Dr. Eobertson : 52 

"Among most Philippine peoples, the union was decided on 
between the parents of the contracting couple. It might even be 
arranged between the parents before the birth of the children, its 
consummation being dependent upon the right accident of birth, 
the payment of a dowry by the man or his parents, and, in many 
instances, on the fertility of the woman." 

Dr. Saleeby likewise notices the work of Chao Ju-kua 53 
and the early contact between Chinese and Malays 54 though 
like Dr. Barrows 55 he ascribes to it less importance than to 
other influences. But Dr. Eobertson appears to be, though 
perhaps unconsciously, in substantial agreement with Pro- 
fessor Craig as to the extent of Chinese influence on the 
Malays. 

The date assigned by Pavon to the manuscript which he 
discovered and translated is 1433 and while as our author 
says, he "gives no clue as to his method of fixing this date", 56 
it would appear to be at least that early. 57 

Arab Influence. 

The materials collected by these two — Professor Craig 
and Dr. Robertson — furnish us glimpses of the relations 
between Chinese and Malays down to the time when the 
latter first came under the influence of the Arab missionaries 
of Islam. At this point the notable and illuminating work 58 
of Dr. Saleeby commences; for while this was the first to 
appear, it covers the latest period of Pre-Spanish Philippine 
history. 

Dr. Saleeby is of the opinion that the Malays left the 
Asiatic mainland at least as early as 1000 B.C. As the first 
Mohammedans did not enter India much if any before a.d. 600 
they could hardly have influenced the Malays there. The 
Moslem conquest of India began in 1024 and Moslem in- 
fluence was extended to Malaysia about 1300. Leaving the 
mainland the emissaries of Islam seem to have proceeded 
first to Sumatra and thence to the other islands of the Malay 
archipelago whose inhabitants are now so largely of their 
faith. They entered the Philippines by two routes, the first 

52 An Old Philippine Criminal Code, 170. 

53 Origin of the Malayan Filipinos, Philippine Academy Publica- 
tions, I, 5. 

54 Id. 9. 

55 American Anthropologist (N. S-.) XII, 358. 

56 An Old Philippine Criminal Code 191, note. 

57 Id. 161. 

58 See note 2, supra. 



THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 47 

via Balabac and Palawan to Manila Bay and the second b\ 
way of Tawi-Tawi and Sulu to Magindanaw (now Cottabatoj. 
They appear to have reached Sulu before 1380 and when the 
Spaniards arrived at the Pasig river, less than two centuries 
later, they found a Mohammedan prince — Eajah Soliman — 
reigning in Tondo, now a part of Manila, and Islam quite 
extensively established there. To the Spaniards who had 
just succeeded in expelling the Moors from their home 
peninsula it seemed a religious duty to repeat the process as 
regards these coreligionists in the Philippines to whom they 
applied the same term — "Moros." The process was com- 
pleted in the northern and central Philippines where, except 
in the mountain regions of Luzon, most of the inhabitants 
came under the influence of the Spanish Friar Missionaries. 
But the Malays of the southern Philippines have remained 
Mohammedan to this day. And the new influence which 
thus affected them came directly and not indirectly from 
Arabia. Abu Bekr who introduced Islam into Sulu was 
a real Arab and so late as 1911 when I visited the Lake Lanao^ 
region of central Mindanao the military commandant there 
(Colonel Beecham) told me that the leading Moro of that 
locality was a man from Mecca. On the other hand among 
the Moros of to-day are not a few ' ' hadjis ' ' who proudly wear 
the green turban in token of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land 
of Islam. 

Among the most interesting monuments of this long 
domination of Islam in the southern Philippines are the 
series of legal compilations, often called codes, which Dr. 
Saleeby discovered and translated. 59 A detailed examina- 
tion of them would lead us too far afield and besides would' 
require a separate monograph for adequate treatment. 
Suffice it here to say that they constitute a curious blending 
of Moslem law with Malay custom and that, while crude and 
unsvstematic in arrangement, they contain some rather 
advanced provisions. They were mainly intended for the 
Moro panditas (judges) who were unfamiliar with Arabic and 
therefore unable to read the real Mohammedan law books. 
But they have introduced not a little of the law of Islam 
which the American government in the Philippines has re- 
cognized bv authorizing the Moro Provincial Council to 
modify the'substantive civil and criminal law ... to suit 
local conditions among the Moros, " etc. /'to conform . . . 
to the local customs and usages." 60 



" Studies in Moro History, Law and Keligion, Philippine Ethno- 
logical Survey Publications, IV, pt. I (1905). 
° - Compilation, Acts of the Philippine Commission p. 251. 



48 THE EARLY MALAYS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS 

Here then we have a concrete and striking example of an 
external influence which has profoundly affected Malayan 
culture in two vital features — religion and law — just as it had 
been previously affected by Indian influence as regards 
language and Chinese influence respecting commerce and 
social customs. Thus we discover that the external in- 
fluences which affected successively the Malayan Filipino 
were the three most potential civilizations of Asia — the 
Indian, the Chinese and the Arabic. And operating con- 
comitantly with these was an internal influence which, if 
less obtrusive, was even more effective and real — the local 
contact and amalgamation with the Negrito. 

These profoundly interesting generalizations we owe 
largely to the members of the Philippine Academy, an 
organization whose achievements deserve a wider recognition 
than has yet been accorded them. And surely a society like 
this which bears the name of "Asiatic" should be interested 
in a group of colaborers which has contributed so much to 
scientific knowledge of a nearby, yet hitherto little known, 
corner of Asia. I plead for a closer acquaintance between 
these two bodies — a more intimate knowledge of each other's 
work — a plan of co-operation as to future undertakings. For 
if there is one outstanding lesson to be drawn from a study 
of the Malay race it is the unity and continuity of history in 
the Far East and the solidarity of its culture. For it shows 
that the native races of this region are not isolated units, 
having no relation to each other, but sharers in a common 
civilization whose influence has been age long and far reach- 
ing. Surely, therefore, none of the laborers in such a 
common, though extensive, field can afford to be ignorant of, 
or isolated from, their fellows. 



NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, 

BOTANY AND THE ZOOLOGY 

OF CHINA. 



B. W. SKYORTZOW. 



I. — Dye-plants and Dye-stuffs of Manchuria. 1 

Manchuria is a country extremely rich in agricultural 
products. It is not only famous for its cereals, but also in 
technical plants, especially the soja beans, flax and dye 
plants. At the present time the production of beans in- 
creases with each year, as also does the sowing and export 
from the country of materials for weaving. With regard to 
dye plants each year sees a decrease in the production of this 
economic product. Its decline arises from the appearance 
in the market of the cheaper and more abundant foreign 
aniline dyes. It is disappearing in spite of the fact that 
formerly Manchuria was celebrated for its production of a 
blue dye, closely resembling the true indigo (Indigofera 
tinctoria L.). This cultivation of dye plants in Manchuria 
has followed the fate of all similar productions when the 
cheap chemically manufactured article appeared on the 
market. The same took place in the West of Europe, where 
the cultivation of madder (Bubia tinctoria L.), a former very 
important commercial industry has also died out. The de- 
cline in the industry of organic dye is to be observed now in 
China, where in ancient times one madder was cultivated for 
red dye and another — I satis tinctoria L. for its blue, a third 
for saffron (Carthamus tinctoria L.) red, and finally, in South 
China the true indigo, from which is got the best blue dye. 

One cannot depict too vividly the unfortunate effect 
which the war in Europe, which has already been raging for 
several years, has had on the dye industry in North China, 
where, before the war, the culture of dye plants fell off 
largely in some places and in others owing to the great import 
of cheap aniline dyes completely disappeared. Now when 



1 See "The dye plants in Manchuria," by B. W. Skvortzow (in 
the Mag. "Bural Economy in North Manchuria" No. 7-8, 1918, 
Harbin). 

4 



50 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

the chemical dyes have increased in price and have ceased 
to come from foreign countries a change has been observed. 
Besides, during the last three years the sowing of dye plants 
has been revived in Manchuria and in China but it is un- 
certain how long this will last. In like manner the dis- 
appearing in the Far East of the Chinese dye stuffs industry 
again becomes of interest to the local trade. In Manchuria 
in the present time only the dye knot-weed is of industrial 
use, the other kinds are not much known on the markets. 
Certainly amongst the dye-plants we found some not worthy 
of attention, but others are of much interest and must be- 
specially studied. The following is the list of these plants : — 

1. — Dye knot-weed. (Polygonum tinctorium Lour.) — 
H H (Liao-lan). It is an annual plant with a straight 
branchy stalk, two feet in height. The leaves are dark green, 
cordiform and of a whole piece. Flowers, being small and of 
red colour, are collected in wrists on the end of the stalks. 
The plant is cut down to make dye when the flowers present 
a violet shade. It is cultivated in great quantities by 
Chinese to make the blue dye. They detain this dye after 
the fermenting of the leaves. The dye of the dye knot-weed 
resembles true indigo very much, which grows only in 
tropical regions and in South China. It has ovalshaped 
leaves, with reddish flowers. 

2. — Rose-mallow or holly-hock (Althaea rosea Cav.) — 
H H (Shu-k'uei), ^ f| (Jung-k'uei). It is a biennial or 
perennial plant with branchy root, and a straight stalk from 
1 to 2 meters in height. Leaves are alternant, stalkly, 
roundish cordiform and wrinkled. Flowers are 5 to 1\ cm. 
in diameter and of rose colour. It is cultivated in Kirin and 
Fengtien provinces, where the Chinese make rose dye of the 
flower leaves. 

3. — Saffron (Carthamus tinctorius L.) — £r |g ?£ (Hung- 
lan-hua), fit fe (Hung-hua), H H (Huang-Ian), g8f ffi. 
(Yao-hua). It is an annual plant with prickly, ovalshaped 
leaves and large yellow flowers. This plant is rarely culti- 
vated in South Manchuria to make a red dye. 

4. — Commelina (Commelina communis L.) An annual 
plant with a straight, juicy, green stalk and small sharp 
leaves. Flowers somewhat small, clear-blue. Commelina 
is not often cultivated by Chinese, Coreans, in the Far East 
for the sky-blue-dye. 

5. — Spiked-millet (Setaria italica Beauv.) — V& (Liang),. 
§£ ^ (Ku-tzu), /> 2fc (Hsiao-mi). It is the common annual 
graminaceous plant cultivated in China. Spiked-millet is 
used also by Chinese to prepare a dye. The dried, yellowish 
straw of Setaria must be burnt, the ashes are boiled in water 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 51 

and in such a solution the linen is dyed to a grey colour. 
Such dye is not lasting and is employed mostly in villages 
for its cheapness. 

6.— Dahurian larch-tree. (Larix dahurica Turcz). This 
is a compact high tree originally growing in the mountainous 
districts of the Far East generally. From the rose-red bark 
of this tree the natives of the Amur river basin prepare a 
dirty rose dye. 

7. Acer or maple-tree. (Acer Ginnala Maxim). It is 
grown in all parts of the country mostly in the vicinity of 
little mountain rivers. It is a shrub which grows to the 
height of 5 or 6 meters, with a light -brown bark full of 
wrinkles, trilobate dark green leaves. It is employed by the 
Chinese to make a black dye. 

8. — Buck-thorn (Bhamnus globosus Bunge and R. 
dahurica Pall).—M* ^ (Shu-li), 3 s ^ (Niu-li), \\\ ^ (Shan-li). 
These tw T o shrubs or trees are found on all mountainous 
districts in the Far East. The leaves of these plants, when 
dried become a bluish or rather dark blue tint and from them 
the Chinese get a special green dye, resembling true indigo. 

9. — Alder-tree (Alnus fruticosa Rwpr). This is a large 
shrub or tree with ovalshaped leaves. From the dark bark 
of this alder the natives of the Amur river prepare a brown 
dye. 

10. — Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) — (fij H (Hsiang- 
jih-k'uei), $fl B f|. It is extensively cultivated through out 
the Far East and a variety of the plant with black seeds is 
used by Chinese to dye the cloth a black-grey colour. By 
boiling the seeds in water a black liquid is got and the cloth 
is dyed. 

"ll. Berberry (Berberis amurensis Bupr. andB. sinensis 

Desp.) The Chinese and the Amur berberry are very com- 
mon in Manchuria and Eussian Far East. The bark of these 
shrubs contains an alkaloid-berberin which is employed by 
the local Chinese to make a yellow dye. 

12 Velvet or velvet-tree (Phellodendron Amurense 

R U pr.y-m * (Po-mu), M M (Huang-po). It is a common 
tree in all parts of the Far East with a velvety soft bark and 
a yellow-liber The Eussian the Chinese and the natives 
employ this liber to dye linen and silk in a yellowish brown 
colour by boiling the liber and the cloth together 

13— Bud marigold. (Bidens tripartita L.)—fo IB W,. 
\n annual plant with trilobate leaves and big yellowish 
flowers. It grows in all parts of the district m marshy 
places. The local Chinese get a black dye from this plant. 

14 —White birch. (Betula platyphylla Sue.)— W * 
9 * A very common tree in mountains of the Far East. 



52 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Many years ago the bark of this birch was used by Chinese 
to dye the mustache and hair, but now they have lost this 
art. 

15. — Manchurian nut-tree (Juglans mandshurica Maxim). 
The nuts of this tree common in the country are used by 
Chinese to prepare a black dye, when they are not perfectly 
ripe. 

16. — Sumach {Rhus semialata Murr) — H $k ^ (Yen- 
fu-tzu), fit $z (Fu-mu), Wi % (Fu-yang). It is found on the 
frontiers of Manchuria and Corea. On the shrub a certain 
insect produces the "nut galls" which are used to dye the 
cloth a black colour and to make many kinds of inks. 

17. — Balsam. (Impatiens Balsamina L.) — IS fill 
^ ti ^ H . This is the common garden plant in China. 
The flowers of balsam in combination with alum are em- 
ployed by the Chinese to prepare a finger-nail dye which is 
used by women in the villages. 

18. — Oak-tree. (Qercus sp.) — $& Li. The bark of 
several kinds of oaks with sulphate of iron is used by Chinese 
in South Manchuria to dve silk in vellow and black colours. 

II. — On the Fossil Animals of North Manchuria. 

The geological investigations made by E. Anert 2 in 
Manchuria are the most serious and scientific of all the 
works on this question. In Anert 's book and other geological 
articles nothing is indicated about the paleontological find- 
ings. 

Generally at the present time many persons have an 
impression, that in North Manchuria there are no fossils. 
True, they are very rare, but they exist. Here mostly are 
met the ammonites of the Jurassic period in the dolomitic 
aggregates. The North Manchuria ammonites are small and 
have been seen in a stone-pit near the railway station 
Inmienpo and on mountain-rocks round the Maoershan 
station. Here the Jurassical fossils are not so richly re- 
presented as in the case of extremely crystallized limestone. 
Not far from Harbin at the beginning of the Ch'eng-kuan- 
ts'ai-ling mountains, at the railway station, Erh-cheng- 
chiang-tze, there is a hill composed of devonian limestone, 
which is extremely rich in fossil shells (Spirifer moskowensis). 

The paleontological findings of the tertiary time in 
Manchuria are little known. So, the unique vertebra of 
mammoth (Elephas primigenius) was found at Harbin in the 
sand of the Sungari valley, but it is probable, that the bone 

2 Anert E. The Travels in Manchuria. S. Petersburg, 1907. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA ;,:; 

was brought to this place by the river from the North the 
Nonm river and Hingan mountains. At the present time on 
the West of North Manchuria there are discovered some 
tertiary and post-tertiary remains. In the Chalanor coal- 
mines, which are of the post-tertiary period the horns and 
bones of the primitive oxen (Bos primigenius) and jaw-bone 
teeth and skulls of rhinoceros (Rhinoceros tichorhinus) are 
often found. It is very remarkable also to find at the source 
of the Nonni river a whole cemetery of rhinoceros, which 
calls for attention and careful study. 

Some fossils collected in North Manchuria are now at 
Harbin in the "Mountain" department of the Chinese East 
Eailway Administration, in the museum of the Commercial 
School, in the museum of the Petrograd Mountain Institute, 
and also in private hands. 

It is probable that in the future the remains of rhino- 
ceros and mammoth will also be found in other parts of 
the Manchuria districts, seeing that already there have been 
similar discoveries in Japan and in North China. 

It is very difficult to get the fossil bones here and to 
register the findings is almost impossible, since the local 
Chinese grind the bones of primitive animals to a powder, 
which is used in native medicine. For this reason we can 
often see in some Chinese medicine shops in Manchuria the 
horns of the primitive boxes and these curious goods indicate 
that here they are not a great rarity. 

III. — The Fresh- Water Algae from the Ponds 
of South China. 

The present note represents the results of the investiga- 
tion of a small collection, kindly gathered for me by Mrs. 
W. E. Myers in the environs of Foochow, and the material 
was examined in the Petrograd Academy of Science in 1917. 
The algae sent were collected in different ponds situated not 
far from the Chinese and foreign buildings. These were 
covered with the very small tropical water plants — Wolffia 
arrhiza Wimm. and Spirodela polyrhiza Schleid, Salvinia 
natans L., Marsilia quadrifolia L. 

Other samples were gathered on the shore of larger and 
deeper ponds overgrown with lotus plants (Nelumbium 
speciosum Willd.) Salvinia natans L. and water-chestnuts 
(Trapa natans L.). 

The basin wholly covered with Wolffia was very dirty. 
Here the most ' noticeable algae were— Pandorinam or urn , 
Eudorina elegans, Nitzschia stagnorum, Hantzschia amph- 
ioxys, Scenedesmus obliquus and Crucigenia triangularis, as 
well as a number of bacteria and infusoria. 



54 



NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 



Another picture represents the ponds overgrown with 
water-chestnuts and lotus. There were discovered a great 
quantity of the inferior vegetable organisms. Such species 
as — Achnanthes lanceolata, A. hungarica, Navicula cuspidata, 
Amphora ovalis, Trachelomonas volvocina, Phacus pyrum, 
Polyedrium minimum, Dictyosphaerium Ehrenbergianum, 
were more often observed, than — Scenedesmus bijugatus S. 
quadricauda, Lepocinclis Biitschii, Phacus caudata, Ph. long- 
icauda, Ph. Myersii, etc. 

The mud of this pond was of a greenish-yellow color for 
the reason that it contains clay. Here we meet many 
Diatomaceae the list of which is given below. 

Several kinds of Nitzschia, and the variety of Surirella 
ovalis, Navicula cuspidata, Oscillaria princeps, 0. tenerrima, 
Spirulina gomontii and Arthrospira jenneri, which were 
found in the mire, show the dirty state of the ground. 

The systematical composition of algae discovered in the 
collection was interesting. Altogether there were denned 
125 forms. The most remarkable were the various 
Euglenaceae among which has been discovered 6 new forms. 
The list of all the organisms is as follows : — 



Melosira varians Agardh. 

M. granulata Ehrenb. 

M. islandica 0. Mull, subsp. 

helvetica 0. Mull. 
Cyclotella comta (Ehrenb. ) Kiitz. 
Elagilaria construens (Ehrenb.) 

Grunow var. pusilla Grunow. 
E. Crotonensis Kitton. 
Synedra Ulna var. splendens 

Kutz. 
Eunotia pectinalis Kutz. var. 

curta V. Heurck. 
E. diodon Ehrenb. 
E. lunaris Ehrenb. 
E. flexuosa Kutz. 
Achnanthes lanceolata Breb. 
A. hungarica Grunow. 
Cocconeis placentula Ehrenb. 
Diploneis ovalis Hilze. 
Navicula cuspidata Kutz. 
N. ambigua Ehrenb. 
Pinnularia gentilis Donkin. 
P. mesolepta Ehrenb. 
Stauroneis anceps Ehrenb. 
Gyrosigma acuminatum Kutz. 

var. curta Grunow. 
G. scalproides Roebenh. 
Gomphonema gracile (Ehrenb.) 

Grunow var. pusilla Grunow. 
G. parvulum Kutz. 
G. lanceolata Ehrenb. 
G. augur Ehrenb. 



G. constrictum Ehrenb var. curta 

Ehrenb. 
Cymbella cuspidata Kutz. 
C. tumida Breb. 
Amphora ovalis Kutz. 
A. perpusilla Grunow. 
Rhopalodia ventricosa (Grunow) 

0. Mull. 
Rh. zibberula (Kutz) 0. Mull 

var. producta Grunow. 
Rh. giba (Ehrenb) 0. Mull. 
Nitzschia sigma W. Sm. var. 

sigmatella Grunow. 
N. obtusa W. Sm. var. brevis- 

sima Grunow. 
N. Palea Kutz. 
N. acicularis Kutz f. t. 
N. stagnorum Rabenh. 
N. acicularis Kutz var. closter- 

oides Grunow. 
N. vermicularis (Kutz) hantzsed. 
Hantzschia amphioxys (Kutz.) 

Grun. var. pusilla Dippel. 
H. amphioxys (Kutz)Grunow f.t. 
Cimotopleura solea Breb. 
Surirella ovalis Breb. var. minuta 

Breb. 
S. oralis var. pinnata (W. S.) 

V. Heurck. 
S. ovalis var. ovata Kutz. 
S. elegans Ehrenb. 
S. linearis W. Sm. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 



i)i) 



Pandorina morum Bory. 
Eudorina elegans Ehrenb. 
Dictyosphaerium Ehrenbergian- 

um Naeg. 
Trochiscia sporoides (Reinsch) 

Hansg. 
Polyedrium reticulatum Reinsch. 
P. trigonum Naeg. f. crassum 

Reinsch. 
P. minimum A. Br. 
Rhaphidium fasciculatum kg. 

var. spirale Turn. 
Schroederia setigera (Schroed) 

Lemm. 
Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turp.) 

Breb. 
S. hystrix Lagerh. var. acutifor- 

mis (Schroed.) Chod. 
S. bigugatus (Turp.) Kg. 
S. obliguus (Turp.) Kg. 
Crucigenia rectangularis (A. Br.) 

Schmidle. 
C. Tetrapedia (Kirch) W. et G. 

S. West. 
Actinastrum Hantzschii Largerh. 
Pediastrum Boryanum (Turp.) 

Menegh. 
P. tricornutum Borge. 
P. duplex Meyen. 
Ophiocytium capitatum Wollc. 

var. longispinum(Moeb.)Lemm. 
"Ulothrix tenuis Kg. 
Oedogonium eardiacum (Hass.) 

Wittr |3 carbonicum Wittr. 
Roya obtusa (Breb.) W. and G. 

West. 
Closterium Venus Kutz. 
C. moniliferum (Bory) Ehrenb. 
C. gracile Breb. 
C. exiguum W. and G. West. 
Pleurotaenium Ehrenbergii. 

(Breb) De Bary. 
Cosmarium Hammeri Reinsch. 
C. granatum Breb. 
C. granatum var. subgranatum 

Nordst. 
C. angulosmn Breb. var. con- 

cinuum (Rabench) W. and G. 

West. 
C. humile (Gay) Nordst. var. 

glabrum Gr. 
C. punctulatum Breb. var. sub- 

punctulatum (Nordst.) Borg. 
C. reniforme (Ralfs) Arch. 
Staurastrum muticum Breb. ^ 
S. subcruciatum Cooke et Wills. 
S. punctulatum Breb. 
Oscillaria princeps Nauch. 
O. tenerrima Kg. 



0. Mougeotii Kg. 
Arthrospira jermeri (Hass.) Stit. 
Spirulina gomontii Gutw. 
Lyngbya contorta Lemm. 
Petalonema velutinum (Rabenh.) 

Migula. 
Euglena viridis Ehrenb. 
E. sanguinea Ehrenb. 
E. acus Ehrenb. 
E. acus var. minor Hansg. 
Lepocinclis Butschlii Lemm. 
Phachs longicauda (Ehrenb. )Duj. 
Ph. longicauda var. torta Lemm. 
Ph. acuminata Stokes. 
Ph. caudata Hubner. 
Ph. orbicularis var. undulata 

Skvortzow. 
Ph. pyrum (Ehrenb.) Stein. 
Ph. Myersii nov. sp. 

Diagnosis — Cellula ovalis 
32-34 microns longa, 30 microns 
lata. Membrana striata et un- 
dulata granulis paramilaceus 3, 
anuliformibus Chlorophoris viri- 
dibus, numerosis. 
Trachelomonas. volvocinaEhrenb. 
T. volvocina var. subglobosa 

Lemm. 
T. verrucosa Stokes var. minor 

Skvortzow. 
T. granulata Swir. var. elegans 

Skvortzow. 
T. rotunda Swir. 
T. similis Stokes. 
T. crebra Kell var. dentata 

Lemm. 
T. fluviatilis Lemm. var. curvata 

Lemm. 
T. fluviatilis var. granulata nov. 

var. 
Diagnosis — Testa hyalina, 
ovata 57 microns longa, 22 
microns lata, parte pasteriore 
cauda apicalis praedita. Polo 
flagelli 5, 7 microns lato. Mem- 
brana Omni granulis robustis 
ornata. Chlorophoris viridi bus, 
numerosis discoideis. Stigmo 
rubro. (micron = 1/1000 mm.) 
granulis paramylaceis parvis. 
T. Swirenko Skvortzow. _ 
T. volgensis Lemm. var. javanica 

(Woloszynska) Lemm. 
T. volgensis Lemm. var. chin- 

ensis nov. var. 

Diagnosis— "Testa brunnea, 

fere globosa, 38-70 microns longa, 

21-23 microns lata. Poro flagelli 

27.3 microns lato, parte poste- 



56 



NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 



rior cauda praedita. Cauda 10 
microns longa. Membrana gra- 
nulata. Chlorophoris discoideis, 
5-5.5 microns latis, pyrenoidibus 
null-'s. Stigmate rubro. Granu- 
lis paramylaceis numerosis, dis- 
coideis." 

T. Schanislandii Lemm. 
T. piscatoris (Fischer) Stokes 
var. granulata nov. var. 
Diagnosis — "Testa abrupta 
ovali aut subglobosa, 29.7-30 
microns longa, 16.2-18 microns 
lata. Membrana brunnea, regu- 
lariter, granulata. Collare recto, 
5.7 microns lato. Chlorophoris 
numerosis, discoideis." 
T. ovalis Daday. 



T. ovalis Daday var. chinensis 

nov. var. 
Diagnosis — " Testa ovalis, 
brunnea, 28 microns longa, 16 
microns lata. Poro flagelli recto, 
5.6 microns latus, vails circum- 
dato. Parte posteriore granula 
praedita." 
T. Silvatica Swir. 
T. hispida (Perty) Stein var. 

rugosus nov. var. 

Diagnosis — " Testa ovali, 
brunnea, 20 microns longa, 16 
microns lata. Porus flagelli col- 
lare nullus. Membrana aspera. 
Chlorophoris discoideis." 
T. chinensis Skvortzow. 



IV. — On the Study of the Manchurian Wheat. 

"Who does not know that Manchuria is the richest wheat 
country in China? At the present time in the Northern part 
of it the culture of this cereal takes more than two millions 
of acres and the total yield every year comes to 20 millions 
of piculs. The sowing of wheat yearly increases as well as 
the export to the Eussian Far East. Manchuria grows in 
commercial importance from year to year. 

The local wheat is composed not only of one botanical 
form, but contains a combination of different kinds and 
varieties. The botanical composition of the Manchurian 
wheat is very irregular and the following list will show 
this : — 

Smooth wheat. {Triticum vulgar e Vill). 

1. — White bearded wheat. (T. vulgar i e var. erythros- 
permum Keke.) There are bearded white spikes, with reddish 
grain, the weight of which is more than the grains of white 
unbearded wheat. 

2. — White unbearded wheat. (T. vulgare var. lutescens 
Al.). The form without beards with white spikes and red 
grains. These grains are better than the grains of the white 
bearded wheat. 

3. — Red bearded wheat. (T. vulgare var. ferrugineum. 
Al.). The spikes are bearded, with reddish grains. The 
second and the third forms are not very different from each 
other and their grains are of the same quality as the white 
bearded wheat. 

4. — T. vulgare var. coesium Al. This variety has gray- 
blue bearded spikes. 

5. — Red unbearded wheat. The spikes are red without 
beards and have reddish grains. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 57 

Hard wheat. (Triticum durum Dest). 

6.— T. durum var. affinae Keke. It is a bearded form, 
with white spikes and red grains. 

7. — T. durum var. Herdeiforme Host. The variety with 
bearded reddish spikes and white grains. 

Dwarf wheat. (Triticum compactum Host.) 

8. — T. compactum var. icterinum Al. This is the most 
extensive form among the dwarf varieties of wheats. It has 
bearded white spikes, red grains, short thick, quadratic stalk, 
and a very good quality of seed. 

9. — T. compactum var. Wernerianum Keke. The form 
with unbearded white spikes and reddish grains. 

10. — T. compactum var. creticum Mazzucato. The 
wheat with red unbearded spikes and reddish grains. 

11. — T. compactum var. crinaceum Keke. The form 
with red, bearded spikes and reddish grains. 

12. — T. covipactum var. atriceps Keke. The wheat with 
the black bearded spikes. 

The most common forms of all the twelve wheats, 
indicated just now will be — the white bearded, white un- 
bearded, red bearded, red unbearded and one variety of the 
dwarf wheat (var. icterinum.) Manchurian wheat pre- 
eminently consists of smooth wheat and among the latter the 
white bearded predominates, which at times amounts to as 
much as 50% of the grains. In North Manchuria the Chinese 
distinguish two sorts of wheat, not from a botanical point of 
view, but rather by weight or proportion of the grains and by 
the locality of production. 

The first is with the oblong, big and heavy grains and 
this kind is considered to be the best one. The second sort 
is smaller and has light grains and belongs to the inferior 
kind. The lightest wheat is from the environs of the 
Bodune, from the Sungari valley; but as regards the grains 
growing on the west and north of Harbin it is a still worse 
quality. 

The origin of the Manchurian wheat is very complex. 
It is formed by means of a mixture of different kinds coming 
from Middle "and North China, European Eussia, West 
Siberia and America. Here these wheats were affected by 
the local climate and thus formed the Manchurian wheat — 
remarkable for its rapid maturity. 

y. On the Beetles and Butterflies of the Far East. 

For a long time the insects of Manchuria and Russian 
Far East have presented a great interest to zoologists, but 
they have not been fully studied, though much has been 



58 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

written about them. Several hundred kinds of beetles are 
known, but most of them are described as being in the 
Ussuri and Amur provinces. Collections of beetles from 
these places can be seen in many European museums. It is 
interesting to note that while on the beetles of the Far East 
there are more than twenty scientifice articles, on the beetles 
of Manchuria only three brief remarks exist giving a descrip- 
tion of not more than 100 kinds. The beetles of the Ear East 
belong to the paleonarctic districts (Japan, Corea, Man- 
churia, Ussuri province and North China) and they are 
composed of elements common to Central America, (as 
Callipogon, Phellopsis, Plectrura, Cupes, Lavguria, Ceph- 
aleon), India (Rhone, Dorysthenes, Colasposoma, Nodas- 
toma, Typerodes), endemical elements (Captolabrus, Eucy- 
alestes, Pseudopidonia, Sieversia) and specially of paleonar- 
tical errasical species. 3 The fauna of the beetles of the 
Manchuria district is richly represented, here we meet the 
beautiful tiger-beetles (Cicindela) ; among the different Cam- 
bus the Amurian kind — Captolabrus smargdinus is remark- 
able for its brightly metallic green wing-shells and gold 
front-back. In the mountainous part of Manchuria no less 
beautiful is a separate variety of this beetle, also of a green 
colour, but with black spots more strongly marked. To these 
forms belong the Stark Carabus (Acaptolabrus Starhii) and it 
is interesting to note also the Carabus elegans with brightly 
metallic-green wing-shells with a red rim on the border. 
Here we meet also various casside — insects pre-eminently 
living in subtropical parts of the world. They are very pretty 
insects with transparent wing-shells and in size remind one 
of lad} -birds. Beside the arctic representatives in all parts 
of the country reside the tropical species and some of them 
may have the forms of the ancient tetrial nature. From the 
capricorn-beetles it is not impossible to mention a beautiful 
kind — Aromia Sieversi, with brightly-green wing-shells and red 
front back. The largest beetle in this district is an enormous 
Capricorn — Callipogon relictus from the family of Ceram- 
bycidae (see fig. 1). Outwardly it resembles the European 
Capricorn or goatchafer-beetles, but he surpasses them by 
2-2^ times in size and reaches 8J cm. in length. • His head 
is well adapted to get food and is decorated by antennae, and 
the wing-shells are of a dark-brown colour. Besides his size 
Callipogon is ' also remarkable for his relatives numbering 



3 See the article of Semenow-Tienshansky in the works of the 
Russian Entomol. Soc. Vol. XXXII, 1899, p. 562-580 (Supplementary 
information see Russian Entomol. Review II, 1902, p. 321-324 and 
IV, 1907, p. 220-227. 




Fig. 1. Callipogon relictus 



[.see page 58 \ 







Fig. 2. Papilio Manor var. MaaHi. 



[see page 59] 




Fig. 1. Trachelomonas Wislouchii Skvortz. 

[seepage 62] 




Fig. 2. Trachelomonas peridiniformis Skvortz. 

[see page 62] 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 59 

3 species and found in Central America. This giant was 
found first in the Ussuri province near the villages of Petro- 
palovka and Anuchin, then near the station Viazemskaia, and 
finally in North Manchuria and the railway station Inmienpo. 
In Manchurian districts this beetle is rare and in Europe only 
8-10 specimens are known. It has a great commercial value. 
Then not less curious are the stag-beetles, ground and water 
beetles; the least known of them are the small ones. 

The butterflies of the Far East have been explored by a 
number of naturalists and are well known. The collection 
of these beautiful insects can be seen in Paris, in London, in 
Petrograd Academy of Science, in the museum in Harbin, 
Vladivostock, Habarovsk and in many other places. Beside 
the arctic forms of butterflies, we find in Manchuria some big 
representatives related to or identical with the kinds of 
Southern Asia. For the most part these are Japanese, 
Corean and Chinese forms. One of the biggest but common 
kind of swallow-tails in that district is the Papilio bianor 
var. Maakii (see fig. 2). 

With the open wings it is 12 cm. in width. The wings 
are blue-black colour with a bluish-greenish reflex, single red 
eyes and long tails on lower wings. Ordinarily this variety 
occurs in Corea, Japan, Manchuria, North China and in the 
maritime provinces. Here are also other and different 
swallow-tails; the member of the genus Thecla, Lyccena, is 
very interesting — Colics aurora, for its two forms — white and 
orange coloured. More than 200 kinds of butterflies are 
found in Manchuria not counting the moths, which are little 
known, but which are very numerous. One of the most 
beautiful kinds of this last tribe is the Astias mandschurica 
of the family Saturnidae, with light greenish large wings, 
and extremely long lower-tails. This remarkable beauty flies 
at night and is very common in mountain forests. The Man- 
churian form has some near relatives in Japan, in Spain, and in 
North America ; other kinds of this species occur in Japan, 
China, India and in the Himalaya mountains. Besides the 
Astias some other kinds have a wonderful distribution. First 
we must mention— Erastria distinguenda of the Noctuidae 
family. It inhabits the Manchurian districts, Japan, Corea 
and after an enormous interval in space, again appears in 
North-West Caucasus. Zethes musculus has the same 
distribution. Here we find one form, namely Brachmaea 
ccrthia of subtropical family Brahmalidae. The proximate 
kinds to this are living in Asia Minor, others m Caucasus and 
the remaining forms are known in Japan, India and Africa. 

It is possible to show many such facts, but it is necessary 
to b- careful since the butterflies of Siberia and border 



60 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

countries have been little studied but it is probable that the 
indicated forms would be found there. Certainly a further 
exploration will show a clearer picture of the origin and 
composition of these insects. 

VI. — Observations on the Eiver Soft Tortoise 
in North Manchuria. 

In the Far East in the Amur basin and other rivers in 
this district is often seen a particular tortoise — Amy da Maackii 
Brandt. It belongs to the family of soft river tortoises 
(Trionyehidae), which is now confined only to the warmer 
regions of South and East Asia, North America and Africa. 
During the middle portion of the Tertiary period they were 
extremely abundant in all parts of Asia and Europe, but at 
the present time are extinct in Europe and in North Asia. 
It is specially interesting to find that of the 25 existing kinds 
of soft tortoises, 15 are in the South and East of Asia, 7 in 
North America and 6 in 'Africa. The Amy da Maackii 
resembles the American form — T. ferox — and also at times 
reaches the same size. This tortoise is characterised by 
having its shells covered with a thin greenish-olive skin and 
by a long snake-like neck, which together with the head can 
be completely withdrawn. The young specimens have a 
back of a light colour and are covered with longitudinal lines 
of small knobs which disappear when they are full grown. 
Sometimes this tortoise grows to the weight of 60 pounds in 
North Manchuria, and once in 1917 such a tortoise was 
caught at Harbin. The Amyda appears at the end of March 
and in April, lays its eggs on the sandy shore of islands and 
sand banks, buries its eggs in the sand to a depth of ten 
inches; when the small tortoises are hatched, they strive to< 
swim from the river into the water courses and ancient beds 
of rivers covered with stagnent water, where they feel them- 
selves safe, and stay a long time. The tortoises are about 
10 to 20 cm. in size and are usualy found in rivers, they are 
very timid. During the day they are rarely seen on the 
shore but commonly on the surface of the water especially 
towards evening and in calm weather : when they hear a 
noise they put their heads and long necks out of the water. 
In some places in North Manchuria the Chinese soft tortoise 
is so abundant that their eggs are eaten and serve as an 
article in the local Chinese trade. The Chinese adroitly seek 
their nests by following the tracks of the tortoise. The 
Chinese do not much use it as food on account of popular 
superstition. The larger specimens are dangerous; their bite 
is very severe and the local Chinese are not infrequently 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 6 1 

bitten by them whilst bathing in rivers. The Amy da 
Maackii can be seen not only in the Amur and Sungari rivers, 
but also in the Nonni, Ghoal and the northern affluents of 
the Amur. This tortoise is extremely abundant in Northern 
parts of China and represents a characteristic reptile of 
East Asia. 

VII. — On the Fresh Water Shrimps in Manchuria 

and China. 

China and Manchuria, remarkable for their native fishes, 
can pride themselves on their fresh water shrimps, which 
occur in many places of this vast region. At the present 
time for some reason or another no attention has been paid 
to these crustaceans, though they are very commonly ob- 
served in fresh water : they are known in tropical Africa, 
Italy, Greenland and in some other places. It appears that 
in Manchuria there are 5 kinds of these shrimps. One form 
inhabits the water of the Amur river, while the other two — 
the one in the Sungari and the other in the Choal (affluents 
of the Nonni river near the Hingan mountains). The size of 
the Manchurian shrimp varies from 2 to 6 cm. in length; in 
the Sungari river one form is very abundant and every 
Spring the Chinese are engaged in catching them with the 
aid of a particular large single-sided bag-nets and round 
hand-nets. The shrimps are used as food and in favourable 
years the catch amounts to hundreds of pounds, which dried 
or otherwise provide food for the winter. In the Sungari the 
shrimps are numerous from Spring to the middle of Summer, 
and they are always seen near the shore. We meet also 
shrimps in water courses and in lakes but in stagnant water 
they are not common. They develop in Spring and Sum- 
mer and as the observations of D. P. Keller show the 
Manchurian shrimps can be reared in aquariums; one form 
is herbivorous, another carnivorous. 

Besides Manchuria the fresh water shrimps are very 
common in North and South China. They are observed near 
Tientsin— at the junction of the Pai-ho river and the Grand 
Canal; at Chen-ting on the Pu-to river in Chili province ;#at 
Shanghai in ponds and canals; at Hankow and other places 
in the middle and lower Yangtze and in the Han river, at 
Focchow on the Min river and ponds; Hongkong and Canton 
in the Pearl Eiver. # 

In some of the above districts these shrimps are very 
abundant : they are caught with special nets and baskets and 
are dried and sent to the markets. The origin of these cru- 
staceans must be full of interest. Undoubtedly they come 
from the sea and gradually spread into fresh water. 



62 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

VIII. — On the Exploration of the Fresh Water 
Algae in Manchuria. 4 

As is known the vegetation of Manchuria and the Far 
East has been studied in detail, but up to the present 
botanists have paid special attention to the higher plants, 
which are to be found equally in other parts of Asia. The 
investigations made during four years by the author of the 
present notes show that the algae of this district have also 
a large scientific use and are as well worth attention as the 
higher group of plants. Altogether in Manchuria 800 
different forms are found, among which 100 prove to be 
new to science. Of the main characteristics of the separate 
systematical groups of known algae it is necessary first to 
mention the sufficiently studied flagellatae of the family 
Euglenaceae, discovered here in 182 forms. It is a great 
number when compared with only the 130 forms to be found 
in all European Russia, up to the present. Among the 133 
kinds of the genus Trachelomonas , observed in Manchuria, 
18 are apportioned to new species and 62 new varieties. The 
diversity of Trachelomonas is astonishing and these seem to 
be peculiar to Manchuria. 

The original aspect of some Manchurian types, merit a 
great deal of attention; and it is possible that this datum 
serves as a new fact to prove the common opinion as to their 
original character which supposition is supported by the 
existence of direct proof about the original character of the 
fresh water fauna and flora of the Amur basin. Certainly 
in comparison with European the Asiatic flagellatae have 
been little studied and this may be the reason for the dis- 
covery here of so many new types. The most interesting 
among the Trachelomonas were the forms with a rim on the 
upper part of the shells similar to — T. Wislouchii and T. 
peridiniformis (see fig. Nos. 1 and 2). At the first glance 
their original construction (for example T. Wislouchii), with 
a rim like a parachute, reminds one of the pelagic planktonic 
— Peredineae and has accordingly been named by me — 
T. peridiniformis. As regards blue-green algae about 48 
foftns have been observed and most of them were cosmo- 
politan. Among other interesting flagellatae in Manchuria 
are — Cryptomonadaceae , but the last up to the present have 
not been specially studied. Among the Conjugatae, of which 
200 forms are found, the most interesting was the family 

4 See article — "The algae from Manchuria and observations on the 
water vegetation of the Sungari river valley ," by B. W. Skvortzow 
(Journal of Microbiology, Vol. Ill, 1916, Petrograd) and "The mater- 
ials on the Flagellatae of Manchuria,''' Part I. (ibid, Vol.), 1917. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 63 

Zygnemaceae with a very rare and new kind of genus 
Spirogyra. Among Volvocineae family only 12 forms were 
defined, but there must be mere. Of various Protococcales, 
the majority of which it is necessary to consider as cosmo- 
politans, more than 100 forms were found. Finally it should 
be mentioned that among the remaining green-algae, there 
are about 60 kinds and out of this number the following — 
Protosiphon botryoides, Sphaeroplea annulina are worthy of 
attention. The Characeae here are represented only by one 
— Char a fragilis and Diatomaceae in 161 forms, among which 
are some interesting and rare kinds. One of these is — 
Surirella Pa7itoschkii found in the Amur near Habarovsk. 
This beautiful kind was first described in 1913 from a 
Japanese collection by Meister. The diatomes plankton of 
the Amur and Sungari rivers recall the plankton of the 
European rivers and chiefly consist of — Melosira islandica 
and subsp. halvetica, M. italica, Asterionella gracillima, etc. 

The algae just described were studied from numerous 
collections gathered near the railway line in North and 
Middle Manchuria and mostly in the environs of Harbin: 
and also from collections of the Amur river made by W. K. 
Soldatow during his Ichthyological expeditions. The mater- 
ials were examined in Petrograd and some at Harbin and the 
above collections are now studied by zoologistes in . the 
zoologic museum of the Academy of Science in Petrograd. 

IX. — On Some Chinese Medicinal Plants 
of the Far East. 

Dr. Gr. A. Stuart's book 5 on Chinese medicinal plants 
which appeared eight years ago contains almost all known 
plants existing on uhis question in China. But, as is well 
known, in the Chinese special medical literature on which 
Stuart 'principally relied, there are some plants whose botan- 
ical properties are not always fully described. Beside the 
medical plants mentioned in the Stuart book from Manchuria 
and North China it is necessary to indicate some other not 
very well known plants not mentioned in these leading works, 

1 Siberian acacia (Caragana chamlagu Lam.) This 
carasana is very common in all the Far East on hillocks. 
It is a dwarf shrub covered with spines, with plumose leaves 
and large yellow flowers. It is used in Chinese medicine as 
a tonic. 



5 -Chinese Materia Medica (vegetable kingdom"), Rev. G. A. 
Stuart, M.D. ; Shanghai, 1911. 



64 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

2. — Caragana microphylla Lam. It grows on all Man- 
churian mountainous districts and also is a shrub with 
plumose leaves and yellow flowers. It is used in medicine 
like the first one. 

3. — Funkia ovata Spreng. It is found wild in Kirin pro- 
vince and is cultivated in the Far East and in North China. 
Funkia is a perennial plant with broad oval shaped leaves and 
blue flowers. The medicinal use of it is identical with the 
Funkia subcordata (see Stuart page 180). 

4. — White misletoe (Viscum album L.). It is a common 
parasitic plant found upon the poplar, willow, aspen, linden, 
birch, apple trees with white and red berries (Suhsp. cora- 
latmu Komarow.) This plant is used in Chinese medicine 
and by natives of Ussuri provinces. The entire plant is used 
by them against rheumatism. 

5. — Astragalus membranaceus Fischer, (see Stuart — 
Astragalus Hoangtchy, page 57). This plant grows in all 
parts of the country and represents a big perennial with a 
branchy stalk and numerous pale-yellow flowers. This 
common Chinese drug now is collected in great quantity and 
exported to China. 

6. — Velvet or velvet-tree 6 (Phellodendron amurense 
Rupr. (see Stuart page 316). This tree, common in all 
districts, is not very often employed here and is not well 
known. 

7. — Amurian grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) It is found 
in great quantities in mountainous districts of the Far East 
and its fruit is used in local Chinese and native medicines. 

8. — Lithrospermum erythrorhizon 8. et Z. It is a com- 
mon perennial plant growing in all parts of Manchuria with 
a stalk 1 meter high, with sharp lancet leaves and white 
flowers collected in wrists. The thick, straight or branchy 
roots are used in Chinese medicine. 

X. — Some Observations on the Growth of Weeds 
and Algae in Eice Fields at Foochow. 

Eice fields are favourable places for observing the con- 
ditions of life of many plants. The biological analysis of 
the water in the rice fields undoubtedly can be of large 
practical utility in explaining many questions connected with 
the manure in the ground of the rice fields and condition of 
the water. As would be expected the life in rice fields 
resembles very much the life in the grass marshes of Western 



6 i(' 



"The Amurian velvet-tree in Chinese medicine," by B. W. 
Skvortzow (in the Mag. "Rural economy in the North Manchuria,'" 
No. 7-8, 1918, Harbin). 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 05 

and Eastern Europe. Here also two periods are observed. 
lhe first— in the beginning of the summer, when the surface 
water of the rice fields are free, under the sun's rays and the 
water is not overshaded by rice stalks and manure ashes and 
other things, which contribute to the growth in such water 
of weeds and still more of algae. The second period comes 
with the shading of the surface of the water by the rice stalks, 
with chemical impoverishment of the water, and by a 
gradual change of weeds and algae from one kind to another. 
As observation shows, the life of the rice fields does not 
always have its origin in the some manner, depending on the 
quality and quantity of the manure, the age of the standing 
water, the nearness of the fields to very dirty water, and 
other causes. This can be seen when crossing the wide 
river valley near villages or at some distance away. In the 
cleanest water of rice fields more frequently were observed 
— Salvinia natans L., MyriophyUum spicata L., Utricularia 
vulgaris L., U. minor (?), Polygonum sp., Monochoria 
vaginalis Presl., Isoetes sp., while in dirty fields were seen — 
Wollfia arrhiza Wimm. Spirodela polyrrhiza Schleid., Lemna 
minor L., Marsilia quadrifolia L. and Azolla sp., growing in 
infinite numbers. Not less worthy of attention is the growth 
of algae which play a great part in the life of these waters. 
After an inundation in 1918 and the destruction of the young 
rice plant the surface of the water became covered with an 
alga — named "water-net" (Hydrodictyon utriculatum Both.) 
This delicate alga has a bag-like form and consists of many 
cells, forming a net with regular hexagonal cells. Firstly 
the above mentioned cells were very small, but they quickly 
increase in size and eventually all the algae get to the size 
of the palm of the hand. It multiplies very quickly by the 
moving zoospores in a sexless way. In the beginning the 
alga was seen only on the surface of the slime under the 
water, but in a short time it moves upward in a thick mass 
and by strong exposure to the sun turns a grey-brown and 
dies. During this time the water was very poor in organisms. 
Here were seen some Flagellata, small diatoms; but with 
the destruction in mass of the water-net" and its settling on 
the bottom of the fields there began to appear — Salvinia 
natans L., Lemna minor L., Spirodela polyrrhiza Schleid., 
Marsilia quadripolia, Nitella sp., and on the bottom, .first 
dark-greenish filaments and shortly after whole accumula- 
tions of Spirogyra neglecta var. ternata. At that time the 
shoots of Nitella and other under water plants and algae were 
covered with thick layers of mucilaginous algae as Ruvularia 
sp., diatoms — Gomphonema, Melosiravarians, Eunotia. Here 
were examined — Pandorina morum, Eudorina elegans, various 
5 



G{) NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Scenedesemus, Trachelomonas volvocina, and T. hispida. 
But with the gradual growth of the rice plants and with the 
shading of water and also by the frequently drying up of the 
water in rice fields many plants and algae began to disappear, 
others at first collect on the wet slime and after that on more 
firm ground. 

The flora of algae in rice fields, lying in the running 
water is characterised by the presence of many attached dia- 
toms, sometimes making a compact layer over the surface 
of the plants. Other rice fields are very rich in different 
conjugatae kinds of Oedogonium; and other forms — signs of 
more clean stagnant water. 

XI. — The Phytoplankton of some Tibetan Lakes. 

The present small note represents the result of the 
observation of a collection gathered by Mr. Ladigin during 
the expedition in Tibet in 1901 and all the samples were 
examined by me in the Petrograd Academy of Science. 

The plankton taken from the freshwater lake Kur^k-nor 
(i,vi, 1901) in the Tsaidam district contains a rich zooplaftkton, 
in which were seen Ceratium hirundinella (0. F. M). Schrank 
and also non-planktonic algae as Pinnularia gentilio Donkin, 
Epithemia turgida (Erenb.) Kutz. and Lyngbya aestuarii 
(Mert.) Lieb. 

In the bottle from the salt lake Toso-nor (3, vii, 1901), 
which is not far from lake Kukunor, in a rich zooplankton, 
were seen only few specimens of Oocystis Jacustris and 
Synedra acus Kutz. 

The most interesting was the plankton from the lake 
Khara-nor in which were found the following species : 

Melosira islandica O. Mull. Lyngbya limnetica. Lemm. 

subsp. helvetica 0. Mull. Pediastrum Boryanum (Turp.) 

Fragilaria crotonensis Kutton. Menegh. var. granulatum 

Aphanothece stagnina (Spren.) (Kutz) A. Br. 

A. Br. P. duplex Meyen. var. asperum 

Chroococcus limneticus Lemm. A. Br. 

Microcystis flos aquae (Wittr.) Botryococcus Braunii Kutz. 

Kirch. Cosmarium Botrytis Menegh. 

M. elabens (Menegh.) Kutz. Gloetila Scopulina (Haz.) Heer- 

M. incerta. Lemm. ing. 
M. holsatika. Lemm. 



XII. — On some Freshwater Algae Collected 
in Shanghai. 

Being in Shanghai in June 1918 a small collection of 
Algae was gathered by me in a pond near the Public Gardens. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 



When examined in the laboratory of the Anglo-Chinese 
College at Eoochow this collection was found to contain the 
following species : 



Euglena viridis Ehrenb. 
Trachelomonas volvocina. 

Ehrenb. 
Phacus caudata. Hiiber. 
Pandorina morum. Bory. 
Spirulina major. Kiitz. 
Oscillaria princeps. Vauch. 
Nitschia Palea Kiitz. f. t. and 

var. lanceolata. 
N. acicularis. Kiitz. 



Gyrosigma acuminatus. Kiitz. 
Navicula ambigua. Ehrenb. 
Surirella ovalis. Breb. 
Cocconeis placentula. Ehrenb. 
Amphora ovalis. Kiitz. 
Rhopalodia ventricosa. (Gr.) 0. 

Miill. 
Coelastrum microporum. Naeg. 
Botryococcus Braunii Kiitz. 
Spirogyra varians (?). 



XIII. — The Use of Nostoc as Food in N. China. 

In many school books of botany it is stated, that in 
China the fresh water blue-green alga Nostoc is eaten by- 
people. This fact is regarded as remarkable, but it is re- 
gretted that this is not sufficiently known. Nostoc is an alga 
living in fresh stagnant water, it forms blue-green elastic, 
semi-transparent globules or accumulations, attached to the 
under-water plants and stones, but sometimes it is on humid 
ground, forming original dark mucilaginous scums. 

In China the forms living on the surface of the ground 
are used as food, and they are related to the Nostoc communis 
Kiitz., A T . edule (?) and probably to other kinds. 

Nostoc in the Shantung province appears in summer 
rainy time on the clayey ground and on humid soil, but when 
the ground dries the alga contracts and begins to be im- 
perceptible. The local population eat the Nostoc not for 
lack of food, but simply for the same reason as mushrooms, 
and wild vegetables are used. 

Nostoc has no particular flavour. They eat it roasted 
with different seasonings, which give it taste. Indubitably 
Nostoc is used in other places in China, seeing that here on 
account of a damp climate, this alga is very common. In 
masses it is found in June and in July near Shanghai and 
in South China. Besides China Nostoc is used as food in 
Northern Europe, particularly the variety which is found 
near the shore of big and cold mountain lakes. It is the 
plum shaped Nostoc (Nostoc pruniformis) with smooth, 
elastic globules the size of a hen's egg of a dark blue-green 
colour. 

XIV. — The Bibliography of the Algae of China 

and Neighbouring Countries. 
The following is a list of^all existing publications of the 
scientific investigations mostly on freshwater algae of China. 



68 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

It must be noted that the study of the inferior vegetable 
organisms in China, and generally in Eastern Asia, has not 
yet been specially made and on this question there exists 
only meagre information. The scattering of such information 
among many foreign scientific magazines will present 
difficulties to the botanists in their study of this question. 
The list of works is as follows : — 

Borge, 0. Uber tropische und subtropische susswasser-chlorophy-ceen. 

(Bih. til. K. sven. vet. akad. Handl. 27, 1899). 
Gutwinski, R. De Algis praecipue diatomacis a S. Holderen anno 1878 

in Asia centrali atque in China collectus. (Bull. L'acad. Sc. 

Cracovie, 1903). 
Hirn, K. Algen aus Central Asien. (Ofn. of Jenska vet. -akad. Forh. 

1900). 
Jstvanffi, J. Algae nonnullae a cl. Przevalski in Mongolia lectae et a 

cl. c. de Maxomorvicz communicate. (Notarisia, 1886). 
Lutkemiiller. Desmidiaceen aus der Ningpo Mountains in Central 

China. (Ann. des K. K. Natur. Hofm. XV, 1900). 
Lemmermann, E. Das Plankton des Yang-tse-kiang. (Arch f. flydrob. 

u. Plank., 1907). 
Kit-ton, F. W. List of Diatomaceae from China. (Quart. Jour, of 

Micros. Sc. Vol. II, 1866). ' 
Mereshkovski, K. The Diatomaceae of Tibet. (The works of the 

expedotion of the Impet. Russion. Geograph., Sc. 1899-1901, 

Vol. VIII, 1906). 
Petit, P. Diatomes recolectees sur les huitres de Ningpo et Nimrod- 

sound China. (Mem. Soc. Sc. Nat. et math, de Cherbourg. 

Vol. XIII, 1882). 
Oestrup, E. Beitriige zur kenntnis de Diatomeen flora des Kossogol- 

beckens in der nordwestlishen Mongolei. (Hedwigia, 1908). 
Ostenfeld, C. H. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Algenflora der Kosogol- 

beckens in der nordenstlischen Mongolei mit spezieller Beruchti- 

gung der Phytoplankton. (Hedwigia, 1907). 
Skvortzow, B. W. The Algae of Manchuria and the observations on 

the water vegetation in the Sungari river valley. (Journal of 

Microbiology. Vol. Ill, 1916. S. Petersburg). 
Skvortzow, B. W. The Materials on Flagellata of Manchuria. 1 Part. 

{ibid, Vol. IV, 1917). 
Skvortzow, B. W. The freshwater algae from the ponds of South 

China. (It is found in the present No. of Journal of N.C.B 

R.A.S.). 
Skvortzow, B. W. On the exploration of the freshwater algae in 

Manchuria, (ibid.) 
Skvortzow, B. W. Some observations on the growth of weeds and 

algae in rice fields at Foochow. (ibid.) 
Skvortzow, B. W. The Phytoplahkton of some Tibetan lakes, (ibid.) 
Skvortzow, B. W. On some freshwater algae collected in Shanghai. 

(ibid.) 
Skvortzow, B. W. The use of Nostoc as food in N. China, (ibid.) 
Schmidle, W. Einige vor Dr. Holderer in zentral-asien gesammelte 

Algen. (Hedivigia, 39, 1909). 
Wille, N. Algen aus dem nordlichen Tibet von Dr. J. Sedin in 

Jahre 1896 gessamelt. (Rerom, Mitteil. Erjasigschaft, 1900). 
Anonymous. Freshwater Plankton. (Japanice). (Bot. Magaz. Tokio. 

19, 1905). 
Boldt, R. Ueber die Chlorophyllophyceen Sibiriens. (Bot. Centralb 

1885). 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA . 6<> 

Boldt, R. Bedrag till kan. om Sibiriens Chlorophyl. (Ofver. of. 

Kongl. vet. Akad. Horh. 2, 1885). 
Borge, 0. Et litet bidrag till sibiriens Chlorophyllophyceen-flora. 

'(Bill, t.k. sr. vet. -akad. Handl. 17, 1891). 
Borge, 0. Chlorophyllophyceer from Japan. (Bot. Not. 1892). 
Borchew. The algae of Aral-sea. (The work of the Aral-Kasfian 

Afed. 1877). 
Dorogostaisky, V. Materiaux pour servir a l'algologie du lac Baikal 

et de son bassin. (Bull. S. Nat. Moscow, 1904). 
Elenkin, A. A. The freshwater algae of Kamtchatka. 1914. S. 

Petersburg. 
Ehrenberg, C. Beitrage zur kenntniss der organisation der Infusorien 
und ihrer geographyschen verbreitung, besonders in Sibirien. 
(Phys. Abh. d. k. Akad. d. wiss. zu Berlin, 1830). 
Gilzen, K. K. The materials on the investigation of the Baikal lake 

ground. 1915. S. Petersburg. 
Gutwinski, R. Algarum e lacu Bajcal et paenisula Camtschatka a 
clariss prof. Dr. B. Dybowski anno 1877, reportatarum enumera- 
tion et diatomacearum lacus Bajcal cum insdem tataricorum 
comparatis. (Nuova Notorisia, 1901). 
Gutwinski, R. pionowen rozsiedlenim glonow jeziora Baical skiego 

(Kosmos Rock. XL Lwow, 1890). 
Heydrich, F. Beitrage zur kenntnis der Algen flora von Ost-Asien 
bessonders der Insel Formosa, Molukken-und Liu-kiu Inseln, 
(Hodivigia, 1894). 
Forti, A. Primi Studi per un'esplorazione limnobiologica dell'oriente. 

(Nuova Notorisia, 1913). 
Ivanow L. A. On algae of the salt lakes of the Omsk district. 
Tshikawa C. Notes on the Japanese species of Volvox (Zool. Magazine, 

Vol. VIII, N. 91, Tokyo). 
Lemmermann, E. Des Phytoplankton des Menam. (Hedwigia, 1908). 
Kozlowski, W. The materials on the flora of algae of Siberia. (Dialy 

of the Kief Nat. Sc. Vol. IX, XI, 1888 and 1890). 
Meister, F. Beitrage zur Bacillariaceen flora Japans l-II. (Arch. 

f Hydrob. u. Plank. 1913-17). 
Prinz, H. Contributiones ad floram Asiae interioris pertinentes. I die 
Chlorophyceen des sudlichen Sibiriens. (Det. Klg. norske 
Videnskobers selskaby Skriften, 1915, XVIII, Trandjem, 1916, 
52, p. 7 Staf.). 
Roy I. and Bissett, I. Notes on Japanese desmides. (Jour, of 

' Botany Vol. XXIV, 1887). 
Ostenfeld, C. H. The Phytoplankton of the Aral sea and its affluents. 
(Wissensch. Erg. d. Aralsee-Expedition. Sief. 8. St. Peters- 
burg, 1908). 
W et J West In Iohs Schmidt's flora of Koh-chang, gulf of Siam. 

Algae. (Bot. Tidsskrift, 1901). 
Zykoff, V. Bemercung uber des Plankton der Altwasser der oberen 

Jenissei (Zool. Anz. 1903). 
Zykoff, V. Plankton des Jrtisch. (ibid). 

XV. On the Study of the Wild Vegetables 

of Manchuria. 7 
The vegetable food of the Chinese, Coreans and other 
natives of the Far East is characterised by its di versity . 

7 See "On some wild Manchurian plants, used by Chinese and 
natives, as vegetables," by B. W. Skvortzow (Mag. "Rural Economy 
in N Manchuria," N. 7-8, 1918; "On wild vegetables of the Far East, 
(ibid, N. 9-10, 1918). 



70 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Besides the cereal plants and kitchen-garden vegetables they 
use as food many wild plants, which replace the cultivated 
vegetables. In this custom is recognised the adaptedness of 
the population to the local conditions, where often un- 
expected floods inundate the fields and vegetable gardens or 
where the aborigines, — local hunters, — have not sufficient 
time to cultivate vegetables, and not every spring in villages 
we can find fresh greens preserved from the autumn. Here 
early in spring and summer the people replace the cultivated 
vegetables by young fern leaves, stalks of Galtha palustris, 
stems of the white flowered peony, Chenop odium album, wild 
sorrel, young stalks of worm- wood, spring leaves of dande- 
lion, leaves of the sow-thistle and many other kinds of plants, 
are used as food. 

The population in the river valleys, living among mar- 
shes, eat the young shoots of the reed-mace, the true-reed, 
the rhizome of Sagittaria and the leaves of Limnanthemum . 
Among all the known wild Manchurian vegetables the most 
nourishing are the bulbs of the different kinds of lilies, the 
wild garlic, the "Charemsha," the roots and the flowers of a 
yellow lily (Hemerocallis), the bulbs of Fritillaria. Of the 
above the dried flowers of the yellow lily, the bulbs of several 
kinds of lilies and of "Charemsha" have a local trade import- 
ance. The use by natives of wild vegetables is very common 
and important in this district, not less than in China, and 
some of them are valuable and can be recommended for 
cultivation. Particularly worthy of attention, on account of 
their edible quality are different forms of umbellar and 
bulbous plants. The number of the wild vegetables em- 
ployed in Manchuria is very large and this list is not com- 
plete. They are as follows : 

1. — Fern. (Aspidium Felix m.as L.) Rich. It is grown 
in all the districts. The Chinese and the natives use the 
young spring leaves of this fern as food. They are very 
soft and delicate in taste. 

2. — Charemsha (Allium Victorialis L.) It is found in 
woods, and is eaten by the Eussians and natives in Man- 
churia and the Eussian Maritime provinces. 

3. — Wild garlic (Allium Schoenoprasum L.) A kind of 
garlic, which is eaten by natives and by the Chinese. 

4. — Yellow-lily (Hemerocallis Middendorfii Jr. et Mey.) 
It is a very common plant in all parts of the district on 
meadows and mountain sides. The flowers of these plants 
are used by Chinese as food. The'y have an original, pleasant 
savour and are nourishing for they contain starch. The 
flowers are mostly dried and sent to the local market. The 
rhizome is also eaten. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 71 

5. — Yellow-lily (H. minor Mill.) It grows mostly in the 
-river valleys and is not very different from the first lily. 

6. — Fritillaria Kamtschatensis Gawl. The bulbs of this 
plant are eaten by natives. 

7. — Daurian lily (Lilium daurium Gawl). A very com- 
mon plant in meadows. The bulbs of it are eaten by 
the Chinese. 

8. — One coloured lily (L. concolor Salisb.) It is very 
extensively grown in the country. The flowers and the bulbs 
are used by Chinese as food. The bulbs are of a sweetish 
taste. 

9. — Tiger lily (L. trigrinum Gawl.) It grows in almost 
all districts and the bulbs are eaten by Chinese. 

10. — Caltha palustris L. It is found in marsh meadows 
in all the Far East. The spring stalks of this plant are eaten 
as a vegetable. 

11. — Limnanthemum nymphoides Hoff. It grows on 
the surface of the stagnant waters. The leaves of Limnan- 
themum are seldom eaten by Chinese. 

12. — Elder (Sambucus racemosa L.) It is found in all 
districts. The leaves of this shrub are used as food by the 
local Chinese and the Coreans. 

13. — White flowered peony (Paeonia albiflora Pall). It 
grows in every district and the spring stems are eaten by the 
Chinese and Coreans. 

14. — Sorrel. (Rumex acetosella L. and R. acetosa L.) 
It is found in all the Far East, and is eaten by the Eussian, 
Chinese, Coreans. 

15. — Phlomis tuberosa L. It grows in West Manchuria 
and the shoots of this plant are eaten by the Chinese. 

16. — Ribwort riffle-grass (Plant ago major L.) It grows 
everywhere near buildings. The leaves and the seeds are 
used as food by the Chinese. 

17. — Amurian berberry (Berber is amurensis Rupr.) A 
very common shrub in mountains in the Far East. The 
spring leaves of this plant are eaten by the Chinese in the 
forests of Northern Manchuria. 

18. — Elm-tree (Ulmus pumila L.) The young green 
seeds of this tree are used by the Chinese as a vegetable, not 
only in Manchuria, but also in North China. They are eaten 
fresh, boiled and fried. In the time of hunger the bark of 
the young branches of the elm-tree also is employed as food 
and for this purpose the bark is dried, bruised and is boiled 

as a kind of gruel. 

19. — Chenopodium album L. It grows in all districts 
and the leaves of the young stalks are eaten by the Chinese 
and the Eussians. 



72 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

20. — Aralia cordata Thunb. It is a common plant in the 
Middle and South Manchuria, The thick, aromatical roots 
and the young stalks of this plant are eaten by the Chinese 
and the Coreans. 

21. — Lespedeza bicolor Turz. A common shrub, the 
flowers of which are eaten by Chinese after they are boiled. 

22. — Pleurospermum austriacum Hoff. It is grown in 
all Manchuria in the shade under the trees. This plant is 
valued by the Chinese and the Corean as a vegetable. 

23. — Cacalia hastata L. It grows wild in all the district 
and is used as food by the Chinese and the Coreans. 

24. — Lucern. (Medicago sativa L.) It is cultivated in 
Fengtien province and is used by the Chinese as a vegetable. 

25. — Garden borage (Borrago officinalis L.) This weed 
grows in all the Far East and is used by the Chinese as a 
vegetable. 

26. — Shepherd purse. (Capsella Bursa pastoris Mnch.) 
The young leaves of this plant are used by the Chinese as a 
vegetable. 

27. — Cynanchum sp. (several hinds). The young fruits 
of these climbing plants are eaten by the Chinese. 

28. — Cotyledon spinosa L. It grows throughout the dis- 
trict, specially in the northern part on the rocks. The boiled 
leaves of this plant are eaten by the local natives. 

29. — Kochia scoparia Schrad. The young leaves of this 
w T eed are employed as food by the Chinese. 

30. — Xanthium strumarium L. The leaves of these 
weeds are eaten by the Chinese when hungry. 

31. — Reed. {Phragmites communis. Trim.) It is a very 
common plant in river valleys. The young shoots are used 
by the Chinese as a vegetable. 

32. — Reed-mace (Typha orientalis Presl.) The shoots are 
also employed as a vegetable. 

33. — Amarantus blitum L. It is either cultivated or 
grows wild. The leaves are eaten as a vegetable. 

34. — Polygonum Hydropiper L. It is found in all dis- 
tricts and the leaves of this plant are used as a vegetable. 

35. — Dandelion. (Taraxacum sp., several species). It is 
found everywhere and the young spring leaves are eaten by 
the Chinese. 

36. — Sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis L.) This grass is 
also eaten as a vegetable. 

37. — Amurian grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) It grows 
in all mountainous districts and the leaf stalks are eaten by 
the Chinese. 

38. — Wild purslain (Portulaca oleracea L.) This com- 
mon weed is eaten by Chinese. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 



73 



39 —Wormwood (Antemisia vulgaris L.) It grows 
everywhere and the young stalks are eaten by the Chinese. 

XVI.— Dimensions of Trees in the Manchurian Forests. 

Those who have been in the Eastern part of mountainous 
Manchuria are transported with delight at seeing the enor- 
mous Manchurian forests and the diversity of the trees. At 
present the woods are going through a period of exploitation 
and are rapidly disappearing thanks to the old methods of 
cutting, taxation and frequent fires. 

These forests contain about fifty kinds of trees the 
greater part of which are not known to the local population. 
Those having a wide trade importance are— the Manchurian 
cedar, ajanien fir, dahurian larch, poplar, birch, elm, lime, 
ash, velvet, manchurian nut, maple. These are mostly used 
as firewood, necessary to the Chinese on the Eastern railway 
and for personal needs. At the present time in these forests 
the yew-tree has disappeared; the cedar is disappearing gra- 
dually as well as other valuable trees such as the Manchurian 
apricot, Siberian apple-tree, Chinese pear-tree, Amurian 
acacia, velvet, different maples are almost exclusive used as 
fuel. 

As will be seen in the list given below, the Manchurian 
trees are of very solid dimension. Some little known kinds 
are not too small to prevent their being used on valuable 
works. 



Manchurian cedar (Pinus manschurica Rupr. 

Common pine (Pinus silvestris L.) 

Sepulchral pine (Pinus funebris Kom.) 

Dahurian larch (Larix dahurica Jurs.) ... . 

Ajanien fir (Picea ajanensis Fisch.) 

Siberian fir (Picea abovata Linde) 

Fir (Abies nephrolepis Maxim) 

Yew-tree (Taxus cuspidata S. et Z.) 

Chinese poplar (Populus Simoni Carr.) 

Fragrant poplar (Populus Suaveolens Fisch/ 

Asper (Populus tremula L.) 

Willow (Salix triandra L.) 

Willow (Salix caprea L.) .... 

Willow (Salix acutifolia Willd.) 

Birch of Ermani (Betula Ermanni Cham.) 

Black birch (Betula dahurica Pall.) 

Yellow birch (Betula costata Troutv.) 

White birch (Betula platyphylla Sue.) 

Alder (Alaus fruticosa Rupr.) 

Carpinus cordata Blume 

Mongolian oak (Quercus Mongolica Fisch) ... 

Mountain elm (Ulmus montana Wither) 

Elm (Ulmus pumila L.) 

Elm (Ulmus campestris L.) 



Height. 


Diam . 


Age. 


130.5 ft. 


84 in. 


400 


81.5 ft. 


35 in. 




97.8 ft. 


42 in. 




105.8 ft 


49 in. 


400 


83.8 ft. 


38.5 in. 


300 


69.9 ft. 






81.5 ft. 


17.5 in. 


200 


83.8 ft. 


43.7 in. 




116.5 ft. 


43.7 in. 




116.5 ft. 


43.7 in. 




69.9 ft. 






32.6 ft. 






23.3 ft. 






69.9 ft. 


45.5 in. 




76.8 ft. 






62.9 ft. 


21 in. 




81.5 ft. 


19.2 in. 




83.8 ft. 


28 in. 


250 


46.6 ft. 


17 in. 




69.9 ft. 


43.7 in. 




79.2 ft. 


28 in. 




93.2 ft. 


34.5 in. 




68.2 ft. 


43.7 in. 




83.8 ft. 


33.2 in. 


250 



Height. 


Diam. 


Age. 


23.3 ft. 


10.5 in. 




33.3 ft. 






46.6 ft. 


17.5 in. 




46.6 ft. 


17.5 in. 




41.9 ft. 


17.5 in. 




41.9 ft. 






48.9 ft. 


17.5 in. 




34.9 ft. 






51.2 ft. 


14 in. 




51.2 ft. 


14 in. 




65 ft. 


28 in. 




104.8 ft. 


34.5 in. 




62.9 ft. 


21 in. 




93.2 ft. 


34.5 in. 


350 


41.9 ft. 






51.2 ft. 






48.9 ft. 






65.2 ft. 


17.5 in. 




65.2 ft. 


17.5 in. 




69.9 ft. 


21 in. 


250 


79.8 ft. 


42 in. 


200 


46.6 ft. 







74 NOTES OX THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 



Purple hawthorn (Cretaegus Sanguinea Pall.) ... 
Common hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) 
Manchurian apricot (Prunus manschurica Kochne) 
Common bird cherry (Prunus Padus L. ) 
Bird cherry of Maackii (Prunus Maackii Rupr.) 

Siberian Apple (Pirus baccata L.) 

Chinese pear (Pirus sinensis Lindl.) 

Mountain ash or sorb-apple (Sorbus aucuparia L.) 
Amurian lilac (Syringa amurensis Rupr.) 
Amurian acacia (Cladrastis amurensis Benth) 
Manchurian lime(Tilia manschurica Rupr.etMex.) 

Amurian lime (Tilia amurensis Kom.) 

Ash (Fraxinus rhynchophylla Kance) 

Manchurian ash (Fraxinus manshurica Rupr.) 

Maple (Acer barbinerve Maxim) 

White maple (Acer tegmentosum Maxim) 
Yellow maple (Acer Ukurendense J. M.) 
Manchurian maple (Acer manchuricum Maxim) 

Maple mono (Acer Mono Maxim) 

Velvet tree (Phellodendron amurensis Rupr.) 
Manchurian nut (Juglans manchurica Max.)... 
Zelkova (Zelkova Davidii B. et H.) 

XVII.' — The Origin of the Manchurian Fishes. 

The fishes of Manchuria are of great interest and re- 
present the group most investigated of all the animals. 
Thanks to the works of Dybovskii, Hertzenstein, ProfL Berg, 
Soldatow, and Schmidt here in the Amur basin are known 90 
different forms. This quantity is very large and surpasses 
in its diversity the fish fauna of any other river in Asia. 
For the fishes of the Amur river and Manchuria Prof. L. C. 
Berg arranges a particular Manchurian ichthyological district 
and relegates to it all the basin of the Amur river, Suifun and 
Tumen-ula draining into the Japanese sea. This district is 
remarkable for the mixture of the northern and southern 
forms. Here, similar to the species coming from the basins 
of Siberian rivers, flowing into the frozen ocean, are found 
southern fishes, as Ophiocephalus (see fig. 1), Hypoph- 
thalmichthys, Elopichthys, etc. Besides that to this district 
are peculiar some endemic genus and species as, Pseudaspius 
leptocephalus ; Mesocottus heity (see fig. 2), — one form of 
bullock not commonly exceeding 20 cm. in length, with gray 
coloured sides and back which is covered with small thickly- 
laid prickles. The head is very wide and flattened, the 
pectoral fin is fully developed; dahurian hausen (Husa 
dahurica) — a fish growing to an enormous length, weighing 
about 280 pounds; the amurian sturgeon; Leptobotia mans- 
churica discovered by ProfL Berg — a fish with one dorsal fin 
with a stretched and pointed snout. Its mouth is surrounded 
with, fleshy lips and moustaches. It strikes ones eyes by the 





Fig. 1. Ophiocephalus argus wdrpachowsMi. Berg. 



[see page 74"] 




JP*?*2px, 



Fig. 2. Mesocottus heity. Dyh. 



[see page 74] 




Fig. 3. Siniperca chuatsi Basilewslty. 



!■•'"":'*• 







[seepage 75] 




**$&■■ 



Fig. 4. Acanthorhodeus dsmvssi Dyb. 



[see page 76] 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 75 

darkish spots disposed in form of transversed streaks. An- 
other kind of Leptobotia inhabits the Yang-tse-kiang. 

Finally here lives an Amurian pike (Esox reicherti) 
which is but little distinguished from the European kind. 
It is consequently more to be remarked, that in the Man- 
churia district certain species, which widely extend in 
Siberia, do not exist here, such as — the sterlet, Siberian 
sturgeon, nelma, dace or bull-head, gremille; but on the 
contrary there are many Siberian fishes. The most remark- 
able in Manchuria are fishes of the South and Middle of 
China and Japan — the forms of subtropical fauna. One of 
this will be aucha or Chinese perch (Siniperca Chuatsi) 
#: if fo (see fig. N. 3). This genus has only two represen- 
tatives — one in Manchuria, the other in China. This fish 
certainly has no connection with the true perch. It has a 
body with pressed-in sides, unique dorsal fin, little scales, 
a small head and mouth. The sides are of a greenish colour 
with irregular black spots. Also remarkable is the fish — 
Ophiocephalus argus ivcuyachowski $k M (see fig. 1), found 
at Vladivostock, the typhical specimen of which is known in 
the Amur basin and through all China. 

The genus is peculiar to central Africa, South Persia, 
Indo- Chine, Sunde islands where there are about 25 different 
kinds. phiocephalus is a fish with a very stretched body, 
long, and high dorsal fin the anal fin being a little shorter. 
On its body above and below the side line are some irregular 
brownish spots, bordered by black lines, on the back and 
above the head also a double range of coarse spots. This 
fish reaches in size to 68 cm. in length. As an interesting 
fish here is a silvery kind Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ffi* M fk 
which attains a length of one meter and is 20 pounds in 
weight. 

It is characterized by the oblique mouth looking up, by 
small scales and a keel shaped belly. It inhabits the Amur 
basin in China as far South as Foochow. The remaining 
lands of this species are in China and Tonkin. The Amurian 
sheat fish (Parasilurus asotus) must also be indicated with 
the flat head and four moustaches. Besides the Amur basin 
they inhabit China, Corea, Japan and Formosa. The other 
5 kinds of this genus are in Himalaya, Indo-China, China, 
Japan, Corea and Formosa. We meet here, Hemibarbus 
labeo a fish with a stretched body, pressed-in sides and with 
scales of middle size. Its head has a concave forehead, the 
mouth is lower with fat lips and with single moustaches on the 
edge. The dorsal fin is not big but sharp and has a gray 
colour. The back is dark, the lower part light. Its habitat is 
the Ussuri river, Hanka lake and all the Amur basin. The 



76 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

genus Hemibarbus in the East is represented by 2 kinds — 
one from the Amur basin, Japan, Corea, China and Formosa; 
the other is known in China. The Amurian bream (Para- 
bramis pehinensis) living in all the Amur basin and in China 
down to Shanghai, is also worthy of attention. This bream 
reaches 52 cm. in length, has a very high body, pressed-in 
sides and is covered by sufficiently big scales. Its head is 
small, the upper jaw is a little longer than the lower, the 
mouth is not large, the dorsal fin is also small and has sharp 
black ends. Here must be indicated also the hump-backed 
bream (Parabramus terminalis) with a higher hump on the 
back than the amurian kind and with a large, sharp dorsal 
fin. His jaw juts only a little from the lower one. Here- 
was also found a small fish of the genus Pseudorasbora with 
one kind P. parva peculiar to the Amur basin, Japan, Corea, 
and China. It is a remarkably small fish — Pseudogobio 
rivularis with a stretched body pressed-in sides, covered with 
small scales, with fleshy lips and with small moustaches. It 
inhabits the Amur basin and China; the remaining two kinds 
of this species occur in Japan, Formosa, and in China. The 
species Gutter is worthy of attention with 10 representatives 
in the Amur basin, in China, and in Tonkin. Also the dis- 
tribution of the bitter fish is interesting. It lives in Europe, 
but is absent from all basins of rivers of the frozen ocean in 
Northern Europe and Asia. It is not seen in Turkestan and 
in Siberia, but again appears in the Amur basin. The general 
distribution of all 5 kinds of bitter fishes extends through 
Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Amur basin, China and 
Japan. The fish Acanthorhodeus asmussi (see fig. 4) with 
a high body, as the crucian, pressed in sides, with a stretched 
dorsal fin, small mouth and large scales of a light gold or 
yellowish color. It reaches 15 cm. in length. Besides this 
form, known in the Amur basin, 7 other kinds of the same 
genus are found in China and in Tonking. 

There is found in Hanka lake a small fish Acheilogna- 
thus chan~kensis — the remaining 8 kinds of this genus are 
peculiar to Corea, Japan, Formosa, It is necessary to men- 
tion the genus Lepua. One kind of them (L. costata) in- 
habits the Amur basin and North China, the remaining 2 
Japan. This is a small fish with a stretched body, flat head, 
armored with 2 pairs of moustaches. All along his body in 
the middle of the sides passes a black-brown streak and on 
the caudal fin are also black spots. The Amurian groundling 
must be indicated as representing a special variety of the 
European form. 

In addition to the Amur it is found in Corea, Japan, 
China down to Canton and in Formosa. The fishes of genus 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 77 

Leiocassis are remarkable. Among the existing 30 kinds of 
this genus 3 are found in .the Amur basin, the remaining 
27 in the Malay archipelago, Indo-China, and in China. 
We can merely mention the brand fish. This genus is re- 
presented by only one kind from the Amur basin and Scuth 
Manchuria and its nearest relative — the genus Philypnus 
inhabits the fresh waters of Central America, All the re- 
maining kinds of the same genus are peculiar to Japan and 
North America. Finally the tropical pimple caught at 
Vladivostock is remarkable. It lives in the fresh waters of 
India, Indo-China, China, Indo-Malay archipelago, Formosa, 
Japan and Core a. 

The fishes indicated here do not exhaust all the examples 
which make the waters of the Amur basin so remarkable. 
The predominance of Southern types is very characteristic 
of the ichthyological fauna of this district. These fishes have 
not come here from the South, but they are the remainders 
of the Tetrain fauna, formerly extensive in all Asia and 
Europe. Besides the indicated facts, the proof of the con- 
clusion is served by many cases of the separate existence of 
identical or proximate kinds, noticed by Prof. Berg from the 
fish geography of Asia. So, the Manchurian district has a 
wonderful relation to the Ponto- Caspian- Aral ichthyological 
provinces, which embrace the basins of the Black, Caspian, 
and Aral seas. In both districts are found many forms 
which bear a great resemblance to each other, but which is 
absent from Siberia, Mongolia and Middle Asia. In regard to 
the paleontological information which serves powerfully as 
an argument for the remaining character of the fish fauna 
of Manchuria, we must note the finding in Siberia of the 
genus Abramus, which is not known now in this district but 
which inhabits Europe, the Aral basin and North America. 
The remaining types of this genus, the fishes Parabramis, 
are found now in the Amur basin and for this reason, in the 
opinion of Prof. Berg, it is possible to suppose that up to the 
end of the Tetrian period of fishes of Siberia resembled the 
present Amurian fish fauna. 

BIBLIOGEAPHY. 

Berg, L. C. The fishes of the Amur basin. (Journal of Akad. Scien. 

XXIV, No. 9, 1909, S. Petersburg). 
Berg, L. C. The Collections of fresh water fishes, gathered by Mr. 

A. I. Tcherski in environs of the Vladivostock and in Hanka lake 

basin. (Journal of the Amur district Scientific Society, XIII, 

1913. 
Berg, L. C. The fresh water fishes of the Russian Empire. Moskow, 

°1916. Agriculture Department Publication. 
Basilewsky, S. Ichthyographia Chinese borealis (Nouv. Nem. Soc. 

Natural of Moscow, X, 1855). 



78 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Nikolsku, A. M. Reptiles and Fishes. S. Petersburg. 

Dybowski, B. The fishes of the Amur system. (Journal of the 

Siberian Branch of the Russian Imp. Geograph. Sc. VIII, 

Nos. 1-2, 1877). 
Dybowski, B. Zur Kenntniss der Fisch fauna des Amurgebietes. 

(Verb. Zool. bot. Gesell. Wien, XXII, 1872). 
Warpashovski, N. and Hertzenstern, C. Notes on the ichthyology of 

the Amur basin and neighbouring countries. (The works of 

S. Petersburg Natur. Sc. XIX, 1887). 
Schmidt, P. S. The fishes of the Eastern sea of the Russian Empire. 

S. Petersburg, 1904, Publication of the Russian Imp. Geo. Soc. 

XVIII. — The Little Known and New Oil Plants 
in Manchuria. 

Manchuria, being rich in the production of soya beans, 
linseed, hempseed, (Perilla ocymoides L.), sesame (Sesamun 
indicum L.), is very well known as a district which produces 
a great deal of vegetable oil. In addition to the oil-plants 
indicated here, mention should be made of some little known 
and new plants, found in a wild state throughout Manchuria. 
The first in order is the Manchurian Cedar (Pinus mans- 
churica Rupr.) This tree is very common in the mountain- 
ous parts of the country and produces fir cones 6 inches long 
with about 100-150 nuts inside. These are of a dark-brown 
colour, with a thick seed-coat of triangular shape. The 
nuts are 2-3 times bigger than those of the Siberian cedar 
(Pinus Cembra). In Siberia the nuts of the cedar are made 
up of 50% of a fine, delicate, golden yellowish oil, which is 
largely used by the local population as food. The nuts of 
the Manchurian tree also have a fine oil, which, however, 
is now only employed by natives and Chinese in the forest 
districts. The gathering of Cedar nuts in Manchuria is 
extensive and has a trade importance, but they are mostly 
exported to China as much prized sweetmeats. 

Vegetable oil can be produced from the Manchurian nut 
tree (Juglans manschurica Maxim) which is also common all 
over the country (see fig. 1). The nuts of the tree are 
big and hard and the chemical analysis made in Harbin by 
Mr. P. M. Karwowskii in the spring of 1918 shows that the 
kernels of this Manchurian walnut contains 52% of a drying, 
fine oil of yellowish colour. This product resembles the oil 
of the cultivated walnut (JugJans regia L. — in Europe, and 
J. regia var. sinensis D. C. — in China). Up to the present, 
walnut oil in Manchuria is unknown and is produced only by 
Russians in the Southern part of the Ussuri provinces. It is 
interesting to note that the nuts of the Manchurian tree are 
of a different shape. They are mostly very thick-skinned, 
with an elongated sharp end and have small seeds, although 
frequently they may be seen smaller, rounder, with a fine 




Fig. 1. — Trachelomonas valgensis Lem. var. chinensis nov. var. • 
Fig. 2. — Tr.flwoiatilis Lem. var. granulata nov. var. ; Fig. 3 — 
Tr. piscatoris (Fisher) Stokes var. granulata nov. var. ; Fig. 4. 
— Tr. ovalis Daday var. chinensis nov. var. ; Fig. 5 — Tr. hispida 
(Perty) Stein var. rugosus nov. var.; Fig. 6— Phacus Myersii 
nov. Sp. 

[seepages 55, 56] 




Figs. 1 and 2. — Iraclielomonas planMonica var. asiatica nov. var. ; Fig. 3. — Tr.fexis nov. sp. ; Fig. 4. — Trachelo- 
vionas rhombica var. planlttonica nov. var.; Fig. 5. — Tr. Raeilorshii var. SwirenMana nov. var.; Fig. 6.— Tr. 
Kelloggii var. Limosa nov. var. ; Fig. 7. — Tr. chinensis var. ovata nov. var. ; Fig. 8. — Tr. Arnoldiana var. 
granulata nov. var. ; Fig. 9. — Tr. intermedra var. decorata nov. var. 

[ See XXI On new Flagellata from Manchuria pp. 96-102] 



. 














s 


1 

i : ' 

; " 


















: 












' : 




""^"'V*' 




fetoR ' 




^01 


Ww 


^^Hi 




4SI 


• JJ 


Br"* 











Fig. 1. Euryale ferox Salisb in stagnant water near Harbin. 

[.see ^?«^i? 81 ] 




Fig. 1. JVw£ of Juglans mamchurica Max. 

[see page 7S'\ 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 79^ 

skin, and with seeds more developed; possessing this pro- 
perty this species could be improved by experience and by 
cultivation. Besides the walnut the hazel-nut (Gorylus 
manschurica Maxim and C. heterophylla Fischer) is very 
common in Manchuria. Two kinds of hazel-nuts are much 
valued by the Chinese and a great quantity is exported to 
China. From these nuts is extracted a kind of oil, used in 
drawing on glass. In Europe the nuts of Gorylus avellena 
contain 50-60% of valuable oil, which is used in soap -boiling 
and in perfumery. The apricot tree (Prunus Armeniaca L.), 
also must be mentioned : it is cultivated only in South 
Manchuria and in North China in Mukden in the factory 
of the Japanese Chemical Company. From the kernels 
apricot oil is extracted, and used for many purposes. This 
oil is much valued in Europe. It is also interesting to re- 
mark, that in the berries of the velvet tree (Phellodendron 
amurensis Rupr.) was found by P. M. Karwowskii, 12|% 
of drying oil with a specific smell and bitter taste. 

In conclusion there are the fir trees (Abies nephrolepis 
Maxim and A. holophilla Maxim) from which in Europe an 
ether fir-oil is produced. These trees are as plentiful as the 
Manchurian Cedar. 

XIX. — The Principal Tanning Plants of Manchuria. 

Manchuria by its large number of tanning plants holds 
an eminent place among the neighbouring districts, but no 
profit is derived from these riches by the reason of the import 
of tanning materials from America. Until lately the tanning 
plants and their utilization were unknown to the local 
Chinese and natives, but now, thanks to foreign influence 
in Manchuria, we can see Chinese tanneries working on 
willow bark, but no other tanning products from this district 
are applied. 

In Manchuria more than 30 plants valuable in their 
tanning properties are found, but not all can be used com- 
mercially. 

The principal ones are the following : — 

1. — Velvet-tree (Phellodendron amurensis Rupr.) — It is 
a common Manchurian tree, the fiber of which is used for 
dyeing purposes, and in Chinese medicines. The chemical 
analysis made in Harbin by Mr. Gordeiew and Mr. 
Karwowskii in 1917-1918, shows that the fiber of an old 
velvet tree contains 18% of tannin, and the fiber of the 
young branches 17%. 

2. — Oak. (Quercus mongolica Fischer, Q. serrata^ 
Thunb., Q. grosseserrata Blume, Q. aliena Blume, Q. Fabri 
Hancc and Q. dentata Thunb). These oaks are very exten- 



80 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

sively grown in the country ; the most common of them is the 
Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica). The bark contains 
about 6-11% of tannin. 

3. — Willow. (Salix Caprea L., 8. viminalis L., 8. 
vagans Anderss., 8. triandra L., S. Thunbergiana Blume, 
S. purpurea L., 8. pentandra L. and 8. acutifolia Willd.) of 
Salix Caprea L. and 8. acutifolia Willd. are the most useful 
for tanning. The bark of the willow contains about 11% of 
tannin. 

4. — Amurian acacia (Cladrastis amurensis Benth.) It 

is a small tree or shrub very common in all districts. The 

■ chemical analysis made in Harbin by Mr. Karwowskii in 1918 

shows that the bark of this acacia contains 11% of tannin. 

For this reason this plant is worthy of attention. 

5. — Ajanien fir (Picea ajanensis Fisch.). It grows in 
mountainous districts and its bark can be used in tanning. 
Picea bark has 8-11% of tannin. 

With regard to the other tanning plants, growing wild in 
Manchuria, not one is of sufficient importance to occasion 
remark. 

XX. — On the Cultivation of Water Plants in China. 

Indubitably, on the surface of small ponds and in dirty 
stagnant basins many persons have seen a mass of very 
small, mostly round green leaves with roots under the water. 
These plants are used to feed fowls in China. In Manchuria 
and in North China they are represented by the small duck- 
weed Lemna minor L., L. trisulca L., Spirodela polyrrhiza 
8chleid; in middle and south part, except the indicated 
forms, by Wollfia arrhiza Wimm., 8alvinia natans L., Azolla 
sp., Marsilia guardrifolia L. and other kinds. All these 
plants show the dirtiness of the waters and are very often 
seen near Chinese buildings, villages and towns in summer 
and in winter time. In Manchuria a great quantity of Lemna 
minor L. and L. trisulca L. is met with in marshes and ravines 
lying near the houses and are mostly used in towns by poor 
Chinese as food for ducks and geese. In Middle and South 
China these plants are not only gathered in rice fields and in 
ravines near the roads to feed fowls, but are also cultivated 
in ponds. For this reason the surface of the ponds is divided 
in parts by thick and long floating bamboo poles, that con- 
tribute to the growth of these small water plants. Without 
these, owing to the movement of the surface of the water, 
these small water plants would not grow. Mostly as food for 
• ducks the duckweed Lemna minor and the 8pirodela poly- 
rrhiza is used and cultivated. The latter in South China has 
the leaves twice bigger than that in Manchuria. At Foochow 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 81 

ducks, geese and sometimes hens and chickens usually feed on 
these plants and the birds eat these greens with pleasure, 
finding among them many small water snails, beetles and 
larvae of different insects. 

The various kinds of duckweeds are also cultivated in 
ponds as a nourishing food to fish. 

XXI. — On the Growth of Panic Grass in China. 

Everywhere in China among weeds is found the panic 
grass (Panicum crus galli L.). It grows plentifully in wheat, 
rice and millet fields in the Northern part, in Manchuria and 
in the Southern rice districts. This plant has stalks of 
.60-1 meter in height; the brush contains thick one-sided 
spikes with dark-yellow, hard, brilliant seeds, cuspidated 
from two sides, of 3-3.5 mm. in length. This grass much 
resembles the Shan-tzu (|f| -J-) — Panicum frumentaceum 
'Iran, et Savant, cultivated in Manchuria and in North China 
for its edible grains and its straw for cattle. The grass is found 
in two forms — bearded and unbearded. As it was examined 
near Foochow the bearded Panicum crus galli L. is very often 
seen in rice fields, growing with rice stalks. The Chinese 
never cut the ripe rice with this weed, which is separately 
harvested and the grains of it are employed to make a kind 
■of glue, used to stick paper and card-board. Firstly the 
hulled seeds are crushed and put in water in which all the 
hulls rise to the surface and the heavy grains sink down. 
After this the seeds are boiled and the glutinous mass is 
ready for use. It is interesting to note, that the panic grass 
in Chinese medicines is mentioned and the grains of it are 
sometimes used in times of scarcety as a substitute for other 
cereals. They have a taste something like the seeds of 
Panicum frumentaceum . 

XXII. — The Water Plant — Euryale Ferox in 
North Manchuria. 

Euryale ferox Salisb (see fig. N. 1) is one of the known 
water plants of China, which has been cultivated from remote 
antiquity for its seeds used as food and medicine. This 
subtropical plant is found in Japan, Formosa, near Peking, 
Tientsin, Chefoo and in other places in China, but in Man- 
churia Euryale was first seen at Harbin only fifteen years 
ago. Now, as observations show, this plant is found in 
Manchuria in all the Sungari basin and is seen in the Ussuri 
provinces in the Eussian Far East. Euryale in Manchuria 
is counted as a plant surviving from the Tetrian period and 
the fact of finding in European Eussian in the Kaluski 
6 



82 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

provinces in the post-tetrian limnetical sediments the seeds of 
Euryale ferox goes to prove this. 

As this plant at Harbin was examined, Euryale grows 
only in stagnant waters 2-5 feet deep ; the seeds begin to shoot 
only at the end of May; the first leaves are seen in June. 
In July, August up to September the plant rapidly increases 
in size and gives about 10-15 leaves and 5-10 flowers, which 
are always under the water. The bright leaf is 1 meter 
and 10 cm. in diameter. The ripe fruits are of different sizes 
— the first are the biggest and sometimes are of 15 cm. in 
length and 11-12 cm. in breadth; the smallest mostly are not 
quite ripe. The big fruits contain about 30-60 white, round 
seeds of 1-1.4 cm. in diameter, the small fruits only 5-10 big 
seeds, the remaining are very small of 0.3-0.5 cm. in 
diameter. 

At the end of September the leaves disappear; the fruits 
are immersed at the bottom of the basins ; not before Spring 
do they come asunder and the seeds are scattered on the 
ground. During the winter, the white autumn colour of the 
seeds changes to dark black. The chemical analysis made 
by Mr. P. M. Karwowski in Harbin, shows that the kernels 
of Euryale contain more than 50% of starch and only 5 % of 
oil. 

'The growth of Euryale in North Manchuria — in a 
country with such great winter cold is worthy of attention. 
It shows that this subtropical plant is a native of Manchuria. 

XXIII. — On the Study of the Flowers of the 
Manchurian Wild Apricot. 

The Manchurian apricot tree (Prunus manshurica 
Kockne) represents one of the characteristic plants of the 
Manchurian flora and is seen only in the mountains of the 
south and middle parts, especially on the southern shores and 
in places protected from the north winds. In botany nothing 
much was known of this plant up to the present and only 
specimens with the fruits have been described without 
flowers. For this reason some observations were made by 
me at Harbin in the spring of 1918. They are as follows : — 

Buds. — The leaf buds of the apricot tree are collected 
on the branches in threes of which only one is developed, the 
remaining two die and fall. 

Flowering. — The buds' swelling begins in the middle of 
April and already in the beginning of May the trees are in 
flower and at this time they have no leaves. The flowers 
are in bud altogether one week, depending on weather 
conditions. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 83 

Disposition of flowers. — The flowers mostly are dis- 
tributed in twos or in threes, but trees were observed with 
the flowers collected in fascicles, in quantities of 6-12. 

Flowers. — The flowers are regular, hermaphrodite, are 
resting or are on thin peduncles of 1 cm. in length. The 
receptacular tube is campaniform a little distended at the 
base covered with indistinct furrows on the foundation 
green, from above red-brown, with 5-6 sepals. The sepals 
are oblong-oval, pointed, from the outside red-brown, from 
inside whitish-red-brown and during the flowering period 
they are turned back. 

The corolla contains 5 petals, more rarely 6 (only about 
1-2%), attached to the border of the receptacular tube; the 
petals of a backward-oval shape are three times longer than 
the sepals; at the budding stage they are of dark pink colour, 
but at the flowering pale pink, often of a whitish colour. On 
some trees with the sitting flowers the corolla frequently is 
not well developed and is sometimes smaller, than the 
sepals. Normally the stamens are smaller than the petals 
or of the same size and when the corolla is not unformed the 
stamens only are seen. Every flower has 25-42 stamens, 
which are placed in two rows on the inside border of the 
receptacular tube. The interior stamens are smaller than 
the exterior ones and are bent to the pistil. The pistil is 
unique, sitting on the receptacle; the ovary is upper, 
oblongly-oval, hairy on the exterior. The style is high, 
always oblique, smooth with an emarginate stigma. The 
length is a little smaller than the length of the stamens. 
Among the flowering apricot trees, i.e., the forms with 
normal developed flowers sitting on long peduncles, are also 
met trees on which the normal developed flowers are without 
peduncles, but among the latter, flowers which have not a 
normal unformed pistil and ovary, undeveloped corolla and 
with good formed stamens have been observed. Often whole 
trees with abnormal developed flowers are seen though fre- 
quently on these plants the flowers with normal corolla are 
met, but the ovary and pistil on it is not well developed. 
Insufficient development of the flowers is a mark that the 
manchurian apricot is not constant in its appearance, though 
specimens are seen with the tendency to form it. 

XXIV. Observations on Banana Trees at Foochow. 

The banana trees at Foochow and its environs are very 
common and are grown almost entirely for decorative pur- 
poses, but the plants bearing the fruits are not often seen. 
Here some different forms of Musa sapientum L. and M. 
paradisiaca L. are observed; besides these indubitably the 



84: NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

plants brought from Formosa, where several kinds of Musa 
are widely found in mountains. The cultivated local forms 
come from Amoy and other Southern parts of China, where 
are banana plantations. Among all local forms the common 
fruitful banana tree, which was observed in Chinese econo- 
mies, was not of a large size. The grown up tree with the 
fruits are of 12-16 feet in height and have the leaves of 2.3-3.2 
feet in breadth and the leaves with petioles of 8-10 feet in 
length. The first year the young sprouts grow to a man's 
height with the stalks in the lower part, 3-4 inches in 
breadth. At the end of the second year the plants are nearly 
of the size of a full grown tree with a trunk of 5-6 mm. 
in diameter already surrounded with young plants. The 
banana tree blooms in March and April in the third year, 
but sometimes later; during the flowering, excessive flowers 
are cut out and only about one hundred fruits are left, 
which begin to ripen in October and November, after which 
the dead tree is thrown down. Most fruits of this banana 
tree are smaller than those' imported into Foochow from 
South China and Formosa. The taste of local fruits is not 
so delicate, more viscid and here they have no commercial 
properties. This tree bears fruit yearly and it requires plant- 
ing in lower places near the water and the cutting of the 
excessive young plants, which are sometimes profuse. 

Another kind of banana tree, which is rarely observed in 
Chinese villages is smaller and its fruits are bigger and better 
in taste, but this plant has not been examined by me. It 
comes also from the South. 

Among the non bearing fruit plantains, must be indi- 
cated the forms of 15-18 feet in height but also there are 
colossi of 7 inches in diameter and 27 feet in height. 

The local climatic conditions for the banana trees are 
not the most favourable, but nevertheless the warm and 
long summer of this place is completely sufficient to the 
maturation of the fruits. 

These plants chiefly suffer in winter here, when often 
they lose the leaves, and generally in places not protected 
from the sea winds. 

XXV. — A Study of the Eice Cultivated at Foochow. 

Foochow and its environs, being in south-east China, 
has a population which is extensively a cultivator of 
rice, which here represents the principal food. In the 
report of Mr. G. Philipps published in 1888 are given the 
conditions of agriculture near Foochow; as well as the 
question of the quantity of land holdings by the farmers : 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 85 

the working-class, land-tax, and the rice crops were also 
touched upon, but up to the present we have not been 
sufficiently informed as to what kinds of rice are cultivated 
in this district. 

This special question has a considerable interest, not 
only from the scientific point of view, but principally on 
account of rural economy and because only poor information on 
this question exists in China, though more than half a hundred 
kinds of rice are known to Chinese literature. The number 
of the kinds of rice cultivated near Foochow is considerable 
and the principal ones are — the common rice (the summer 
and the winter rice), the glutinous, red rice and the upland 
rice; and each one contains different forms, which are well 
known to the Chinese farmer. 

In the environs of Foochow in the Min River valley two 
crops of rice are obtained annually; in the mountains only 
one, but it is not necessary to conclude that in the valleys 
the rice fields are ploughed twice a year, and after the first 
crop the next rice is planted. By two crops it is necessary 
to understand that two rice plants set in Spring in one place 
do not ripen at one time — the first is gathered about the end of 
June and the middle of July, the other one about the middle of 
October; and for that reason one is called the summer, the 
other the winter rice. The best and the most valuable of all 
local rice grains are the upland and the winter rice. The 
summer rice is counted inferior in quality to the winter 
rice, and the red rice is considered the poorest kind. The 
glutinous rice is much valued by Chinese and is planted 
near the town in small quantities. 

The poorest people of Foochow and neighbouring villages 
feed chiefly on summer and winter rice, but on account of 
the insufficient quantity of it the rice is cooked with the 
dried sweet potatoes. The richer classes eat the winter and 
the upland rice, and besides these the rice imported from other 
parts of Fukien and Shanghai. The following 20 kinds are 
the principal and the common kinds of rice cultivated near 
Foochow. 
Common Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 

Summer rice ■¥• 2fc. — Under this name the Chinese 
understand several kinds of common rice, which are planted 
in earlv spring and harvested in July. For its ripening it 
takes 110 davs — 30 days to raise seedlings, and 80 days in 
the rice fields, but one kind of summer rice needs only 90 
davs for ripening, inclusive of the time of seedling. All the 
existing sorts of summer rice are planted in April or m the 
beginning of May, but always with the winter rice, lney 
are planted across the range in such a way, that one range 



86 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

has summer rice, the other the winter rice. At first the 
summer rice is planted and when it has grown to 30 cm., 
the winter rice is set between the ranges. The summer rice 
ripens in July and after its harvest only the winter rice 
remains, which is ready in October. By its rapid growth the 
summer rice is much valued by the farmers, who sow it 
calculating to receive a new crop quickly. 

Every kind of summer rice is very cheap and is eaten 
by the poorest class. This rice is characterised by not very 
transparent grains, frequently of a whitish colour particularly 
over the seed-bud. They are brittle, farinaceous and are boiled 
soft. The hull of the grains is of an oblong shape, varying 
in size, of a light yellow colour, hairy in the upper part and 
with rubes not sharply expressed. 

Near Foochow the following kinds of summer rice were 
examined : — 

1. — Big Summer Bice. — ^c %k ■¥■ (see Fig. I. 1). This 
kind has big, light yellow hulls very wide in the upper part. 
The length of the hulls is 7-8 mm., the breadth up to 4 mm. 
The grains are big, brittle, whitish, of 5-6 mm. in length and 
2.5 mm. in breadth. 

2. — Pear Summer Bice. — ^ -¥■ (see Fig. I. 2). The 
hulls and grains resemble the big summer rice, but the hulls 
of the pearl rice are not so wide in the upper part. Pearl 
rice is considered to be one of the best sorts of summer rice. 

3. — "White Eye Brow" or late summer rice. — 6 !■! 
or $t •¥• (see Figs. I. 3, 5). Among the summer rices the 
late summer kind is the longest. The hulls are of a 
light yellow colour, and sometimes have white beards of no 
more than one cm. in length. The hulls are of 7-9 mm. 
in length and 2.5-3 mm. in breadth. This rice is harvested 
in July. 

4. — Sixty Days Summer Bice. — ^ "t* B M (see Fig. I. 8) 
The seedling of this rice before being transplanted to the 
rice fields grows for 3-4 weeks and it is called ''60 days rice" 
for the reason that after only 60 days the transplanted rice 
is ripe. By its hulls this kind much resembles the hulled 
pearl summer rice. The unhulled seeds are 6-8 mm. in length, 
2.5-3.5 mm. in breadth. The grains are brittle, farinaceous 
and are not much valued by Chinese. 

Winter rice. — HH ^ The winter rice is also planted in 
spring with the summer rice, but after the ripening of the 
latter the winter rice stays in the fields 2-3 months longer, 
so for its ripening it takes 4J-6J months. After the inunda- 
tions in May and June, which often destroy the fields with 
summer and winter rice, the winter rice is planted for the 
second time and it is harvested in the middle or end of 




Fig. I. 1 — Big summer rice ; 2 — Pearl summer rice ; 3 — White eye 
brow or late summer rice ; 4 — High winter rice ; 5 — Late summer 
rice ; 6, 7 — Red rice ; 8 — Sixty days summer rice ; 9 — Big red rice ; 
10, 11 — Small red rice ; 12— Big red rice. (Except Figs. No. 11 and 
12 all are twice enlarged). 

[seepages 86-89] 




Fig. II. 1, 2 — White bearded upland rice ; 3, 4, 5 — Red bearded 
upland rice ; 6 — Autumn white glutinous rice ; 6, 7, 8, 9 — Winter 
glutinous rice or big glutinous rice or white and red hair glutinous 
rice; 10, 11 — Big winter glutinous rice; 12, 13, 14 — Unbearded 
upland rice ; 15 — Big winter glutinous rice ; 16 — Winter (rice) like 
glutinous rice ; 17 — Lichee like glutinous rice ; 18 — Summer 
glutinous rice. (Fig. No. 2, 4, 5, 8, 12 are of natural size, all 

others twice enlarged). 

[see pages 89-90] 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 87 

October— after 4^ months. Among the rice fields covered 
with the winter rice were observed some places where the 
rice stalks were attacked by the worms of small butterflies,— 
Schaenobius incertellus W. L. K. 8 which sometimes destroys 
more than 5% of all the crop. Some local Chinese know this 
insect, but others explain the dried stalks by the strong 
summer winds. This rice pest was examined in many places 
of Fukien, Kiangsu, Kwangtung, Kwangsi, Hainan and is 
worthy of attention. 

Now in the Foochow Anglo- Chinese College a selection of 
winter rice is produced by Mr. C. E. Kellogg and by Chinese 
students and as Mr. C. E. Kellogg kindly informed me — 
"The smallest number of kernels per head was 52 and 
highest number 172, showing the amount of variation in 
single heads, all of which were grown under the same con- 
ditions. These heads have been saved and next year the 
seeds be planted in an effort to improve the yield of rice." 

The winter rice is well distinguished from the summer 
rice by the hulls being of a dark yellow colour, with dark 
brown-yellow or reddish -yellow streaks, between the faces, 
mostly in the upper part of the hulls. Some hulls are of a dark 
reddish-brown colour but were not often examined. The 
bearded winter rice was not seen, and only once some 
hulls with small beards of 1-1.5 mm. in length were noted. 
The grains of the winter rice resemble the grains of the 
summer rice but the first one is more transparent; the 
whiteness, though observed being almost absent. The seeds 
are hard, heavier than the grains of the summer rice. The 
winter rice is much valued by Chinese, thanks to its pleasant 
savour and nourishing properties. Only two kinds of winter 
rice are distinguished by the Chinese. 

1. — High Whiter Rice. — f I See Fig. I. 4. This is 
one of the common rice plants near Foochow. It is mostly 
1 meter in height and prefers a rich ground. The unhulled 
winter rice is 6.5-8.5 mm. in length and 2.5-3 mm. in 
breadth. The grains are of 5-6.5 mm. in length and 2.2-2.5 
mm. in breadth. 

2. — Sesame like winter rice. — vft M & This kind of rice 
is not common near Foochow and is distinguished from the 
above kind by its smaller height. The seeds have the same 
shape as the big and high winter rice. 

Upland rice (Oryza sativa var. Montana =ii ^ ). The 
upland rice is only cultivated in mountains near Foochow 
at the height of 500-1,000 feet. As in many places in China, 



8 Un perforateur du riz. Schaenobius incertellus WLK. (Bui. 
Econom. de L'Indochine, N. 131, 1918. Hanoi-Kaiphong.) 



88 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

the upland rice is grown here on terraces specially made 
near the water streams. The mountain rice is also grown 
in water and the conditions of the growth here are very 
different from the conditions of the valley rice life. The 
hulled upland rice is well differentiated from the hulled 
summer and winter rice. Their hulls are short, broad-sided 
and very wide in the upper part, covered with hair and 
mostly bearded. The grains of the upland rice are broad, 
hard, transparent without white spots inside and for this the 
upland rice is counted the best of all kinds. The follow- 
ing kinds were observed near Foochow. 

1. — Unbearded upland rice. — §? M. See Figs. II. 12, 13 
and 14. This common kind is the smallest of all upland rice. 
The hulls are of a light yellow colour, without beards, but 
sometimes they are seen on some spikes. The unhulled seeds 
are of 6-7 mm. in length and 3 mm. in breadth. The grains 
of 4.5 mm. in length and 2.5 mm. in breadth. The hulled 
seeds of 7.5 mm. in length are rarely observed. 

2. — White bearded upland rice. — & H ^6 H* %. See Figs. 
II. 1, 2. This kind has beards sometimes of 7 cm. in length. 
The unhulled seeds of it are of a very light yellow colour, 6-7 
mm. in length, 3 mm. in breadth. The grains are 5-5.5 mm. 
in length and 2.5-3 mm. in breadth. 

3. — Red bearded upland rice. — $£ $1 ^ "H* M See Figs. 
II, 3, 4, 5. It is characterised by the oblong unhulled seeds 
with beards of 2,3,7 cm. in length. The grains are of a long 
stretch, of 5-6 mm. in length and 2.5-2.8 mm. in breadth. 
The unhulled seeds are of 6-7 mm. in length and 3-3.5 mm. 
in breadth. 

Red Rice (Oryza sativa var. praecox $£ 2fc). Eed rice is 
not common near Foochow and is only cultivated in villages 
lying near the river. It is planted on the poorest ground 
and is looked on as the cheapest kind of all local rice. It is 
sowed and transplanted in the same manner as other kinds 
and is gathered only in autumn. 

The following forms of red rice were examined at Foo- 
chow. 

l.—Big red rice.—K U * See Figs. I. 9, 12. The big 
red rice has large, big, thick grains of a light red colour, but 
sometimes the seeds are light whitish-brown-red. The unhulled 
seeds are dark gray colour of 8-10 mm. in length, 3-3.5 mm. 
in breadth and not seldom they contain beards of 5-2 cm. in 
length. The grains are 6.8-7.5 mm. in length and 2.5-3 mm. 
in breadth. This kind is planted in spring and harvested in 
October. 

2.— Small red rice.—>b U * See Figs. I. 10, 11. This 
kind is distinguished by Chinese from the former one in having 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 89 

smaller hulled seeds. The colour of the hulls is much like 
the colour of the winter hulled rice, but usually more dark 
and the seeds are bigger. The colour of the seeds is verv 
varied, they are light red, sometimes of a white colour with 
a reddish shade. The unhulled seeds sometimes have beards 
of 5-1.5 mm. in length; the hulls are of 6.5-9 mm. in length 
and 2.5-3 mm. in breadth. The seeds of 5-7 mm. in length 
and 2.5 mm. in breadth. 

3. — See Fig. I. 6. This kind has big, very long hulls of 
a light yellow colour, covered with small hair. The unhulled 
grains are of 7-9 mm. in length and 2.5-3 mm. in breadth. 
The grains are long, covered with a dark red skin and are of 
6.5 mm. in length and 2 mm. in breadth. 

4. — See Fig. I. 7. The second kind has hulls and seeds 
less oblong in shape. The unhulled seeds are 8 mm. in 
length and 2.5 mm. in breadth. The grains of 5-5.5 mm. 
in length and 2.2 mm. in breadth of a dark red colour. 

Glutinous rice (Oryza Glutinosa Eumph.) Tit ^t — This 
distinct species of rice gets its name from its sticky pro- 
perties after being cooked. Besides this it is distinguished 
from other forms of the common rice (oryza sativa) by its 
higher stalks and bigger, untransparent, white grains. It is 
used by Chinese to make many sorts of sweets and drinks 
and for that reason it is more valued than the common rice. 
Near Foochow the glutinous rice is not cultivated in great 
quantities, but it is seen in every Chinese establishment, 
grown for private needs. Mostly this rice is planted in 
places near the river, canals or on the low islands; is sown 
and transplanted in spring in the same way as other kinds 
of rice, and is harvested in September or in October, but also 
there exist two kinds harvested in July with the summer rice. 
It must be noted that the farmers during the harvest usually 
cut the straw of glutinous rice about 1.5 feet above the ground. 
This rice is cultivated in several forms, which are as follows : 

1. — Winter glutinous rice, big glutinous rice, white hair 
glutinous rice or red hair glutinous rice 4£ Ttt fa ^C Tit fa- 
& m ^ Tit & m ^ Tit. See Figs. II. 6, 7, 8, 9. This kind 
is cultivated on low places pre-eminently near the canals; 
and their stalks grow about 1| meters in height. The spikes 
are mostly white or red bearded and their beards have 
different length or sometimes are unbearded. It ripens in 
autumn with the winter rice. The unhulled seeds are of 
8-9 mm. in length and 3 mm. in breadth. The grains are 
6 mm. in length and 3 mm. in breadth. This kind is one of 
the common glutinous rice grains. 

2. — Big winter glutinous rice. — ft ^ Tit ^fe See Figs. II. 
10, 11, 15. This sort has seeds smaller than the seeds of 



90 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

the winter kind as may be seen in the Figs. II. 10, 11, 15. 
Two different forms are found here. 

A. — See Fig. II. 10, 11. The hulls are without beards 
and are 7-8 mm. in length and 3-3.5 mm. in breadth. The 
grains are 5.5 mm. in length and 3 mm. in breadth. 

B. — See Fig. II. 15. The hulls and seeds are rounder 
and smaller. The unhulled seeds are of 6 mm. in length, 
3.5 mm. in breadth. The grains are 4.5 mm. in length and 
3 mm. in breadth. 

3. — Autumn white glutinous rice. — #t 6 Ttt 2fe See Fig. 
II. 6. It is the biggest of all local rice; is planted only near 
the river and canals and reaches sometimes 2 meters in 
height. The spikes of it are big, long, heavy; the hulled seeds 
are usually with long white beards. The hulls are big and of 
a light yellow colour. 

The unhulled seeds are of 9 mm. in length and 3.5 mm. 
in breadth. The grains are of 6 mm. in length and 3 mm. 
in breadth. The breads are of a different length, small, or 
of 5-10 cm. It ripens at the end of September and in the 
beginning of October. 

4. — Winter (rice) like glutinous rice. — jt ^ 2fc See Fig. 
II 16. This is the smallest kind of all glutinous rice. The 
hulled seeds are have the same colour and size as the hulled 
winter rice, but the grains of this kind are white and not 
transparent. The unhulled grains are of 6-8 mm. in length, 
2.5-3 mm. in breadth. The grains of 4.5-6 mm. in length 
and 2-2.5 mm. in breadth. Winter like glutinous rice ripens 
only at the beginning of October with the other rice. 

5. — Lichee like glutinous rice. — ^ ^ Tit ^t See Fig. II. 
17. A kind of glutinous rice with sufficiently large seeds 
and with pretty hulls of a light yellow or of brick-red colour. 
The unhulled seeds are of 6-7 mm. in length, 2.5-3.5 mm. in 
breadth. The grains of 5-6 mm. in length and 2.5-3 mm. in 
breadth. If this kind is sowed with the summer rice it is 
harvested in July; if with the winter rice, at the end of 
September. 

6. — -Summer glutinous rice. — ■¥• Ttfc 2fe See Fig. II. 18. 
This kind has hulled flat seeds of different shape, inside are 
small white grains. The unhulled seeds are of 6-8 mm. in 
length, 3-3.5 mm. in breadth. The grains are of 5 mm. in 
length and 2.2-2.5 mm. in breadth. The summer glutinous 
rice ripes in July and is one meter in height. 

XXVI. — On the Kaoliang and Barley, Cultivated 
in Manchuria. 

Among various gramineous plants cultivated in Man- 
churia the local kaoliang and barley are of considerable 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 91 

interest. The former one is the staple grain of this district 
and is largely cultivated throughout Manchuria, the second 
is not so common, and is seen both in the South and North 
of the country. These plants are met with in several 
varieties and local forms, some of which are of a rural 
economic interest. 

Great millet or kaoliang is found in the following 
forms : — 

I. — Andropogon Sorghum Brot. var. vulgaris subvar. 
japonica. This is the principal kind which is grown in great 
quantity everywhere. It is an annual of 5-12 feet in height; 
with sufficiently wide linear leaves and thick, straight, stand- 
ing, compact brush. The spikes on the sides of the branches 
of the brush are disposed in pairs, but on the ends by threes. 
The riped spikes are backward-oval, bright black or pale 
yellow. 

The following forms of this subvariety are found. 

1. — Bearded red kaoliang. This kind has small beards 
and reddish seeds. 2. — Unbearded red kaoliang. A form, 
without beards. 3. — Unbearded ivhite kaoliang. A un- 
bearded kind with eight white yellow grains. 4. — Bearded 
white kaoliang. A kind with small beards. 

II. — Gluiinose kaoliang. Andropogon Sorghum Brot. 
var. halepensis, subvar. leiostachys Hackel. This form is 
not frequently observed and is remarkable for its long, large 
very cernous branchy brushes, with bearded spikes. The 
seeds are smooth, black in the upper part covered with bristly 
hairs and glutinous when cooked. This plant is of 5-9 feet 
in height and has the appearance of a gigantic millet. 

Barley in Manchuria is found in three forms among 
which the four rowed barley is the most common. In follow- 
ing forms are represented here. 

1. Four-rowed barley. (Hordeum vulgar e L.) It has 

four rowed spikes and oblong grains. 2.— Six-rowed barley. 
(Hordeum hexasiichum L.) This kind was brought to Man- 
churia from Europe. 3. — Manchurian six-rowed barley. 
(Hordeum hexastichum L. var. mandshuricum Eegel). This 
local variety is distinguished from the former one by cylin- 
dric, cernous spikes. In the opinion of Prof. Eegel this 
plant is very valuable for cultivation for its rich harvest and 
rapid ripening. The Chinese barley in Manchuria is far 
better than the barley cultivated in the Kussian Far East, 
but this is because of the method of cultivation. 

XXVII.— Kaoliang and Maize Growing at Eoochow. 

At first sight it appears strange that there should be an 
enormous difference in rural economic life between the North 



92 



NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 



and South of China. For instance in the North kaoliang 
serves as one of the principal food stuffs : while in the South 
at Foochow this cereal is but little used by the local farmers. 
Kaoliang is not found here in grain and medicines shops, but 
is sometimes observed in market-gardens as a plant forming 
high hedges and the seeds are used to feed poultry and also 
to prepare the kaoliang-groats. More frequently kaoliang is 
planted in small groups of 10-20 specimens, but big planta- 
tions of them are rarely seen. It is found here in the bearded 
form with white and red seeds, it is sown in the third month 
(lunar calendar) and ripens in the eighth. 

Two harvests of kaoliang are obtained. The first crop 
consists of the big brushes, growing directly on the stalks, 
the second is obtained from the brushes, growing up from the 
the lateral shoots appearing in the middle of the stems. 

The second brushes are three times smaller than the first 
one and have only 60-150 seeds. For this reason the local 
Chinese have a habit, with the ripening of large brushes, not 
to cut it near the roots, as is done in North China, but near 
the top of the stalk. This fact shows that the local Chinese 
are skilful in their economy of cultivated plants. 

The second cereal is maize but not well known locally 
which is also only seen in vegetable gardens with yellow 
grains. Maize is planted here in the third month and then 
the seedling will reach 5-7 inches, they are transplanted on 
beds one foot from each other. 

The local plants are low, feeble, with a very small cob. 
The maize grains and maize flour are not common as food 
stuffs here. 

XXVIII. — List of Plants Growing in Foochow. 

The following list of plants which is given in this note 
represents my first short botanic report on Foochow. It 
contains only a small portion of existing plants in this locality 
and the remaining ones after being defined will be given 
later on. 



Aleurites cordata D. C. 
Abutilon avicennae Gaertn. 
Adiantum cuneatum Lgsd. 

Fish. 
Agave americana L. 
Albizzia Julibrissin Dur. 
Alisma Plantago L. 
Aralia sinensis L. 
Areca Catechu L. 
Asparagus lucidus L. 
Azalea indica L. 
Azalea sinensis Lodd. 
Azolla sp. 

Bambusa arundinacea Weed 
Bambusa vulgaris, Schrad. 



Bombax malabaricum. 
Biota orientalis Endl. 
and Bignonia grandiflora L. 

Boemeria nivea. Hook and Arn. 
Capsella Bursa pastoris Moench. 
Coix lacryma L. 
Calendula officinalis L. 
Canarium album Raensch. 
Camellia japonica Thub. 
Camellia sasangua Thunb. 
Canna indica L. 
Carica Papaya L. 
Caryota sp. 

Catalpa Kaempferi S. and Z. 
Celosia cristata L. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 



93 



Chamaerops excelsa Thub. 
Chrysanthemum sinensis Sab. 
Chloranlhus inconspicuus Sw. 
Chlorophytum Sternbergianum 

Staud. 
Cinnamonum camphora. 
Citrus auranticum L. 
Citrus decumana Lour. 
Citrus japonica Thunb. 
Citrus media Riss. 
Citrus triptera Desf. (?) 
Commelina sp. 
Cryptomeria sp. 
Cunninghamia sinensis R. Br. 
Cupressus funebris Endb. 
Cycas revoluta Thunb. 
Datura alba Nees. 
Datura arborea. 
Dianthus chinensis L. 
Dioscorea quinquiloba Thunb. 
Diospyros kaki L. 
Eucalyptus globulus Lab. 
Fatsia papyrifera Benth. and 

Hook. 
Ficus repens weed. 
Ficus retusa L. 
Fragaria indica Andr. 
Funkia subcordata sprgl. 
Gardenia florida L. 
Gleditschia sinensis L. 
Ginkgo biloba L. 
Gomphrena globosa L. 
Hedera helix L. 
Helianthus annus L. 
Hemerocallis flava L. 
Hibiscus syriacus L. 
Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. 
Hibiscus mutabilis L. 
Humulus japonicus S. and Z. 
Hex latifolia Thunb. 
Jasminum sambac Ait. 
Jasminum nudiflorum Tdl. 
Jttniperus chinensis L. 
Kochia scoparia Schr. 
Kerria japonica Dc. 
Lemna minor L. 
Lespedeza sp. 

Liquidambar formosana Hance. 
Livistonia chinensis Br. 
Magnolia grandiflora L. 
Magnolia yulan Desp. 
Marsilia quadrifolia L. 
Matricaria chamomilla L. 
Melia Azedarach L. 
Mentha arvensis L. 
Mespilus japonica Thab. 
Moras alba L. 
Monocharia vaginalis Sprg. 
Murraya exotica L. 
Musa sapientum L. 



Myriophyllum spicatum L. 

Narcissus tazetta L. 

Nelumbirem speciosum L. 

Nephelium lichi L. 

Nephelium longana comb. 

Nerium oleander L. 

Nympha^a sp. -*L 

Olea aquifolia S. and Z. 

Ophiopogon spicatus gawl. 

Oryza sativa L. 

Oryza glutinosa Rumph. 

Poinciana pulcherrima L. 

Populus alba L. 

Populus balsaminifera L. 

Portulaca oleracea L. 

Prunus mume S. and Z. 

Prunus persica S. and Z. 

Pteris aquilina L. 

Pteris serrulata L. 

Punica granatum L. 

Pirus sinensis Ldl . 

Pirus baccata L. ( ?) 

Reineckia carnea Knth. 

Rhapis humilis Bl. 

Rhapis flagelliformis Ait. 

Ricinus communis L. 

Rhynchospermum jasminoides 
Ldl. 

Rosa indica L. 

Saccharum officinalis var. sinen- 
sis. 

Saccharum officinalis var. rubri- 
caule. 

Rumex acetosa L. 

Sagtittaria sagittaefolia L. 

Salix babylonica L. 

Salvinia natans L. 

Sapindus mukorossi gaertn. 

Scirpus tuberosus L. 

Scolopendrium vulgare Swtz 

Serissa foetida comm. 

Sophora japonica L. 

Spirodela polyrrhiza Schleid. 

Stillingia sebifera Mich. 

Taraxicum sp. 

Taxodium heterophyllum. 

Thea viridis L. 

Thea Bohea L. 

Trachycarpus excelsa Th. 

Trapa natans L. 

Tropaelum magus L. 

Typha orientalis Presl. 

Ulmus parvifolia (?) 

Utricularia vulgaris L. 

Wistaria chinensis Dc. 

Wollfia arrhiza Wimm. 

Wood war dia japonica Sw. 

Yucca sp. 
Zea may. L. 



94 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

XXIX. — The Insect Trade in South China and 
Some Methods of Catching Insects. 

In the South part of China, generally, as well as in 
subtropical and tropical regions the local insects attract 
attention for their diversity and quantities. They are used 
in native medicines, and as food. Lately they have been 
collected for commercial purposes. In most Chinese medi- 
cine shops in Foochow there are seen whole boxes full of 
different insects, 9 but principally the natives have been 
collecting for sale to the foreigners. Before the last war 
they were being exported specially to Germany; but owing 
to the interruption of the export trade to Europe, this trade 
here was reduced to a minimum, though some collections 
are now sent to Shanghai to the Museum of the Asiatic 
Society. The export of insects from Foochow to Germany 
was so large that big reserves had to be made by local Chinese 
for instance, still at the present time one can see pots of 
15-20 pounds in weight full- of bamboo beetles (calandra 
longipes) and besides this hundreds of valuable kinds, bright- 
coloured Chinese carnivorous beetles. The local climatic 
conditions do not permit of ordinary preservation so the 
Chinese preserve them in rolled capsules of thin cigarette 
paper. For instance, for a beetle of one inch long it takes 
a square piece of paper of 3 x 3 inches, the insect is rolled 
to or three times in it and the ends are twisted. 

This method saves each insect from moulds and from 
the breakage of tender parts. The redressed insects are not 
long preserved on pins, since after a certain time they are not 
only covered with byssus (Penicillium crustaceum), but also 
with larger Mucoraceae, and after few years they begin to 
fall in pieces. To keep the butterflies here is difficult. 
Owing to the local dampness the redressed butterflies drop 
the wings, become spoiled and are quickly discoloured in the 
day light. 

To collect winged and water insects the Chinese use 
bags, but the way of catching the cicada, dragonflies and 
other fly insects is most original and interesting. For 
catching the tender dragon-flies they employ long bamboos 
on the ends of which is tied a thin bamboo hoop of 30-50 cm. 
in length and 20-30 cm. in breadth. On this hoop is wound 
the spider web gathered on the walls, hedges and mostly 
everywhere. The web is collected until the interstices of 
the hoop are covered with a 'thin net of the web. To 



9 The insects used in Chinese medicines are now studied by 
C. R. Kellogg at Foochow. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 95 

catch an insect the net is brought near to it, which not 
noticing the transparent texture during its flight, falls on 
and sticks by the wings to the tenacious web. After this the 
collector, holding the bamboo between the legs, takes off the 
insect with his two hands, and thus the collector gets the 
insect in an excellent state. To collect cicada seated high 
on the trees the same hoop is also used; but more frequently 
a long bamboo coated on the end with the white gluish sap 
of the banyan tree or by a glue made from pine resin and of 
a wood oil — T'ung-yu (Aleurites cordata). By a cautious 
approach of the bamboo end to the insect the latter sticks to 
the bamboo by its large wings. 

This method of catching insects has been known to the 
Chinese for a long time. 

XXX. — The Use of the Horse-Tail. 
(Equisetum hyemale L.) in China. 

Among the numerous interesting and useful Chinese 
plants attention is drawn to the so called winter horse-tail 
employed by Chinese in medicines, and polishing wood. 
This horse-tail is very common in North China in the 
provinces of Kiangsi and Shensi from whence a large quantity 
is exported, chiefly to the South, pre-eminently as a medi- 
cinal herb. 

It is seen in other parts of North China and Manchuria, 
where the horse-tail has a trade importance. Equisetum is 
only found in marshes mostly among forests. It has a 
compact root system and stalks without branches of 3-6 m.m. 
in breadth and J-l meter in length placed very closely to 
each other. The fructification bearing spores are seen on 
the top of the green shoots. The stalks are round with 
20-24 furrows, inside hollow, thanks to the aerial cavity. 
The exterior coat is silicious; the surface of the stalks are 
compact; the whole covered with silicious hard small knobs. 
On account of the silex in the covering the stalks of 
Equisetum (;fc S£ !^) with its 24 furrows represents a wonder- 
ful material for delicate polishing not only of wood, but of 
brass, silver and other metals; and these stalks are, therefore, 
used in large numbers by Chinese curio workshops in 
Foochow and in many other places in South China to polish 
all possible fine wood-work. As a general rule in Foochow 
the wooden figures are cut out of lichee, lungan and 
camphor woods (Nephelium litchi L., N. longana Cowl, and 
Cinnamomum camphora). Firstly they are polished with 
shack skin (^> fo ft), but for the final polishing the stalks of 
Equisetum are employed. A Chinese, holding in his hands 
a piece of the horse-tail, 2-3 inches long, rubs the wood. 



96 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

always across the furrows of trie stalks. As a polishing 
material the stalks of the Equisetum are very solid and more 
durable and cheaper than sand-paper, giving the reason why 
the foreign sand-paper is not used much by the Chinese. The 
stalks of Equisetum are greatly valued by Foochow ivory- 
turners and have an extensive application in the local pro- 
duction of wooden articles. 

XXXI. — On New Flagellata from Manchuria. 

In my first notes on Flagellata of Manchuria, 10 127 forms 
of inferior vegetable organisms have already been described, 
including 40 new species and varieties, and many of them 
were of scientific interest because of their peculiar con- 
struction. The investigation of water basins in the environs 
of Harbin, continued by me in the summer of 1917, has 
convinced me of the original character of the Flagellata 
observed. 

At the second investigation 60 different forms were 
found, 42 of which are placed as new in science. It is 
specially interesting to indicate that of the 190 existing forms 
of this genus 80 are now known only in Manchuria. It must 
also be noted that the wealth of new forms, comes not as a 
result of the investigation of materials from all — possible and 
remote districts of Manchuria, similar to the investigations 
of Mr. D. O. Swirenko made in European Russia, but is the 
result of studying the samples of phytoplankton taken only at 
Harbin from several marshes and ponds in the Sungari river 
valley. Among the new species of Trachelomonas found here 
the most interesting were the forms with a rim on the upper 
part of the lorica, such as Tr. Wislouchii, Tr. Komarowii, 
Tr. -peridiniformis, Tr. marginellus and it is interesting to 
remark that only in North America as described by Palmer, 
was there found a kind of Trachelomonas named Tr. Spicu- 
lifera with a very small rim around the flagella hole. In 
Manchuria also are found Trachelomonas approximating to 
an American kind Tr. Americana — this is Tr. Manchurica, 
but the latter is without the long collar. It is also character- 
istic that the new Manchurian forms have the lorica covered 
with double net points, as seeen on Tr. Arnoldiana (PI. II, 
Fig. 10), Tr. hispida var. bipunctata (PI. I, Fig. 11) and one 
very interesting variety Tr. globularis var. punctata (PI. II, 
Fig. 32) with small thorns and small and large spots on the 
surface of the lorica. Other species as — Tr. Komarowii var. 
punctata (PL II, Fig. 21), Tf. hispida var. macropunctata 



10 The materials on Flagellata of Manchuria, Part I ; 2 plates 
(Journal of Microbiology, Vol. IV, 1917, Petrograd). 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 97 

(PL I, Fig. 24), Tr. cijlindrica var. punctata (PL I, Fig. 29), 
Tr. Kelloggii var. limosa (Fig. 6 in the text), Tr. Arnoldiana 
var. formosa (PL II, fig. 15), Tr. sp: (PL I, Fig. 28)— have 
only large points under the form of round pits on the surface 
of the brown lorica. 

From a study of much material on Trachelomonas from 
Manchuria and from other places of Asia, I have come to the 
conclusion that these organisms are very polymorphous and 
often there are signs of one kind uniting with another. A 
large variation was observed, especially in Tr. volvocina, var. 
cervicula (PL II, Fig. 9), Tr. verrucosa var. ornata (PL II, 
Fig. 2),_ Tr. Kelloggii (PL I, Figs. 7 and 8), Tr. globulars, 
Tr. Wislouchii, Tr. oblonga, Tr. hispida, Tr. armata, 
Tr. paludosa, Tr. Raciborskii. 

In the present notes I give the list of 48 Trachelomonas 
among which 42 are described as new species and varieties, 
two kinds of Trachelomonas are not defined and other three 
forms with names are taken from my first work. At the same 
time I have made some alterations in the classification and 
all this new grouping comes from the study of all existing 
species. During the summer of 1907 in the environs of 
Harbin there were seen 13 kinds of Flagellata not observed 
in Manchuria previously, and they are Euglena tripteris 
(Duj.) Klebs, Phacus striata Fr., Lepocinclis fusiformis 
(corda) Lemm., Lepocinclis sphagnophila Lemm., Lepocin- 
clis texta (Duj.) Lemm., Trachelomonas pulchra Swir., 
Tr. incertra Lemm., Tr. reticulata var. punctata (Lemm.) 
( = Tr. incerta var. punctata Lemm.), Tr. reticulata var. 
amphora (Swir.) ( = Tr. amphora Swir.), Tr. Schaninslandii 
Lemm., Tr. Rasiborskii Wolosz, Tr. piscatoris var. granulata 
Skvortzow and Eutosiphon ovatum Stokes. 

The list of new Trachelomonas is : — 

Trachelomonas Manchurica nov. sp. ( = Tr. globularis 
(Awer.) Lemm.) var. longispina Skvortzow. 

Var. Arnoldiana 11 nov. var. PL II, Fig. 24. Lorica 
spherical, brown in colour, covered with dots and sharp- 
pointed long spines 10-12 in number of 7-8 microns in length 
and with 8 small rounded knobs around the nagella hole. 
Diameter of the lorica is 18 microns. 

Tr. poltavica (Swir.) nov. 12 var. atomaria nov. var. PL II, 
Fig. 20. Lorica spherical, round, dotted, bright-yellow in 
colour. The upper part is contracted and passes directly 
to the neck. The diameter of the lorica is 14 to 16 microns. 



11 Named in honour of Mr. Boris E. Arnold who has collected this 
Trachelomonas at Harbin. 

12 The present species is apportioned by me from Tr. granulata 
Swir. var. poltavice Swir. 

7 



98 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Tr. spiralis nov. sp. PI. I, Fig. 1. Lorica oval, dark- 
brown, the surface longitudinally striated. The upper part 
is flattened, the lower is contracted and rounded. The lips 
surrounding the flagella hole are thick, of 3.1 microns in 
breadth. The length of lorica 27 microns, the breadth 23 
microns. 

Tr. Komarowii nov. 13 sp. ( = Tr. Wislouchu Skvortzow 
var. Manchurica Skvortzow) var. punctata nov. var. PL II, 
Fig. 21. This lorica has the same shape as the typical form, 
but all the surface is covered with circular pits. Diameter 
of the lorica is 21 to 23 microns: The breadth of the flagella 
hole is 4 microns and of the rim 11 microns. 

Tr. Wislouchii Skvortzow var. punctulosus nov. var. 
PI. II, Fig. 8. Lorica has also the same shape as the typical 
form, but »is covered, except the round knobs, with dots. 
The diameter of the lorica is 28 microns. 

Tr. Planhtonic Swir. var. omata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 19. 
Lorica is nearly spherical, brown, thickly covered with dots 
and rounded knobs. The tube-like neck is serrated and of 
4.3 microns in length. Lorica is of 23 microns in length and 
17 microns in breadth. 

Var. Gracilis nov. var. PL I, Fig. 21. Lorica nearly 
spherical, brown, smooth. The tube-like neck is cut obli- 
quely. Lorica is 18 microns in length and 16 microns in 
breadth. The breadth of the neck is 2.5 microns. The 
chromatophores are numerous. Eye spot is distinct. 

Var. Asiatica nov. var. Figs. 1 and 2 in the text. Lorica 
broadly-oval, transparent or brown, dentated. The neck is 
straight of 2.5 microns in length. Chrometophores are 
numerous, eyes spot is distinct. Lorica is 17 microns in 
length and 14 microns in breadth. 

Tr. intermedia Dang. var. decorata nov. var. Fig. 9 in 
the text. Lorica is nearly sperical, brown, covered with few 
rounded knobs, disposed in small groups of 2 or 3. Lorica 
is of 15 to 18 microns in length and of 11 to 13 microns in 
breadth. • 

Var. Castaneus nov. var. PL II, Fig. 23. Lorica nearly 
spherical dark brown, covered with mass of lines. Lorica 
is of 15 microns in length and 12 microns in breadth. 

Var. Hispida nov. var. PL I, Figs. 17 and 18. Lorica 
broadly-oval, brown. Surface covered with minute sharp- 
pointed spines. Lorica is of 16 microns in length and of 
13.5 microns in breadth. 



13 Named in honour of Mr. L. D. Komarow, a well known Kussian 
Botanist, investigator of the Manchurian flora. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 99 

Tr. Kelloggii nov. 14 sp. PL I, Figs. 7 and 8. Lorica is 
broadly-oval, brown, dotted and with rounded knobs on the 
upper and lower part of the lorica. The knobs on the lower 
part are sometimes longer than the knobs of the upper part. 
The flagella hole is of 4 to 4.7 microns in breadth and is very 
thick. Lorica is of 35 microns in length and 31 microns in 
breadth. 

Var. Effigurata nov. var. PI. I, Fig. 6. Lorica is brown, 
dotted and covered with big round knobs. Lorica is of 
35 microns in length and of 31.4 microns in breadth. The 
flagella hole is of 4.7 microns in breadth. 

Var. Limosa nov. var. Fig. 7 in the text. Lorica dark- 
brown, covered with big circular pits. Lorica is of 30 microns 
in length and of 27 microns in breadth. 

Tr. Hsipida (Perty) Stein var. Bipunctata nov. var. 
PL I, Fig. 11. Lorica brown, dotted and covered with 
circular pits. Lorica is of 26 microns in length and 21 microns 
in breadth. The flagella hole is of 3.5 microns in breadth. 

Var. Macropunctata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 24. Lorica 
dark-brown, covered only with small circular pits. The 
neck is straight and serrated. Lorica is of 32 microns in 
length and 25 microns in breadth. The flagella hole is of 
5.8 microns in length. 

Tr. Horrida Palmer var. moenacanthum nov. var. PL I, 
Fig. 33. Lorica brown, dotted, covered with few small 
knobs. The neck is long, serrated of 4.7 microns in length 
and of 3.8 microns in breadth. Lorica is 28.3 microns in 
length and 18 microns in breadth. 

Tr. Armata (Ehrenb.) Stein, var. colorans nov. var. 
PL I, Fig. 20. Lorica elongate-oval, brown, dotted, all 
covered with small knobs and on the lower part with large 
sharp-pointed spines. A short tube-like neck is serrated, of 
5 microns in breadth. Lorica of 40 microns in length and 
25 microns in breadth. 

Tr. Raciborskii Wolosz. var. Swirenkiana 15 nov. var. 
Fig. 5 in the text. Lorica elongate-oval, brown, dotted and 
covered with knobs and in the middle part of the lorica they 
are smaller than on the upper and on lower part. Lorica 
is of 32 microns in length and 21 microns in breadth. 

Var. Punctata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 15. Lorica brown, 
dotted. The tube-like neck is straight and serrated. Lorica 
has 35 microns in length and 27 microns in breadth. 



14 Named in honour of Mr. C. R. Kellogg, a zoologist working in 

Foochow, China. . . 

15 Named in honour of Mr. D. 0. Swirenko, the specialist on 
Flagellata in Harkow University, European Russia. 



100 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Tr. Teres Meskell var. ornata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 35. 
Lorica elongate, brown, dotted and covered with minute 
sharp-pointed spines. The tube-like neck is broad, short, 
serrated of 5.5 microns in breadth. Lorica is 26 microns in 
length and 16 microns in breadth. 

Tr. Felix nov. sp. Fig. 3 in the text. Lorica oval, 
brown, dotted and covered with few elongate knobs. Lorica 
is of 20 m in length and 15 m. in breadth. 

Tr. Mirabilis Swir. var. orientalis nov. var. ( = Trache- 
lomonas sp. in the "Materials on Flagellata of Manchuria" 
by B. W. Skvortzow, Pt. 1, Fig. E in the text). The 
diagnosis of this variety can be seen in the indicated note. 

Var. Affinis nov. var. ( = Trachelomonas sp. in "The 
Materials of Flagellata of Manchuria," by B. W. Skvortzow, 
Part I, Fig. D in the text). A variety covered with spines, 
the diagnosis also can be seen in the indicated note. 

Tr. piscatoris (Fischer) Stokes var. leavis nov. var. PI. I, 
Fig. 3. Lorica oval, brown, smooth. The upper part is con- 
tracted and passes directly- into the neck. Lorica is of 
25 microns in length and 14 microns in breadth. The neck 
if of 3.3 microns in breadth. 

Var. granulata Skvortzow in the freshwater algae from 
the ponds of South China (Journal of N.C.B.B.A.S., 1919). 

The Manchurian form had the neck serrated of 3 microns 
in breadth and the surface of the lorica covered with smaller 
granules. Lorica was 22 microns in length and 16 microns 
in breadth. 

Tr. paludosa Skvortzow var. elongata nov. var. PL II, 
Fig. 1. Lorica a little longer than the typical form, of 
36 microns in length and 16 microns in breadth. The surface 
is brown, dotted. The tube -like neck is of 4 microns in 
length and of 3.2 microns in breadth. 

Tr. Arnoldiana 16 nov. sp. PL II, Fig. 10. Lorica oval, 
brown, contracted at the upper part and rounded at the 
lower part. The surface is dotted and covered with circular 
pits. The neck is straight, serrated of 5 microns in length 
and of 4 microns in breadth. Lorica of 25 microns in length 
and 20 microns in breadth. 

Var. Formosa nov. var. PL II, Fig. 15. Lorica is oval, 
brown, covered with small circular pits. The upper part 
is contracted, the lower rounded. The neck is straight with 
the upper part cut obliquely, of 4.7 microns in length and of 
4 microns in breadth. Lorica is of 28 microns in length and 
of 21 microns in breadth. 

Var. Granulata nov. var. Fig. 8 in the text. Lorica 
oval, brown, covered with round knobs. The upper part is 

16 Named in honour of Mr. Borish Arnold who has collected this 
form. 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 101 

•very contracted, the lower round. The neck is long, straight. 
Lorica is of 23 microns in length and of 18 microns in 
breadth. Eye is distinct. Flagellum 2| times bigger than 
the lorica. 

Tr. Saccata Lemm. var. paludosa nov. ^ar. PI. II, 
Fig. 18. Lorica brown, covered with knobs of 35 microns in 
length and 23 microns in breadth. The neck is of 5.2 microns 
in breadth. The Chroma topheres are elongate. 

Tr. Earns nov. sp. PL I. Fig. 10. Lorica oval, brown, 
smooth. The upper part has a reclined neck and this is 
seen only in the optical section. The neck is of 6 microns in 
breadth. Lorica is of 18 microns in length and of 12 microns 
in breadth. 

Var. Puctata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 14. Lorica brown, 
covered with circular pits and has 14 microns in length and 
9.4 microns in breadth. The neck is of 4 microns in breadth. 
Tr. Cylindrica Ehrenb. ( = Tr. euchlora var. cylindrica 
(Ehrenb.) Lemm. Var. punctata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 29. 
Lorica is cylindrical, brown, covered with small circular pits. 
Lorica is of 26 microns in length, 14 microns in breadth. 
The neck is of 3.1 microns in breadth. 

Tr. depressa Swir. var. punctata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 36. 
Lorica is brown, dotted, of 25 microns in length and 30 
microns in breadth. The flagella hole is of 3.3 microns in 
breadth. 

Tr. Borodiniana Swir. var. minima nov. var. PL II, 
Fig. 22. Lorica is brown, smooth, with a large neck of 
6 microns in breadth. Lorica is of 15 microns in length and 
breadth. 

Tr. incerta Lemm. var. punctata nov. var. PL I, Fig. 4. 
Lorica dotted of 18 microns in length and 12 microns in 
breadth. The neck of 2.2 microns in breadth. 

Tr. rhombica nov. sp. ( = Tr. hispida var. rhombica 
Skvortzow) var. planktonica nov. var. Fig. 4 in the text. 
Lorica oval, contracted at both ends, brown. The neck is 
long of 5.5 microns in length and 3.5 microns in breadth. 
Lorica is of 30 microns in length and of 20 microns in 
breadth. 

Tr. tuberosus nov. sp. PL I, Fig. 12. Lorica elongate, 
varied in shape, contracted at both ends, brown, dotted. 
Lorica is of 28 microns in length and 13 microns in breadth. 
The neck is of 4.5 microns in breadth. 

Tr Chinensis Skvortzow var. ovata nov. var. Fig. 7 
in the text. Lorica brown, broadly-oval, covered with knobs. 
The neck is serrated of 4.5 microns in breadth. Lorica is 
of 22 microns in length and 16 microns in breadth. 



102 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Tr. Fluviatilis Lemm. var. curta nov. var. PL I, Fig. 31. 
Lorica light-brown, smooth with a very broad middle part. 
The neck is serrated of 2.5 microns in breadth. Lorica is of 
22 microns in length and 16 microns in breadth. 

Var. glabra nov. var. PL II, Fig. 11. Lorica light-brown 
and roughened. The neck is sloped, of 5 microns in breadth. 
Lorica of 26 microns in length and 14.1 microns in breadth. 

Tr. Swirenko Skvortzow var. pulchra nov. var. PL II, 
Fig. 17. Lorica brown, covered with knobs and dots. The 
lower part is rounded with a spine on the end. Lorica of 
40 microns in length and 23 microns in breadth. The neck 
is of 6 microns in breadth. 

Tr. inplatus nov. sp. ( = Trachelomonas sp. in "The 
Materials on Flagellata of Manchuria," by B. W. Skvortzow, 
PL I, Fig. 16. Lorica of the type of Trachelomonas Swir- 
enko Skwertz, but is distinguished by a neck being distinct 
from the lorica. The surface is brown, covered with dots. 
Lorica is of 47 to 49 microns in length and 19 to 21 microns 
in breadth. The neck is of 5:5 to 6 microns in length and of 
4 to 4.5 microns in breadth. 

Tr. Zmiewika Swir. var. hispida nov. var. PL II, Fig. 14. 
Lorica is light brown, covered with very small spines. 
Lorica is of 48 microns in length, 27 microns in breadth. 
The neck is of 6 microns breadth. 

Tr. tambowica Swir. var. granulata nov. var. PL I, 
Fig. 30. Lorica light covered with rounded knobs. Lorica 
is of 45 microns in length and of 20 microns in breadth. The 
neck is of 5.4 microns in breadth. 

Tr. sp. PL I, Fig. 28. Lorica oval, brown, covered with 
small pits. The upper part passes directly to the neck. 
Lorica is of 26 microns in length and of 19 microns in 
breadth. The neck is of 3.9 to 41 microns in breadth. 

Tr. sp. PL II, Fig. 12. Lorica is very elongate, brown, 
dotted and covered with sharp-pointed spines. Lorica is 
of 40 microns in length and of 27 microns in breadth. The 
neck is of 4 microns in breadth. This type is related to the 
Tr. horrid a Palmer. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Trachelomonas spiralis Skvortzow. 

2. Tr. sp. a type related to Tr. intermedia and Tr. Borodiana. 

3. Tr. verrucosa var. ornata Skvortzow. A elongate form. 

4. Tr. incerta var. punctata Skvortzow. 

5. Tr. armata var. punctata Swir. 

6. Tr. kelloggii var. ejfigurata Skvortzow. 

7. Tr. kelloggii Skvortzow. 

8. „ ,$ „ 

9. Tr. reticulata var. amphora (Swir.) Skvortzow. 



Plate I 




[seepages 96-102] 



Plate II. 




[see pages 96-102] 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 103 

Fig. 10. Tr. rarus Skvortzow. 

„ 11. Tr. hispida var. bipunctata Skvortzow. 

„ 12. Tr. tuberosus Skvortzow. 

,, 13 Tr. piscatoris var. levis Skvortzow. 

,, 14. Tr. rarus var. punctata Skvortzow. 

„ 15. Tr. rasiborshii var. punctata Skvortzow. 

,, 16. Tr. piscatoris var. aspera Skvortzow. 

,, 17. Tr. intermedia var. hispida Skvortzow. 

,, -LO. ,, j j ,, ,, 

,, 19. Tr. planctonica var. ornata Skvortzow. 

,, 20. Tr. armctta var. colorans Skvortzow. 

,, 21. Tr. planktonica var. gracilis Skvortzow. 

,, 22. Tr. reticulata var. punctata (Lemm.) Skvortzow. 

,, 23. Tr. volvocina var. punctata Skvortzow. 

,, 24. Tr. hispida var. macropunctata Skvortzow. 

,, 25. Tr. homarowii Skvortzow. 

,, 26. Tr. incerta Lemm. 

„ 27. Tr. cylindrica Ehrenb. 

„ 28. Tr. sp. 

,, 29. Tr. cylindrica var. punctata Skvortzow. 

,, 30. Tr. tambowiha var. granulata Skvortzow. 

,, 31. Tr. fluviatilis var. curta Skvortzow. 

,, 32. Tr. globularis var. punctata Skvortzow (?) 

,, 33. Tr. horrida var. moenacanthuni Skvortzow. 

,, 34. Tr. oblonga var. punctata Lemm. 

,, 35. Tr. teres var. ornata Skvortzow. 

,, 36. Tr. depressa var. punctata Skvortzow. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Trachelomonas paludosa var. elongata Skvortzow. 

,, 2. Tr. verrucosa var. ornata Skvortzow. A form with few knobs. 

„ 3. Tr. volvocina var. punctata Skvortzow. 

„ 4. Tr. horrida Palmer. 

,, 5. Tr. pulchra Swir. 

,, 6. Tr. Schaninslandii Lemm. 

,, 7. Tr. globularis var. puctata Skvortzow. 

,, 8. Tr. wislouchii var. punctata Skvortzow. 

„ 9. Tr. volvocina var. cervicula (Stokes) Lemm. 

,, 10. Tr. arnoldiana Skvortzow. 

,, 11. Tr. fluviatilis var. grabra Skvortzow. 

„ 12. Tr. sp. 

„ 13. Tr. horrida Palmer. 

14. Tr. zmiewika var. hispida Skvortzow. 

,' 15. Tr. arnoldiana var. formosa Skvortzow. 

,, 16. Tr. horrida Palmer. 

17. Tr. Swircnko var. pulchra Skvortzow. 

18. Tr. saccata var. paludosa Skvortzow. 
., 19. Tr. horrida Palmer. 

20. Tr. poltawica var. atomaria Skvortzow. 

', 21. Tr. homarowii var. punctata Skvortzow. 

22. Tr. Borodoniana var. minima Skvortzow. 

23. Tr. intermedia var. eastaneus Skvortzow. 
27. Tr. manchurica var. arnoldiana Skvortzow. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
Dangeard P A Recherches sur les Crytomonadineae et les Euglenae. 

(Le Botaniste, 1889, 1902). . 

Lemmarmann, E. Beitrage zur kenhtms der Planktonalgen N. 1-27. 



104 NOTES ON THE AGRICULTURE, BOTANY 

Lemmarmann, E. Algen in Kryptogamlnflora des Mark Brandurburg, 

Bd. Ill, 1907. 
Lemmarmann, E. Das Phytoplankton des Menam. (Hedwigia 1908). 
Lemmarmann, E. Flagellate II, in Die Siisswasser Flora Deutsch. 

Oster. U. Schweiz, Lena, 1913. 
Swirenko, D. 0. Die Euglenacengattung Trachelomonas. (Arch. f. 

hydrob. u. Plank, IX, 1914). 
Swirenko, D. 0. Some information on the classification and geography 

of Euglenaceae. Harkow, 1915, (in Russian). 
Skvortzow, B. W. The algae from Manchuria and the observations 

on the water -vegetation of the Sungari river valley (Journal of 

Microbiology, Vol. Ill, 1916, S. Petersburg, (in Russian). 
Skvortzow, B. W. The materials on the Flagellata of Manchuria 

Part I, 2 plates, and a picture in the text, (ibid, Vol. IV, 1917, 

Petrograd), in Russian). 
Skvortzow, B. W. The fresh water algae from the ponds of South 

China in "Notes on the agriculture and nature of China," N. III. 

(Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., 1919). 
Skortzow, B. W. On the exploration of the freshwater algae in 

Manchuria N. 8 of the notes, ibid). 
Stein, F. R. Der Organism der Infusionsthiere, 1883. 
Wolozzynska, J. Das Phytoplankton einiger javanischer seen, Beriirk- 

sichtigung des Sawa-Planktons. (Bull. akad. Sc. Cracovi., 1912) 

Etc. 



XXXII. —THE BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE BOTANY, ZOOLOGY 
AND THE RURAL ECONOMY OF MANCHURIA. 

First Part. 

The following list of works on Manchuria is in the Russian 
language : 
Anfilow, W. K. The garden ginseng. (Journal of the Progres. 

Horticul. and Gardening, N. 7, 1916. S. Petersburg). 
Arsieniew, W. K. Chinese in Ussuri district. (Journal of the 

American Branch of the Russian Imp. Geogr. Sc, Vol. X, 1917, 

Habarowsk). 
Boiko, W. The grafting of fruit-trees and roses in Manchuria. 

(Journal of the Rural Econ. in North Manchuria, N. 5-8, 1918, 

Harbin). 
Boiko, W. The Chinese apple-tree and the method of its cultivation. 

{ibid, N. 1-2, 1918). 
Boloban. The North-Eastern Mongolia and its cereals. 
Boloban. The future of Manchuria. 
Boloban. The agriculture and corn-trade in N. Manchuria. Harbin, 

1909. 
Budistchew. The description of forests of Russian Maritime province. 

(Journal of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Imp. Geog. Soc. 

part I-II, 1869). 
Wasiliew, M. Our East and its trade. S. Petersburg, 1891. 
Wradii, W. P. On plants and trees of the Far East. S. Petersburg, 

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AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 105 

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South Manchuria, (ibid). 



AND THE ZOOLOGY OF CHINA 107 

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Turezaninow, N. Flora-Baikalensi-dahurica. 2 vols., 1842-1857. 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 



CHARLES KLIENE, f.k.g.s. 



Introduction. — The story itself is told in true Confucian 
style, and the ''Land of Peach Bloom" is just such a land 
as the Confucian poets and scholars would make it. The 
scenes follow in easy succession and the contrasts are very 
striking. But the land as a place, like the fabulous island of 
Utopia described by Sir Thomas More, is only to be found in 
dreams. Taking the story as an allegory, pointing to a 
condition of society in which men can dwell in peace and 
concord by co-operating with each other for the common 
weal, and upholding the principles of liberty, equality and 
fraternity, it presents an ideal perfectly legitimate to aspire 
to; at the same time it teaches some important lessons. In 
the "Land of Peach Bloom," however, we are told there are 
no evil-doers, and unrighteousness has no place. That is a 
state of perfection which mortals can never hope to attain to. 
To exclude evil altogether from our midst is more than we 
can do; and since perfection is beyond the limit of the round 
of mortal things, the utmost we can strive for is to* reach the 
stage of the least imperfect. A Chinese thinker with a 
metaphysical mind once said to me "we are here not so 
much to suppress that which is evil as to practice that which 
is good; let us not concern ourselves with the evil, for if all 
be good there can be no evil." That seems to me to be only 
suggesting another road to the "Land of Peach Bloom." 

Chinese ontology is founded on the philosophy of the 
Yin and Yang, or the Dual Principles of Nature; the same 
inevitable dualism which Emerson says "bisects" nature, 
and which is very tersely illustrated by the Chinese proverb 
which asserts that every stick has two ends. Good and evil 
are like the opposite ends of the stick ; with our limited vision 
it is impossible for us to see how the one shall be cut off while 
the other alone shall remain. 

In the end the fisherman loses his abode of perfection, 
his paradise nevermore to be regained. This shows how vain 



Mlead before the Society, 17th January, 1919. 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 109' 

and futile it is to seek for that which is not, and to aspire to 
that which is not attainable. 

Those who have taken an interest in the study of com- 
parative folklore have doubtless found among the ancient 
traditions of most nations legends and allegories bearing on 
this same question, told in more or less the same strain, and 
sounding the same keynote, the keynote in man's yearnings 
to reach a state of perfect bliss. It is the high unremitting 
pulse of the soul beating for perfection and immortality. 

The story under review was written by T'ao Ch'ien 
(a.d. 365-427) known in early life as T'ao Yuan Ming. What 
is here given is from a popular dramatized version. The 
title, T'ao Yuan means a source or spring of water in the 
midst of a grove of Peach trees. The character Yuan for 
garden is sometimes misused for Yuan, spring. For a fuller 
account of T'ao see Giles's Biographical Dictionary, p. 717. 

The Story. 

"Hsiin te T'ao Yuan hao pi Ch'in, 
T'ao hung yu chien i nien ch'un ; 
Hua fei mo ch'ien sui liu shui, 
P'a yu yu lang lai wen ching. 1 

(Translation). 

"Having found the home of Peach Blossoms, we are safe from 
the tyranny of Ch'in. 

When Peach Blossoms appear, they mark the springtime of 
another year. 

But let not the petals float down on the stream, lest some fisher- 
man seeing them be guided here." 

Just as the sun was setting one calm spring evening in 
the T'ai-ho vear 2 of the Ch'in dynasty, a stalwart young 
fisherman was seen paddling his little skirr up a narrow 
stream near Wuling, 3 a thriving centre in the Prefecture of 
Ch'ang-te, in the Province of Hunan. 

It had been a long, sultry day, one of those dazzling 
harbingers of an early eastern summer; not a ripple stirred 
the water. A square net, used chiefly to catch small fish in 
shallow water, hung extended in front of the boat, gently 
bobbin^ and swaving as the slender bamboos, which held it 
out byline four corners, bent with each stroke of the paddles. 
For a hundred times at least, since dawn, the net had been 
dipped and lifted with small success, and now, the day s toil 
being ended, it was allowed to hang and dry. 

"i From the ChSen Chia Shih, by Hsieh Fang-te, a poet of the Sung- 
dynasty, and a native of Kiangsi. He died in Peking m a.d. 1289. 

3Wulin 6 g 6 'is also the ancient name of Hangchow, the famous old 
capital of the present province of Chekiang. 



110 THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 

The scene, as usual at this season, was one of nature's 
very daintiest. Peach trees grew in profusion on either 
bank; they were in full bloom, and the ground was carpeted 
with a layer of the delicate pink and white petals fallen from 
the thick masses of blossom. Overhead, rainbow tints slowly 
stole across the evening sky and tinged every cloud, now 
crimson, now pink, now vaporous amethyst, down to the 
far horizon. The fisherman, tired after his hard but honest 
labour, which rarely brought him in more than just enough 
for the bare needs of the next day, stood in the stern of his 
boat languidly urging the lazy craft homeward; he had 
pushed back the heavy bamboo hat that sheltered his head 
from the sun on hot days and the rain in wet weather, to give 
the soft evening breezes that came and went, laden with the 
scent of peach flowers, full play upon his sunburnt face. 
In a little while the west began to glow with the radiance of 
sunset, and as the golden orb sank behind the hilltops a 
delightful charm fell upon the land. Gradually the shadows 
grew longer and longer till they melted away in the evening 
mist, and save for the regular and alternate creak and plash 
of the paddles, all was quiet and still. 

All at once the fisherman, who seemed to be in a reverie, 
fixed his eyes intently on a curious patch of white light which 
appeared at the foot of a hill not far distant. He had never 
seen it before, and wondering what it might possibly be, 
he resolved to go as near as he could to the spot and find 
out. 

The boat had been gliding along without a sound; but 
now, as though it had a purpose in view, it surged forward 
clumsily under the quick and vigorous strokes of the paddles, 
rocking the while like some animated thing, and throwing 
up a wash on either side of the stream as it plunged ahead. 

Presently the fisherman came to a break in the line of 
the peach orchards, and after rounding a bend he found 
himself almost opposite the strange, weird light. It looked 
like an opening in the hillside through which daylight from 
another world had found an outlet. Never having heard of 
any openings, or caves, in his native hills, the fisherman 
became more puzzled than ever. With a few extra strong 
strokes of his paddles he finally ran the broad bow of the 
boat on to the bank; then quickly drawing in the paddles, 
jumped ashore; and, after hauling the boat well up the 
slope so that it should not drift away, he dashed across the 
strip of country before him and made straight for the my- 
sterious luminous patch not more than a few hundred paces 
away. As he drew nearer he could distinctly see that there 
really was an opening in the hillside through which the light 
issued, and the light grew brighter as he approached it. 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 111 

At last he stood before the opening; it was the mouth of a 
tunnel, lit up by sunshine that entered from the far end. 

"This surely is very strange," thought the fisherman; 
"I'll go in and see where it leads to." 

Accordingly, he entered the tunnel and walked boldly 
forward, wondering all the while where the light could come 
from, now that behind him the sun had set and night was 
creeping on. 

The tunnel was not big, though sufficiently high to 
enable him to walk erect without touching the top ; the sides 
were rough, and rugged rock protruded everywhere; under 
foot it was very uneven and strewn with loose sharp stones of 
all shapes and sizes which made progress extremely difficult. 
Had it not been for the daylight that lit up the whole length 
of the tunnel, the fisherman would indeed have found it no 
simple matter to make his way through; but, he deftly 
avoided every obstacle barring his way, and safely came to 
the far end. 

Emerging from the tunnel he was astonished to behold 
a beautiful undulating country stretching far away for miles 
before him. Billowy, fleecy clouds flecked the sky above, 
and the sun, set in the purest azure, beamed upon a land 
such as he had never dreamed of. There were fields upon 
fields of golden corn, and fruit orchards with abundance of 
luscious fruit, such as he had never seen before; and peach 
trees bearing peaches of astounding size, all covered with 
that wondrous bloom that the art of man can never reproduce 
in paintings or on porcelain vases. Lofty palm trees in 
clumps stood here and there waving their feathery heads in 
the breeze, and there were weeping willows, majestic oaks, 
and shady trees he could not name. Flowers grew every- 
where in all their resplendent colours, and filled the air with 
exquisite fragrance. Monster butterflies with irridescent 
wings flitted hither and thither; birds of gorgeous plumage 
sang on every bough, and a crystal brook rippled and gurgled 
in the distance. It was a new world, infinite, magical, 
supernatural; a veritable paradise, fairer by far than the 
fairest land in China. Wonder-stricken, and utterly be- 
wildered, the fisherman stood rooted to the ground before 
the enchanting landscape, unable to explain how he had 
never heard of this wonderful place before, and baffled to tell 

where he was. 

When he had sufficiently recovered from his amazement, 
he noticed in front of him a narrow path -leading to the stream. 
Following this path he crossed the stream over a pretty 
willow pattern bridge and found quite an extensive village 
hidden behind a bamboo grove close by. To this village he 



112 THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 

turned his steps. He soon came upon a group of people 
busily engaged in agricultural pursuits. To all appearances 
they were Chinese like himself; but they were clad in the 
quaint costume of a bygone age. Their language, though 
strange to his ear, was quite intelligible. 

"A stranger, a stranger!" suddenly exclaimed a boy 
who first perceived him; "look, he is coming towards us !" 

Instantly, all turned in the direction the lad indicated. 
"Kun for the Elder," said an old man to the boy, "and tell 
him to come at once." 

The boy took to his heels and disappeared among the 
houses. By this time the fisherman had come up to the 
group, and the old man courteously asked him to be seated 
on a bamboo stool. 

"We have sent for the Elder," said the old man, "he 
will be here presently, and doubtless will be pleased to render 
you any service you may require. In the meantime we 
regret we cannot do more than receive you kindly, for we 
acknowledge that within the Four Seas all are brethren." 

"Yes, indeed," added the rest of the group with nods of 
approval, "all are brethren." 

"I thank you from my heart," replied the fisherman, 
"for your greeting. I am tired, and will gladly rest awhile. 
Your kindness to a stranger is only in keeping with the 
incomparable beauty of this wonderland; I am deeply 
touched by your cordial welcome and your benevolence." 

"That is not worth mentioning," said the old man. 
"Benevolence is a duty that we owe to all our fellow-men. 
It is written that we must not do- to others what we would 
not have others do to us. " 

"A sublime precept indeed," observed the fisherman, 
who, though his literary attainments were by no means of a 
high order, was nevertheless acquainted with some of the 
fundamental teachings of the Chinese Classics. "But," 
added he, "it is also written, I am told, that we should 
have no friends not equal to ourselves. How do you know 
thatl am worthy of your goodwill?" 

"True," answered the old man. "But here all are 
worthy; and the fact that you have come is sufficient- 
assurance to us of your worthiness." 

At this juncture the boy returned with the Elder of the 
village, a hardy patriarch of noble mien, with the kindliest 
of eyes and a flowing white beard. "Friend," said he. 
bowing low to the fisherman, "you are indeed welcome. 
It is laid down in our books that when a stranger comes to 
us from afar, we shall receive him kindly, and treat him in 
a befitting manner. We cannot, therefore, do less than offer 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 113 

you our humble hospitality; we beg of you that you will 
deign to accept such entertainment as we can command 
during your sojourn in our midst. If you will follow us, it 
will be a privilege to conduct you to the Hall of Harmony 
where you may rest and refresh yourself in comfort. ' ' Then 
turning to the group, he added, "Is it not delightful to 
have friends coming from distant quarters?" 

They all bowed respectfully, and acquiesced in this 
further quotation from the Analects of the great Sage 
Confucius. 

The fisherman, only too pleased to have a place where 
he might rest and refresh himself, eagerly accepted the 
invitation so generously and spontaneously proffered, and 
they all repaired in a body to the Hall of Harmony. 

On the way it became evident that the village was well 
populated and in the highest state of prosperity. In fact, it 
was more than a village, for it had wide and well-kept 
thoroughfares and public squares, and the houses were all 
: n excellent condition. There were shops innumerable that 
dealt in all manner of things which the people bought and 
sold by barter. There were agricultural implements all made 
of bronze; clothing made of curious stuffs; mats, rugs, and 
carpets in antique designs; household furniture of choice 
woods, and household utensils of pottery, bronze and gold; 
but all were quaint in shape, quite different from anything the 
puzzled fisherman had ever seen in his life. The shop-signs 
and notices were written in Chinese characters; but charac- 
ters of a very ancient type and not easy to decipher. The 
people, both old and young, seemed perfectly happy; not an 
angry word nor a harsh sound was to be heard; everybody 
pursued his vocation in the best of humour. The men were 
courtly, the children clean, and the women unobtrusive, 
refined, as well as comely. 

It soon transpired, however, that a stranger from distant- 
parts had arrived, and before long a Crowd accompanied the 
fisherman to the Hall of Harmony. Everybody was 
intensively interested, and eager to catch a glimpse of the 
newcomer. 

On arrival at the Hall of Harmony, a magnificent and 
stately structure in the temple style, the fisherman was led 
to the grand reception room which was paved with marble 
and decorated with elaborately carved wood panels and scrolls. 
Here the Elder performed a low obeisance in a reverential 
manner before a tablet of Confucius which stood in the 
centre of a long altar against the back wall. On the altar 
were also ranged, on either hand of the tablet, grotesque 
sacrificial vessels, tripods, urns, and libation cups, wrought 

3 



114 THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 

in pure gold and precious jadestone; right in front of all 
was a splendid bronze censer containing smouldering sandal- 
wood, from which a thin wreath of fragrant blue smoke 
ascended to the rafters of the vast apartment. The fisher- 
man was then conducted to the seat of honour on a dais, and 
the Elder, having installed himself on his right, for the 
left is the place of honour, commanded that a feast be 
prepared, and that the notables of the place be invited to 
attend, so that the stranger might be entertained in a 
manner worthy of the traditions of the people. Never in 
all his life had the poor fisherman received so much attention. 
Eemonstrances on his part were all of no avail; he simply 
had to submit to what was being done in his honour. 

As soon as he was seated an attendant brought flowing 
robes for him to wear, lest he should feel embarrassed at 
being differently clad to his hosts; others presented refresh- 
ments, consisting of fruit, cakes, and wine. It was while 
partaking of these good things that the Elder imparted to 
him the following information. 

"There is no need," began the Elder, "for you to tell 
us from whence you hail, or how you came; we are aware 
of that already. But since you do not know where you are, 
let me inform you at once that this is the land of Peach 
Bloom, the land of sunshine and perfection, where nothing 
ever goes wrong, where the voice of strife and discord is not 
heard, and where we are far from the noise and wrangling 
of the outer world to which you belong. Men have long 
sought this happy land ; but they have sought in vain because 
they know not the approach. There is only one road to it, 
a road that is beset with hardships and difficulties, and only 
those who are worthy may tread it. He who finds the road, 
and comes to us, shares in all our joys; he who leaves us to 
return once more to the dusty world of confusion may carry 
back with him nothing beyond the memory of what he has 
seen and the experience he has gained, which he is free to 
use for the good of mankind at large, if he knows how. 
We detain no one against his will. We have no evil-doers 
in our midst, and so need no laws to safeguard our peace; 
we have no battles to fight, and so need no implements of 
war. No ailments or wasting disease afflict us ; no remedies 
or cures are therefore needed. There are no crimes here 
because there are no evil-doers ; for that reason we know no 
remorse, no anguish of heart, no sorrow. Envy, spite, 
hatred, selfishness, deceit, cunning, malice, —these, and all 
unrighteousness, — have no place here. Our wealth is un- 
limited, surpassing by a myriadfold the wealth of all your 
earthly kings. Gold and silver and precious stones abound, 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 115 

but we seek them not. Happiness is our inheritance; 
happiness born of goodwill and contentment, which naught 
can mar, as naught can dim the brightness of the sun, the 
eye of the universe which seeth all things. You must not 
imagine, however, that we claim any credit for this perfect 
state of affairs. We came here as mere mortals from your 
benighted world, destitute and in dire distress, fugitives from 
the tyranny of one who would fain have taken our lives. 
It must be many years since we arrived; we cannot say how 
long it is, for we keep no account of time. In those days 
there ruled over the newly consolidated Empire of China one 
who assumed the proud title of Shih Huang Ti, or First 
Emperor. After subduing all the feudal states, this cruel 
and relentless monarch waged a ruthless war against us, 
the literati of the land. The writings of our ancient Sages 
he tore from us and cast into the flames; those of us who 
resisted, he destroyed, or sent north to build the Great Wall. 
Many perished ignominiously, and there was danger of our 
complete extermination as well as the irretrievable loss of 
our literature. In the the hour of our affliction we lifted our 
voices and cried to the spirit of the Great Master Confucius 
to deliver us from the evil days that had fallen upon us, and 
to rescue his teachings from the impious hands of our enemy. 
Our cry was heard. At a secret conference, an inspiration 
came to us; we resolved to fly. In the hush of night we 
fled from the diabolical sway of that accursed despot, bring- 
ing away with us our written tablets, our sacrificial vessels, 
our ceremonial robes, and such of our goods and chattels as 
we could carry. We knew not whither we should go; but 
we turned our steps towards the mountains, and trusted in 
the spirit of the Master to guide us to a safe retreat. 
Hampered as we were by the aged and the young of our 
band, our pace was necessarily slow, and we were in terror 
of being overtaken by the soldiers of the Emperor and led 
back as captives to certain death, if not slaughtered by them 
on the spot. When day dawned, we hid ourselves in the 
crevices of the mountains, and there anxiously awaited 
nightfall to resume our flight. It was a day of terrible 
suspense ; we dared not issue from our hiding places for fear 
of being seen; the hours of waiting seemed interminable. 

At last the sun sank in the west; twilight passed, and a 
dense darkness shrouded the land. We were all ready and 
eager to move on ; we sallied forth and silently groped our way 
along the mountainside. We had not proceeded far when a 
strange light appeared ahead of us; a light not dazzling, 
vet of pure whiteness, and it came from the bowels of the 
mountain. The appearance of this inexplicable light caused 



116 THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 

us no little apprehension for we knew not what evil it 
betokened. To retrace our steps was impossible; rather than 
return to the perils left behind, we determined to go forward 
and meet what new dangers Fate had in store for us. There- 
upon, the younger men of our party bravely led the way, 
and by midnight we reached the mouth of a tunnel from 
which the light streamed. The tunnel was flooded with 
daylight which entered through the opening at the opposite 
end ; we could see that beyond the opening there was a land 
brighter and fairer than the one we were in. We paused to 
deliberate as to whether we should pass on, or enter. It 
seemed that we had come to the threshold of a land of pro- 
mise, and that its portals were thrown open to admit us. 
Behind us was darkness, danger and death; before us sun- 
shine, hope and promise. We did not hesitate for long; we 
entc-red the tunnel, hastened onward, and soon found our- 
selves here, where we have lived in peace and plenty ever 
since. Verily, our deliverance was a miracle wrought by our 
Master. His spirit had heard our cry of anguish in the night, 
and had risen to guide us to this land of perpetual day. We 
have placed the token of our gratitude upon yonder altar. 

There are no idlers among us ; we all toil for the common 
weal ; we sow and reap ; we spin and weave ; we cultivate the 
gentle arts, and study the Classics. In time we reared this 
village as you see it. W^e are all abundantly provided for, 
and there is ample to spare. What say you, friend, do you 
care to be one of our number? 

The fisherman had listened to this recital with abated 
breath, and when the Elder came to the end of it, he ex- 
claimed, "Truly, you have told me a marvellous tale. I do 
not doubt a single word; but you must pardon me if I say 
there are things in what you relate that I fail to understand. 
You tell me that you came here when Shih Huang Ti ruled 
the Empire of China. He mounted the throne of Ch'in at 
the age of thirteen, over six hundred years ago, and there 
have been many rulers since then. Do you mean to say that 
you have lived through all those years? 

"I do," replied the Elder. "I also told you that we 
keep no account of time. Death does not enter here; we 
know neither death nor decav." 

"Then this must be the abode of Immortals," observed 
the fisherman in a tone of unbelief. 

"I assure you this is one of the many spheres wherein 
the Immortals reside. The peach of immortality grows in 
our gardens." 

"In that case, can you tell me how I found my way 
here, and by what merit I am entitled to be among you?" 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 1 1 7 

"Your merit is recorded in the Book of Fate; it was 
Fate that directed your footsteps. Perhaps you are the 
re-incarnation of one of the Master's disciples; we cannot 
say; that question can only be answered by the Divinity 
who shapes the destinies of men, ' ' 

While they were thus coversing the guests began to 
assemble, and each in turn was formally introduced to the 
fisherman, who was greeted by all in the kindest possible 
way. 

Meanwhile, in the adjoining banquet hall preparations 
were proceeding apace on a sumptuous scale. Already 
musicians, and singers, and pretty dancing girls had taken 
up their proper places on a raised platform to enliven the 
feast with their entertainment; the tuning of queer stringed- 
instruments, the sound of pipes, and the tinkling of bells 
and musical stones, could now be heard. Soon an attendant 
announced that the banquet was ready, and to the accom- 
paniment of music appropriate to such festive occasions, the 
company repaired to the feast. As guest of honour the 
fisherman was again assigned his seat on the left-hand side 
of the Elder; the rest sat where they pleased. The repast 
was fit for the Gods; an interminable number of courses of 
fruits and choice- viands were served, and great cheer pre- 
vailed. 

When the feasting was over and all the guests had 
departed for their respective homes, the fisherman was 
conducted to an elegantly appointed suite of apartments 
specially prepared for his occupation. 

The next day the fisherman informed the Elder that he 
was deeply sensible of the extremely kind treatment he had 
received, and had decided to stay; but it was necessary for 
tor him to return to the world for a little while in order to 
settle some urgent affairs. For instance, he had a boat and 
various fishing tackle to dispose of, besides other matters 
to attend to. He was therefore not quite prepared to quit 
the world and all his belongings at such short notice ; these 
and a hundred and one other similar reasons he urged in 
justification of his desire to leave them for a few days. 

Alas! 'tis ever thus that mortals plead. How few are 
prepared to answer the call from a better land without hesita- 
tion or reluctance ! The poor creatures of the earth cling 
with tenacity to their paltry mundane affairs; they all have 
excuses. They have accounts to settle, debts to collect, 
lands to dispose of, houses to sell, and a balance sheet to 
draw up. The rich man must see that he is not robbed of 
his <*old; the miser must count his hoard once more. All 
must tarry vet a little longer, and all plead pitifully for a 



118 THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 

little more time. But the stern Messenger who brings the 
summons is inexorable; he heeds no entreaties and brooks 
no delay. His call is imperative and must be obeyed at once. 
He does not appear before his time; but when that time is 
at hand, not an instant's grace is vouchsafed. If the 
balance sheet is not ready, and a proper statement of 
accounts is not rendered, so much the worse; the forfeit 
must be paid. 

In answer to the fisherman the Elder replied, "I have 
told you that we do not detain anyone here against his wish ; 
whoever is desirous of returning to the world is at liberty to 
do so. We will escort you to the road by which you came 
whenever you are ready to start." 

"I will start at once," said the fisherman; for the sooner 
I depart, the sooner shall I return." 

"We hope to see you again soon," said the Elder; "but 
be sure that on your return you do not miss the way," he 
added significantly. 

"I shall not miss the way," rejoined the fisherman con- 
fidently; "there is only one road, and I am sure I shall I find 
it again without trouble." 

The people who had received the fisherman so cordially 
on his arrival now accompanied him back to the mountain. 
They left the village, crossed the limpid stream over the 
same little willow pattern bridge and halted at the identical 
spot where the fisherman first stood as one entranced at sight 
of this beautiful land; but lo ! there was no tunnel. The 
opening he had come through was hermetically closed with a 
huge stone. At a given word from the Elder, however, the 
immense stone slowly rolled aside of its own accord and dis- 
closed the passage by which the fisherman had gained his 
entrance to the land of Peach Bloom on the previous day. 

"This is the way to your world," said the Elder; "but 
before you leave us to return to it, we pray you to restore 
to us the garments of this country. I have told you that 
he who returns once more to the dusty world of confusion 
may carry back with him nothing beyond the memory of 
what he has seen, and the experience he has gained, which 
he is free to use for the good of mankind, if he knows how." 

In response to this, the fisherman quickly divested him- 
self of the flowing robes of curious fabrics that had been given 
him in the Hall of Harmony, remarking, as he did so, that 
he hoped they would be given back to him when he returned. 

"Certainly, when you return we shall most assuredly 
give them back to you," said the Elder. 

Now standing in the common garb of his class, the 
fisherman bade farewell to the Elder and the rest of the 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 119 

party, and once more thanked them profusely for the great 
kindness they had shown him. "Our parting will only be 
for a little while," said he, "for I shall return as soon as 
my affairs are put in order." 

With these words he stepped into the tunnel and walked 
forward as fast as the uneven ground permitted. 

When he came out into the open air again at the other 
end, it happened to be a raw, cold day, with a dull leaden 
sky overhead. A bleak wind blew from the north and chilled 
him to the bone. The peach blossoms had gone, all the 
trees were bare, and not a trace of springtime was to be seen 
anywhere, for it was winter. In his scant clothing he stood 
shivering with cold in the biting blast, mystified and startled 
beyond measure at the complete change that had taken 
place in his brief absence. He did not realize that he had 
been to a land w r here time has no* significance, where moments 
do not fly and years never roll by. To him his absence 
seemed but only a day and a night; in reality two seasons had 
passed. Little wonder then that he could not account for 
the desolate sight that met his eyes, nor the piercing cold that 
almost paralysed his limbs. Eemembering that his home 
was not far off, he drew his thin jacket tightly about him, 
and with shoulders bent, ran with all his might to the edge 
of the stream where he had left his boat. The boat was 
there, though in a very dilapidated condition; every article 
in it had been removed, except a rotten remnant of the net 
which hung over the side and draggled in the icy water. It 
was useless to bother about the boat under the circum- 
stances, so he quickly made his way home on foot. 

On arrival at his hut he met with another unpleasant 
surprise ; his neighbours had taken full possession of all his 
property. These good people never expected him to return 
after the unsuccessful search made at the time of his myster- 
ious disappearance; they thought he was dead. When he 
suddenly burst in upon them in his out-of -season garments, 
shivering with cold, panting for breadth, his teeth chattering, 
his eyes starting from their sockets, and a wild expression of 
amazement in his face, they were alarmed, and took him for 
the incarnation of an evil spirit. But when he began to 
expostulate and insisted that he had only been absent one 
day, they all agreed that he had lost his senses, and that 
the 'proper thing to do was to march him off to the Magis- 
trate 's Yamen at Wuling before he committed any violence 
upon them; so closing round him in a ring, they seized him 
bv the arms and led him off. m 

kb the yamen the hapless fisherman was consigned to 
the not very tender mercies of the chief gaoler, a slouching, 



120 THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM 

arrogant fellow of savage countenance and devoid of com- 
passion. This important personage, whose rapacity for gain 
never allowed a prisoner to pass without the closest scrutiny 
of his practised eyes, soon perceived that the fisherman was 
not a premising sort of subject for the extraction of pecuniary 
benefits, and accordingly loaded him with chains, and un- 
ceremoniously bundled him into a filthy, reeking cell, there 
to be kept under observation as a dangerous character, ana 
held in durance vile until such time as it would suit the 
Magistrate to enquire into his case. Here the fisherman, 
left to himself and his thoughts, had ample leisure to medi- 
tate on the instability of human affairs, the vicissitudes of 
life, and the fickleness of fortune. In a strange land he had 
been received with open arms and generously treated by 
strangers; but when he returned to his own kin, to claim his 
own, he was abused, roughly handled, taken for an evil 
incarnation and cast into prison. All these reflections so 
embittered his soul that he resolved, should he ever escape 
alive from his miserable predicament, to abandon all and 
return at once to the land of sunshine beyond the hills. After 
spending several unenviable days, and worse nights, in con- 
finement with vermin for company, one frosty grey morning 
he was roughly dragged out to appear before the Magistrate. 

Now it happened that the Magistrate of the important 
City of Wuling was a man of vast experience, keen intellect, 
and sound judgment. When the fisherman knelt before him 
in open court and told his simple tale, the Magistrate decided 
at once that he was not a madman, and that the words he 
spoke bore the impress of truth. He therefore ordered the 
prisoner to be. released forthwith, and he further gave judg- 
ment for the immediate restoration to him of all his belong- 
ings. The fisherman bowed his head to the ground as an 
expression of his gratitude, and was about to rise and depart 
when the Magistrate again addressed him. 

'You have told us," said the Magistrate, "of a wonder- 
ful passage in the hills that leads to a wonderful land of never 
fading verdure. I have never before heard of any such 
passage, nor of any such land in this neighbourhood; but as 
I firmly believe there is something supernatural at the bottom 
of this very extraordinary adventure of yours, I desire you 
to conduct one of my officers to the spot and show him the 
tunnel so that we may gather some further particulars re- 
garding a subject which is not only of paramount importance 
to this District, but which, I .opine, must be of peculiar 
interest to the lettered classes throughout the realm. It is 
my duty, therefore, to investigate the matter as far as I can." 

The fisherman said he would gladly show the way to the 



THE LAND OF PEACH BLOOM }2l 

tunnel, and left the Yamen with an officer and a train of 
Yamen-runners who followed out of mere curiosity. 

When they came to the bank of the stream where the 
boat had been left, the fisherman said the opening was at the 
foot of the hill directly opposite to where they stood, though, 
strange to relate, no light could be seen. The party then 
advanced to the place indicated, but in spite of a most care- 
ful search, no opening of any sort could be found. They 
scoured the hillside for miles in both directions without 
discovering as much as a rabbit hole. The tunnel had dis- 
appeared completely and mysteriously, without leaving the 
least trace anywhere of its former existence. Then they climb- 
ed the hills to look over the other side; they saw nothing but 
a vast barren waste stretching its dreary expanse as far away 
as the eye could see. The land of Peach Bloom had 
vanished, — vanished forever like a vision in a golden dream 
to nobody knows where. 

The fisherman now saw how foolish he had been not to 
remain with the Immortals when he had the chance to. He 
also now understood the full meaning of the Elder's caution 
about not missing the way when he was ready to return. 
It was his desire to return to his petty earthly affairs that 
lost him paradise. 

Some years later, a distinguished scholar and Con- 
fucianist named Li Tzu-chi went to the hills of Ch'ang-te Fu 
hoping to find the way to the wonderful land of Peach Bloom. 
He lived in their vicinity for many years till he died ; but he 
never found the tunnel, and never once did he see the light 
on the hillside. Since his death the search has been aban- 
doned. Wise men say to-day that the land of Peach Bloom 
lies in another sphere "far beyond this world, and surely they 
are right. 



RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE 
SCHOLAR 



JOHN C. FERGUSON. 



It is often said that scholarship in China is at a very low 
ebb at the present time. While this is true to a certain 
extent, there are many circumstances which explain the 
paucity of new books. The abolition of the civil service 
examinations — k' o chii — put an end to the steady publication 
of books giving examples of well-written essays and explain- 
ing earlier literary writings from the standpoint of their use 
in essay writing. This is also true of books relating to poetry 
and to historical references both of which subjects were of 
vital importance to the candidate for official preferment in 
the examination. To take the place of these books, with a 
public which had been accustomed to reading, there came 
from the presses a steady flow of translated and compiled 
books. These treated of all branches of modern knowledge : 
scientific, economic, governmental, and philosophic. In- 
numerable books of fiction have also been translated and, it 
must be said, these have formed by far the largest portion 
of the examples of foreign thought that have been presented 
to the Chinese public as representative of Western literature. 
Such translated books, however, form no' part of the per- 
manent literature of a nation; their influence is evanescent. 

Another class of books such as the Encyclopaedia, 
Tz'ii Yuan published by the Commercial Press, shows the in- 
fluence of Western methods of learning. It is an example of 
the systematized and condensing process so common in our 
Western book making. There is nothing new in this En- 
cyclopaedia, but the arrangement of its contents makes all 
the knowledge it contains readily valuable to a student. 
In addition to this, it adds a large mass of information on 
scientific subjects : foreign geography and names of historical 
personages important in Western literature. As a whole, 
it is much more useful to the' student of Chinese literature 
at the present time than the P'ei Wen Yiin Fu. This 
Encyclopaedia was compiled by a body of scholars well 
versed in the ancient literature of their own country and 



RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 123 

with training sufficient to enable them to tabulate their work 
according to modern methods. Along with this Encyclopaedia 
have been published a new dictionary, Hsin Tzu-tien, 1 and a 
new Chinese -English dictionary, 2 both of which are useful 
and valuable. The former contains in a small space the 
gist of Kang Hsi's large dictionary and the latter provides in 
a succinct form the latest usages of Chinese characters. 
Other publishing houses such as the Chung Hwa 3 have 
contributed their share to the enrichment of modern Chinese 
literature for which they deserve credit. 

In one branch of scholarship a new impetus has been 
given by the impact of Western civilization. This is the 
investigation of antiquarian subjects. Stein's "Expedition 
into Central Asia," the "Archaeological Mission to China" 
of Chavannes, have not only brought to light many interest- 
ing facts which explain existing literary records, but also have 
helped to call attention to a method which has been too often 
overlooked by Chinese writers, viz., the confirmation of 
literary records by extant monuments. This method has 
been followed by a few students from the time of the Liang- 
Dynasty downwards, but as a general rule, it was entirely 
superceded by the methods of higher and lower textual 
criticism, which fattened upon the original investigation of 
others but added nothing new to the stock of human know- 
ledge. 

Chinese scholarship had followed easily the line of least 
resistance through long generations by devoting itself to a 
class of studies which were purely linguistic. The great 
scholar of the Second Century, A.D., Hsu Shen, 4 prepared 
the Shuo Wen 5 on an etymological basis, attempting to show 
the development of the Chinese Chuan characters from their 
earliest use. He was followed by a long list of writers whose 
works were written from the same point of view. In the 
preparation of the Yii Pien, 6 Ku Yeh-wang 7 of the Liang 
Dynasty devoted his profound scholarship to the historical 
development of the Li characters and his researches were 
carried still further by such men as Sun Ch'iang 8 of the Tang 
Dvnastv and Ch'en P'eng-nien 9 of the Sung Dynasty. With 
the writers of Buddhistic influence in the Wei and Sui 
Dynasties, and its cleverly devised Taoist imitation, there 
emerged the type of scholarship which concerned itself en- 
tirely with philosophic discussions. These works were de- 
voted largelv at first to religious philosophy, but soon branch- 
ed off into the broader and more indefinite fields of politics 



!^ ^ J& 2g| 3£ §f & & 3 Publishers of the t£ ^ ^C ^ M 



124 RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 

and economics. Inseparably mixed with these philosophic 
discussions was a medley of linguistic corroboration in which 
attempts were made to bolster up philosophic opinions by 
clever etymological distinctions. Out of the weary mass of 
such inane literary production, there arose the poets of the 
Tang Dynasty such as Li Po and his successors. There were 
also brilliant essayists who did their part in creating an 
elegant style of writing. But as a whole, the body of litera- 
ture of China down to the end of the 17th and the beginning 
of the 18th centuries is largely composed of unfruitful argu- 
mentations. 

All the greater credit, therefore, should be given to the 
more solid type of scholarship which was introduced by the 
Emperor Wu Ti of the Liang Dynasty in his preparation of 
one-hundred twenty volumes recording for the first time the 
inscriptions on ancient stone monuments. This was unfor- 
tunately lost. In the Sung Dynasty, Ou-yang Hsiu compiled 
a treatise on early inscriptions called Tsih Ku Lu. 10 During 
the same dynasty, Nieh Ts'ung-yi 11 prepared the San Li T'u 
and Wang Fu 12 edited the Hstian Ho po ku t'u. These two 
works were prepared from drawings and rubbings which were 
in the Imperial collection and must have been very valuable 
at the time of production, although later editions of these 
books have probably failed to retain the accuracy of the 
originals. Another important book of the Sung Dynasty was 
that of Hsieh Shan-kung 13 entitled "Li tai chung ting k'uan 
chih" in twenty volumes. Hsieh was a careful scholar and 
a keen antiquarian. His work has formed the basis of all 
later investigators. He described the shapes of early bronzes 
and reproduced their inscriptions concerning which he added 
valuable dissertations. In some of these there is an admix- 
ture of pure linguistic discussions, but these do not mar the 
great value of the other features of his work. No great 
scholars or writers on antiquarian subjects were produced 
during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. 

It remained for the scholars of the Kang Hsi — Chi en 
Lung periods to give a new bent to scholastic attainments 
under the leadership of these two scholarly emperors. The 
great dictionary of Kang Hsi united all the scholarship of the 
preceding periods and gave it a new interpretation. Com- 
pilation of the P'ei Wen Encyclopaedia had also a new 
stimulating influence. The compilation of three volumes 
concerning the Imperial collection of bronzes tended to 
place scholarship upon the sound basis of recognizing existing 
monuments rather than literary records as authoritative 



RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 125 

sources of information. These three volumes were: Hsi 
Ch'ing ku chien, 14 Hsi Ch'ing hsu chien, 15 and the Ning 
Shou chien ku. 16 These were, indeed, mirrors of antiquity 
as their names imply. The Imperial example was followed 
by scholars such as Chang T'ing-chi and Chu Yi-tsun. 17 In 
1804 Yuan Yuan published his "Inscriptions on Vessels" — 
Chi Ku Chai chung ting i ch'i k'uan chih 18 in which the 
rubbings of 560 inscriptions are criticized and explained. He 
was followed by the Feng brothers, authors of the Chin 
Shih So, 19 "Besearches in Metal and Stone" and by a long- 
list of such men as Wu Ta-ch'eng, Wu Jung-kuan, Weng 
Fang-kang, Wu Yun, Liu Tieh-yim, Wu Shih-fen, 20 and 
others. A generation ago there was a group of men in 
Peking, including such scholars as P'an Tsu-yin and Shen 
Po-hsi, 21 who not only collected ancient objects, but added 
to this careful scholarly research. To carry on the work of 
this earlier generation, Tuan Fang 22 made a noted collection 
and published his "Becords" of stones and metals, but un- 
fortunately his life was cut off before his great work as an 
antiquarian was completed. In many respects, it may be 
said that his mantle has fallen upon the shoulders of Lo 
Chen-yu. 

Lo Chen-yu — Shu-yiin, 23 is a native of Shang Yti near 
Shao Hsing in the province of Chehkiang. He attained the 
highest literary rank and under the Manchu Dynasty, he was 
appointed Literary Chancellor of the province of Shantung. 
After the abdication of the Manchus, he removed to Japan 
where he still professes himself to be a subject of the Manchu 
Dynasty. In several of his writings, he continues to use the 
title of the reign of the abdicated emperor, Hsuan T'ung. 
In no instance has he dated any of his books according to 
the years of the Bepublic. Whenever he has not used the 
Imperial title, he has used the name of the cyclical year. 
In one of the volumes described below is a photograph of Lo 
which shows him wearing the official garb of the Manchu 
regime including the queue. His political predilections are 
of little interest, but his work as an antiquarian is a distinct 
contribution to the permanent scholarship of his nation. 
His investigations have led him into many fields starting 
with his comments upon the literary finds of Stein at 
Tun-huang. 24 A separate article even would be insufficient 
to discuss each one of the separate books which Mr. Lo has 
written in recent years, and it is proposed in this brief review 



u nm^m ^mmmm u mm&> u ^mm,^mM is m-&^ 
mmm&mm i9 &fim 2u &*s*. &&*. mtm, %m, mm, ^^^ 



126 RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 

to do no more than call attention to the names and leading 
ideas of each one of these valuable contributions. 

"Characters Used in Divination in the Shang Dynasty." 
IS* SB £ b % & 5fe). Published in 1910. 

Chapter I is devoted to an examination of history : 

(1) as to the location of the capital of the Shang Dynasty, 

(2) as to the names and posthumous titles of the emperors of 
this dynasty. Chapter II is devoted to the rectifying of 
the manner of writing names : (1) the author maintains that 
the characters used by Shih Chou are the correct ancient 
form, (2) that the ancient hieroglyphic characters suggested 
their meaning by their form without any regard to a fixed 
number of strokes composing them, (3) a discussion of the use 
of these characters in determining character reading of the 
inscriptions on ancient bronze vessels, (4) a, correction of the 
errors of Hsu Shen in the Shao Wen. Chapter III is 
devoted to the methods of divination : as to (1) Chen 25 which 
was the laying straight of divining rods, (2) Ch'i 26 which was 
evidently intended, to mean the hollowing out of the shell 
of the tortoise, (3) the application of fire 27 in burning the tor- 
toise shell, (4) production by heating of the dark crackled 
lines, 28 (5) reading of these lines for the purposes of pro- 
gnostication. 29 This chapter also contains a discussion of the 
books of the various dynasties on subjects connected with 
divination and of the terms used in these books. It is a book 
difficult to understand by any reader who has not a good 
knowledge of the Book of Changes — I King. 

"Tallies and Badges of Various Dynasties." 

(m ft ft m m *) 

In two volumes. The original volume is dated 1914; 
the Supplement is dated 1916. 
The Introduction is a discussion of the various books 
which mention these objects, commencing with the Supple- 
ment of the K'ao Ku T'u, and their use for identification 
purposes or warrants of office. The earliest tally given is 
one of two halves in the form of a tiger with inscriptions on 
both parts. Later tallies are made in such a way that the 
inscriptions on the two halves fit together when the tally is 
closed. In all, fifty-two examples of tallies are given in the 
original volume and eight in the Supplement; eighteen 
examples of badges in the original and thirty-one in the 
Supplement are mentioned. There is a lithographic ilius- 



25 * 2C 



m 27 rj 28 ifc! 29 «r 



RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 127 

tration of each of these objects. The letter press of the 
second volume is a lithographic reproduction of Mr. Lo's 
handwriting which is not so clear for the general reader as 
the type used in the first volume. 

"Tomb Eelics" (f I i ^). Published in 1914. 

Eeproductions of five curious documents are given in 
this volume with an appended explanation of them. The 
first four objects are deeds of sale, the first being recorded 
on jade, the second on pewter, and the third and fourth on 
earthenware. The fourth document is called pieh 30 which 
is an agreement referring to the use of wells and marts. The 
fifth is a jade tablet belonging to the T'ien Pao period 
(a.d. 742-755). On the obverse side is a drawing of a goose. 
All of the objects are of great antiquarian interest. The first 
was previously mentioned in Tuan Fang's Eecord of Stones — 
Ts'ang Shih Ching, 31 the third is mentioned in Chun Ku Lu 32 
by Wu Shih -fen, and the fourth is spoken of in Bronze and 
Stone Inscriptions — Chin Shih Ch'i, 33 but the other two are 
recorded for the first time. The inscription on earthenware 
is particularly important. 

"Incised Inscriptions on Stones and Bronzes of the 
Ch'in Dynasty." (m ± # M Vf). Published in 1914. 
The first section is entirely devoted to inscriptions on 
forty-three bronzes of which one is a tally, fourteen are 
counterpoising weights of steel-yards, nine are measures, 
eighteen are imperial mandate tablets, and one is a spear. 
These are from various collections, the most important of 
which are those of Tuan Fang and Ch'en Hsioh-ch'ing 34 of 
Wei-hsien. Section Two treats of three inscriptions on 
stone, one of which is that of T'ai Shan, the second is that 
of Lang Ya (modern Yu Tai, Shantung) and the third is the 
Kuei Chi stone in eastern Chehkiang. The last section in- 
cludes inscriptions in thirty-six fragments of earthenware 
measures and six tile tubes (for palace use). The last 
mentioned objects are not often referred to by other authors, 
but are of great interest. 
"An Examination of the Writings Found in the Euins of 

the Shang Dynasty. " (Wt It S % % 8 ). 

"An Inquiry into the Writings Found in the Euins of the 

Shang Dynasty. " (jR & £ U # 69 H ). 

Both published in 1914. 

The first of these two volumes is a large book of 

one-hundred and twenty pages devoted to a critical examina- 

"^m ^mm **ansr& **§&% u mmm 



128 RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 

tion of the characters found in inscriptions on bones, and the 
second volume is supplementary to the first. These bone 
inscriptions are compared with statements in the earliest 
historical writings, with inscriptions on bronzes, and with the 
method of writing these characters adopted by Hsu Shen 
in the Shuo Wen. The previous work on this subject of 
Liu T'leh-yiin is carefully examined and corrections made 
where necessary in the opinion of the author. 

"Paper Money of Four Dynasties." (p$ $jj fi$ fg JH £|). 

Published in 1914. 

The four dynasties referred to are the Yuan, Chin, Ming, 
and Ch'ing. The author, however, carries the subject to 
remote antiquity in his introduction by stating that the 
commencement of a token currency was earlier than the 
invention of paper and that cloth strips, li pu, 35 were used 
in the Chow Dynasty for money. There are seventeen 
lithographic illustrations and a full explanation at the end 
of the book of each of these. Several illustrations are those 
of the copper plates from which notes were printed and the 
earliest of these belongs to the second year of Cheng Yuan, 
a.d. 1154. 

"Other Bone Eelics of Liu T'ieh-yun." (® H j® ® 2. &). 

Published in 1915. 

This contains lithographic reproductions of forty inscrip- 
tions on bones from the collection of Liu T'ieh-yiin without 
notes or discussion . 

"Ink Shadows (Silhouettes) of Stone Inscriptions of the 

Han and Ch'in Dynasties." (if 5i|^). 

Published in 1915. 

This is a discussion of the inscriptions on several stones 
discovered in recent years. One was found on a stone in 
Shao-t'ung Fu, Yunnan province, another during mining- 
operations in Szechuan, a third was on a stone lion in front 
of a Yamen (place not mentioned) in Shantung, and a fourth 
was on a horse -trough in Lo-yang, Honan province. All of 
the inscriptions mentioned were fragments and the author 
speculates from them as to the age and identity of the 
objects on which the writing is found. 



35 Mi 



RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 129 

"Collection of Keprints of Chi Shih An." ( ^ £ ^ H ^). 

Published in 1916. 

This is in six volumes. The texts are lithographed. 
Volume One gives a reproduction of the explanatory text of 
the Shang Shu which was found at Tun-huang and also a 
fragmentary Taoist text from the same place. This is follow- 
ed by the text of a book published first in 1029 on the 
meaning of musical notations. The second volume contains 
a reprint of a book published also during the reign of the 
Emperor Jen Tsung treating of important methods used 
during the Ch'i Dynasty. The methods referred to are those 
employed in arboriculture. The third volume is devoted to 
an album of paintings with descriptive text on the opposite 
pages. The paintings are of various seashore scenes in the 
lives of two brothers who were engaged in the manufac- 
ture of salt. The album is called Ao P'o T'u, 3 * "The Eaging 
Waves." The copy described is a reproduction from the 
Yung Lo Ta Tien of a painting made in 1334 during the last 
days of the Yuan Dynasty. 

The fourth volume reproduces a manuscript of the 
K'ai Yuan period which is dated a.d. 718. It consists of 
comments on the Materia Medica — pen ts'ao, which, it will 
be remembered, was revised and enlarged during the T'ang 
Dynasty. The fifth volume reproduces two manuscripts: 
the first is on divination by stalks and by tortoise shell, the 
second is a compendium by the Buddhist teacher San 
Tsang. 37 The sixth and last volume contains two specimens 
of Sung Dynasty block printing. The first is a guide to the 
life of Mandjusri, and the second is a Buddhist fragmentary 
manuscript recording the way in which the teacher San 
Tsang obtained his copy of the law. 

"Explanation of the Text of the Stone Drums." 
I #!££#$)• Published in 1916. 
The author in his introduction refers to frequent dis- 
cussions as to this text which he had with Wang Wen-shao, 
and Shen Po-hsi; and to his obtaining a copy of the bung 
Dvnastv rubbing made by Chia Hsiu T;ang (¥ * £) and 
also of "the work on the subject by Ku len-wu 38 who wrote 
at the close of the Ming Dynasty. The author compared 
these two with the later work of Yuan Yuan and came to the 
conclusion that the explanations of Juan and his reproduc- 
tion of the text were the most reliable. Even Yuan s text 
however, needs correction in some places and the purpose of 



36 



37 — m£ 38] 



130 RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 

this book is to discuss these. It is wholly a discussion of 
linguistics. It is fully illustrated with cuts of the drums 
and the text. 

"A Fragment of the Yu P'ien." ( B.fc'3£^'$%^). 
Published in 1916. 
This is a discussion of the fragment of the Yu P'ien 
in the light of the discovery of a fragmentary copy by Li 
Shu-ch'ang 39 in Japan when he was Chinese Minister in 
that country. The original book was written by Ku Yeh- 
wang (a.d. 579-581) of the Liang Dynasty in thirty volumes. 
It was a discussion, of the origin of the Chinese characters as 
given by the Shuo Wen. The original book was lost but it 
was reproduced in amended editions by Hsiao K'ao of the 
Liang Dynasty, by Sun Ch'iang of the Tang and by Chen 
P'eng-nien of the Sung. The corrections in these editions 
were so numerous that the original text was rendered 
obscure. In this book the author reproduces the new dis- 
covery and adds a short discussion of its importance. 

"Fragments of Metal, Earthenware, and Stone." 
(£ U "ft M)- Published in 1916. 
This volume is in two parts : the first treats of fragments 
of gold, silver, bronze, pewter, and iron objects, while the 
second treats of earthenware, pottery, jade,, porcelain, and 
stone fragments. It is fully illustrated and contains so many 
objects of antiquarian and artistic interest that it is hopeless 
to undertake a description of them. Only a careful exam- 
ination of the book can give any adequate idea of the import- 
ance of its contribution to the knowledge of ancient Chinese 
Art. 

"Illustrations of Ancient Objects Found in the Euins 

of the Shang Dynasty. " ( fg j^ # fg ^ U £| ). 

Published in 1916. 

In an introductory note the author tells of having sent 
his brother on an expedition to An-yang Hsien, Honan, which 
is the site of the ancient capital of the Shang Dynasty. This 
is the place where the inscribed bone relics were found and 
the author believed that an expedition to this place would 
result in the securing of other valuable historic remains. 
His belief was fully justified and the objects which were 
obtained by his brother formed the subject of this book. 
The objects are all presented in illustrations. These include 
an elephant's tusk, a rhinoceros bone, jade and gem orna- 



RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 131 

ments, the thigh bone and the shoulder blade of an animal, 
the tooth of a large animal, a fragment of the handle of a 
bronze vessel, and two carapaces. The author adds at the 
end of the book notes explanatory of these objects. 

"Moulds of Ancient Objects.'' ( "£ f$ ^ fg jgg $fe ). 
Published in 1916. 
In the Introduction the author refers to his interest in 
this subject having been aroused through the writings of 
Chang Ting-chi of Chia-hsing who had collected several 
specimens of molds for casting copper cash. This interest 
was increased on rinding molds of other objects in the posses- 
sion of Wang I-jung 40 of Fu-shan and of Shen Po-hsi in 
Peking. This led him to further investigation out of which 
grew this book. It is in three chapters. The first treats 
of moulds of various objects such as daggers, axes, mirrors, and 
cross-bows; the second of moulds of exchange coins (ftWI), 
such as knife money, etc. ; and third of molds of round coins 
(^.^:). As there are only incidental references in other 
books to moulds, this work is the first of its kind in Chinese 
literature. 

"Official Seals from the Time of the Sui and Tang 
Dynasties . " (H^a^fepil^). 
Published in 1916. 
Two-hundred and twenty-five seals are reproduced in 
this book. Notwithstanding the title, the first seal men- 
tioned belongs to the Ch'en Dynasty and its earlier than Sui 
of which period there are two seals given. Twenty are from 
the T'ang and Five Dynasties; forty-eight from the Sung; 
one from the Liao; seven from the Hsi Hsia; seventy from 
the Chin (Nu Chen); thirty-five from the Yiiaii; and thirty- 
one from the Ming. Many of these have impressions both 
of the obverse and reverse sides which accounts for the 
variance of the total number from that given in detail 
under the various dynasties. Forty-three had already been 
mentioned by Chii and Weng in their books on this subject. 

"Illustrations of Ancient Mirrors." ("&&Mt&)- 
Published in 1916. 
This book contains illustrations of one-hundred fifty- 
seven mirrors, the oldest of which is one dated the first year 
of Yiian Hsing, a.d. 105. The author claims that the illus- 
trations are of specimens which cannot be found in the 

40 3E1&SI 



132 RECENT BOOKS BY A CHINESE SCHOLAR 

Chin Shin So or in the Hsi Ching ku chien. Many of them 
are from the original collections of Chow Hsing-i and Tuan 
Fang, but are now found in Japan. The illustrations are 
lithographed from rubbings and are not clear in many 
instances. However, it is the best existing collection of 
illustrations of mirrors. 

The above works show the wide range of Mr. Lo's 
scholarship. It is evident that his interest in antiquarian 
subjects was first developed by his literary interest in the 
inscriptions on bone relics. From this primary interest, he 
extended his scholarship into the field of investigation of 
inscriptions on ancient bronzes, and thus his vision was 
widened to include all classes of ancient objects. His recent 
life in Japan has given him access to the rich collection of 
ancient Chinese objects which have been made in that 
country. Mr. Lo has availed himself of his opportunties and 
has been able to bring to the explanation of the new objects 
which he has found the benefit of long years of association 
with the leading literary men. of his country and of his own 
profound study of Chinese literature. 



CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANG- 
TUNG PROVINCE 



YAN TSZ OHIU. 



An eminent authority says that the measure of a 
country's appreciation of the value of chemistry in its mater- 
ial development, and the extent to which it utilizes this 
science in its industries, generally measures quite accurately 
the industrial progress and prosperity of that country. 

Chemical industry is one of the most important in- 
dustries. No civilized country can get along without it. 
The demand for it is so great that sooner or later it has 
to be built up. 

In some countries, the chemical industry is so extensive 
that they not only manufacture their own chemical sub- 
stances, but also make them for other countries. 

In China, chemical industry has made little progress and 
she has to depend upon other nations for her supply of 
chemical products. 

The province of Kwangtung sends more students, mer- 
chants and laborers to other countries than any other pro- 
vince in China. Seeing the excellent chemical products in 
foreign countries, they feel the need of importing these 
articles to Kwangtung. The following is a list of some of 
the common things which are the products of foreign chem- 
ical industry: 

They are glass, pigments, paints and varnish, fertilizers, 
dyes, alcohol, camphor, rubber, chloroform, drugs, soap, 
perfumes, wines, paper, photographic supplies, leather, etc. 
These were first imported into Kwangtung when people knew 

their uses. . . , . 

But before the introduction of foreign articles into tins 
country, some of the people here discovered certain crude 
methods of making some chemical products. They found 
these out by simple experiment: Soon a small chemical 
industry was formed. It developed very slowly until recent 
years when foreign methods of making these articles came 
into use and factories to manufacture the chemical products 
which are new to our people were established. So we can 
divide the chemical industry in Kwangtung into two classes. 



134 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 

(I). That which is typically Chinese, and uses old and 
crude methods of making articles. 

(II). That which is copied from foreign countries, and 
uses foreign machinery and methods. 

Owing to the difficulty of getting capital the foreign 
chemical industry in Kwangtung is not very progressive. So 
in Kwangtung we can only find factories which make cement, 
glass, soap, matches, leather, paper, and perfumes. 

In this paper I want to take up only the Chemical In- 
dustry in this province which . is typically Chinese. This 
native industry includes the pottery industry of Shek Wan 
;g $f, the manufacture of peanut oil, wine, vinegar, vermilion, 
red lead, bricks, lime, Chinese wood oil, fire-crackers and 
China ware. 

The methods used are rather simple and crude which 
have been handed down from one generation to another and 
are used again and again with little improvement. 

Manufacture of Rice Wine. — It is said that wine was 
first used in China 2000 B.C.' Rice wine is commonly used, 
as it is the cheapest kind sold in the market. The chief con- 
stituent of rice is starch, the fermentation of this gives 
alcohol. 

The process of making rice wine is rather simple. The 
starch in rice is to be fermented, and the alcohol obtained by 
fermentation is evaporated, and the vapors are passed to a 
condenser in which they are cooled and condensed. 

The rice has to be cooked in a large iron pan so that the 
enzymes in the yeast can act more readily on it. After the 
rice is cooked it is put on a large wooden table to cool to 
room temperature, for the bacteria in yeast would be killed 
at high temperature. Then the boiled rice is mixed with 
powdered yeast and placed in large jars with water to cover 
the rice. The jars are set aside in a dark cool place for 25 or 
30 days, during this time the enzymes in the yeast slowly 
change the starch to alcohol and carbon dioxide. 

They use the cheapest kind of coarse rice and it is found 
that for every 100 catties of rice they have to use 24 catties 
of yeast, yielding about 4 jars of rice wine. 

The maximum time allowed for fermentation is usually 
four weeks or one month, and the wine makers find that the 
longer they allow the fermentation to go on, the better will 
the taste be. But if they allow the fermentation to go on 
beyond 30 days they have to pay a tax to the government. 
The time allowed for the fermentation of rice is too long, for 
in America, only three days are allowed. When the fer- 
mentation is complete, the alcohol in the fermented rice is 
then distilled. Three jars of fermented rice are put in a large 



CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 135 

pan, water is added, and the condenser is put over the pan. 
The diameter of the pan is about 4 feet, and the depth is 
1-1^ feet. Here the condenser also acts as a cover of the 
pan. 

Between the pan and the condenser are three rings, the 
purpose of which is to keep the still air tight, but as a matter 
of fact, alcohol and steam can escape and are wasted. 
Beneath the pan is the furnace in which fuel is used. The 
fermented rice is heated to a temperature of about 70 deg. C. 
which is near the boiling point of alcohol, and then the con- 
denser which is usually made of metal is placed over the pan. 

Inside of this condenser is a dome-shape wall which 
divides the condenser into two parts. Cold water is poured 
into the condenser so as to cool it, and beneath the dome 
the vapors of alcohol are condensed, and run out through the 
outlet into the jar. The water above the dome soon gets hot, 
is then let out, and more cold water put in. Thus the con- 
denser is not in a cool state all the time, so that the alcohol 
does not distil over very rapidly. Thus much of the heat is 
wasted. 

Some of the wine manufacturers use a clay condenser 
instead of metal, and find that the wine is of a better grade, 
but as a clay condenser is easily broken and clay is not so 
good a conductor of heat, it is not so advantageous. 

It takes one hour to complete the distillation and in a 
small store, like the one in Ng Chuen j$ ^ , only four jars 
of wine are made in a day, each jar contains 25 catties and 
costs $2.50 per jar. The wine-maker has to pay 40 cents to 
the government as a tax per each jar of 25 catties, and for 
better wines they have to pay more. 

The first distillate contains more alcohol, so that the last 
portions which distill over contain almost pure water. The 
residue is used for feeding pigs. The first distillate is 
Liu Poon J® fc which has a specific gravity of .955, so that 
it contains 25% of alcohol. When the Liu Poon is re- 
distilled with more fermented rice put in, the Seung Jing 
^ ^ is obtained which is a stronger wine and contains 30% 
alcohol. When the Seung Jing is distalled again with more 
fermented rice for the third time, the Sam Jing H M 
is obtained, which contains 45% alcohol. 

As Sherry and Port wines contain 15-20% of alcohol and 
the strongest whisky contains 50% of alcohol, Chinese rice 
wine contains more alcohol on the average than foreign 
wines, but as the Chinese people do not drink rice wine in 
large quantities at one time, they seldom get intoxicated. 

Vinegar. As rice wine is the product of alcoholic fer- 
mentation so vinegar is the acetic fermentation of wine, 



136 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 

which is caused by a group of bacteria. These micro- 
organisms cause the oxidation of the alcohol into acetic acid. 
The wines to be used must not be too strong. 

Three kinds of vinegar are made in Kwangtung : — the 
white, black, red. 

White vinegar is made by using the by-product of wine 
distillation, that is 12 catties of this by-product are added to 
440 catties of water and the mixture is boiled to 80 deg. C, 
and is placed in large containers, then 65 catties of rice wine 
are added and the whole mixture is allowed to stand for 
30 days during which time the bacteria change the wine into 
vinegar. 

Black vinegar is made from the white vinegar by adding 
to the latter roasted red rice. 

Red vinegar is made by using a special kind of rice the 
fermentation of which gives (1) alcohol and (2) vinegar. 

Peanut Oil. — Peanut oil is used for food by nearly all the 
people in South China. In the North, bean oil is used. As 
peanut oil is cheaper than lard, it is used in place of it. 

Peanut oil is a light greenish yellow oil when it is pure. 
It has a peculiar odor and taste, but when refined, the best 
quality of oil is colorless and has a very faint nutty taste. 
Its specific gravity is .916 to .922. 

Peanut oil is made in Canton, but the largest peanut oil 
factory is in Sin Toen fill 14 . Here the peanuts are first 
crushed by a machine which crushes 10,000 catties of peanut 
a day. After the peanuts are crushed, they are steamed for 
about 20 minutes, and then placed in rings and packed in the 
form of round cakes. These rings are then placed in a press, 
made of hard wood, the shape of which is like a Chinese 
coffin. They are hammered with mallets weighing 25-50 
catties until no oil runs out. 

As pressure is applied, the oil runs out into a vessel. 
Then the peanuts which have been crushed and pressed are 
taken out from the rings, are powdered and steamed again, 
and then replaced in the presses to be hammered again, until 
practically all the oil runs out. The residue which contains 
no oil is dried and sold as fertilizer. This is a tedious and 
slow process, for the crushed peanuts have to be hammered 
for a long time before the oil begins to run out. 

The yield is 33%, that is out of 120 catties of peanuts 
hammered in the presses, 40 catties of oil are obtained, and 
as there are 24 presses, they can make 960 catties of oil per 
day. About 30 men are employed so that each makes 30 
catties of oil on the average a day. 

There are two kinds of peanut oil. The better kind is 
light greenish yellow and is sold for 24 cents per catty. The 



CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWAXGTUXG PROVINCE 137 

cheaper kind costs 20 cents per catty and is brownish, in 
colour. It is somewhat rancid in odor and taste, as it is 
made from old rotten peanuts. The peanuts which grow in 
Kwangtung produce the first grade of oil, but as the supply 
of peanut in this province is limited, peanuts are imported 
from Siam, and from other provinces in China. 

The peanuts from Siam are not very good, and the oil 
obtained from them does not sell at a good price. 

Pottery Industry in Shek-waan ~fc $f . — Shek-waan is 
the center of the pottery industry in Kwangtung. The in- 
dustry is about 700 years old. Although it is so old, yet 
there is little improvement, because the potters are un- 
educated and conservative. 

The industry was centered at Shek-waan, because at 
first there used to be clay in Shekwaan available for use. 
Later it was found that the clay in Tung Koon ^ |§ was 
better, so thev bought it from that district : they also use 
clay from Fa-Yuen & U . The Tung Koon clay is more 
plastic, while the clay from Fa- Yuen is stiff er. 

Before the clay can be used, it has to be mixed with 
sand in the proportion of 20% sand and 80% clay. Then 
water is added to make it soft and uniform in texture. The 
clay and sand have to be thoroughly mixed. 

From 12-13 piculs of clay and sand are mixed at one 
time, and for a mixing machine they use the hands and feet 
of a man, who mixes the clay and sand by raising and stamp- 
ing his feet; and stirring with his hands. It takes four hours 
to make a batch. 

After the mixing is done, the potter attaches big lumps 
to a wall to drv for 24 hours. 

The clay "for fine work such as dishes and plates is 
mixed for 24 hours with a machine mixer and is then dried. 
The clay which is to be moulded must be drier than the clay 
to be made on the potter's wheel. Those to be moulded 
must have a higher percentage of Fa-Yuen clay, being less 

& When the clay is dry, the big lumps are cut into sheets 
by means of a piece of wire tied to a bow, and drawn through 
the pile of clay, the wire is raised through one notch and 
drawn toward the man's body. Then the sheets of clay are 
allowed to dry for an hour in the sun. There are three ways 
bv which the articles are formed : — 

J I _Some of the articles such as dishes are formed on the 
potter', wheel which is made of wood. Two men are needed 
to each wheel, and there are seven wheels in a factory . One 
man puts some ash in the wheel so that the dish formed is 
not *o sticky and then he turns the wheel with his hand. A 



138 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 

small dish is completed in 8 seconds, is taken by the other 
man with a bamboo, and is placed on a piece of board and 
taken to be dried. Sometimes the partly dried mud is 
pressed in moulds to form one surface of the article, the other 
being completed on the wheel as is the case with plates and 
dishes. 

The articles are very slowly dried at atmospheric tem- 
perature, and then burned at a low red heat to give them 
sufficient coherence to permit of glazing. 

II. — Some of the articles are made in the mould. At 
first the mould is made of wood and then from the wooden 
form a clay mould is made, which is burned in a less hot 
fire, and using less time. The moulds are only burned in the 
kilm for 4-6 hours, while the articles are burned for from 
12 to 24 hours. The moulds are filled with a sheet of clay, 
and the edges are cut off in order to make it smooth. 

III. — Figures of animals are made with small tools by 
hand. These require more time and skill than those made 
on the potter's wheel or in the moulds. Some of the articles 
such as tiles are formed in the moulds and completed by 
hand work. For instance, two pieces of tiles are joined 
together, and a band is put around the joint and smoothed 
out by the hands. 

In making large jars like Kam Ta sfe^f?, five pieces of 
clay are used, the pieces are made separately and are joined 
together forming a truncated cylinder and are then worked 
to the shape desired. 

After the articles are formed they are piled in a kiln to be 
burned. The kilns are long tunnels, about 200 feet in length. 
The smaller end of the kiln is at the bottom which is 3^ feet 
in width and is 3 J feet high. The wall of the kiln is 8 inches 
thick, and they are built of vitrified bricks. The kiln is built 
on the slope of the hill and inclines with an angle of 15 to 
20 deg. It is not uniform, the higher up it goes the larger 
it gets. Fire is started at the bottom of the kiln as in an 
ordinary furnace. About 2,000 catties of wood are used for 
one burning, depending on the length of kiln and the kinds of 
things to be baked. Firing is begun at the bottom in the 
morning and goes up to the top at night. On the top and 
sides of the kiln are holes which are 32 inches apart. They 
are for putting in fuel from time to time. There are five 
holes in each row. These holes are not very large, but the 
draft underneath is very strong. 

The top of the kiln is covered with the dishes to dry. 
The articles which require a stronger fire to burn are placed 
near the upper end of the kiln. For instance, flower pots, 
tiles and fancy things are burned at the upper end of the 



CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 139 

tunnel to get a higher temperature. For burning figures and 
finer articles, they use a small kiln in the shop. 

• j Th T the articles have to be glazed. There are three 
kinds of glazes. The green glaze consists of a mixture of 
copper oxide, powdered glass, some ashes of rice and wood 
and river mud which is used as a reducing agent. For the 
blue glaze, they use English green, and for the yellow glaze, 
lead oxide is used. 

The finely powdered glazed mixture is tirred up with 
water to form a cream, into which the articles are dipped 
and at once withdrawn. A layer of the glaze adheres to the 
surface, and after drying the articles are ready for the second 
or glaze burning. 

Common dishes are glazed from the inside. A little of 
the liquid is put inside and turned. Then the unused liquid 
is poured out. If any decoration is to be done, the design is 
either painted or molded upon the surface of the article 
before glazing. 

Various kinds of articles are made in Shekwaan. The 
most common ones are the glazed earthenware, jars of many 
shapes, tiles (fancy and plain), roof tiles, green and blue tiles, 
verticle or bamboo tiles, railing tiles, dishes, plates, teapots, 
water pots, figures of animals, etc. 

As these articles are easily broken if the burning is not 
efficient, so 80% is considered a very good result. 

It is strange to see that the potters in Shekwaan do not 
own the kilns, but the kilns are rented, and $10 are charged 
for each burning per kiln. There are about 70 kilns in 
Shekwaan and several thousand laborers are employed. 
Each laborer is paid by the number of pieces of work he does. 
But the maximum amount they can earn a day is 80 cents 
(Cantonese money). There are women laborers as well as 
men and they do the simpler kind of work, but there is no 
child labour. 

The potters must go through an apprenticeship of six 
years; during this time they receive no wages. They form 
a number of guilds which are organized according to the kind 
of pottery, as each kind of pottery has one guild. In order 
to join the guild, one must pay the sum of $150. 

Porcelain or Chinaware is not made in Shekwaan but is 
made in Ko Chow Btf $>|. The best kind of porcelain work 
is done in Kong Sai. The clay used to make Chinaware is 
different from that used in the pottery. 

While the processes used in the manufacture of the 
articles in Shekwaan and Ko Chow differ in details, funda- 
mentally they are the same and may be summed up under 
three heads— namely (1) the preparation of the body of the 
ware (2) the process of glazing and (3) the decoration. 



140 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 

The kilns in Ko Chow are not built on the sides of the 
hill as those in Shek-waan, but are built like small towers. 
The work done here is much finer than that in Shekwaan. 

Building bricks are chiefly made in Nam Kong j|j gg. 
Ching Yuen f5f H and Tung Koon ^ ^ (green bricks) and 
also at Im Bo H *£ (white bricks). For making bricks the 
river mud and clay which contains no sand is the best. The 
bricks are formed in moulds. 

The oimplest form of moulding consists in pressing the 
soft clay into wooden frames which have been dusted with 
sand to prevent sticking. The operation is done by hand. 
Each man makes about 300 bricks a day. 

After moulding, the bricks have to be dried before burn- 
ing. This is done by spreading the bricks and allowing them 
to dry in the sun. The bricks having been thoroughly dried 
are placed in kilns and burned. The temperature and time 
of burning depends upon the kind of clay employed and the 
degree of hardness desired. Each kiln can hold 70.000 
bricks, and usually the bricks are burned for 7 days, and 
cooled for 2 days. In Nam Kong there are about 10 kilns. 
Green bricks are made in Tsing Yuen and white bricks are 
made in Im Bo. 

Lime is burned in kilns dug out of the earth. You can 
see this in Tung Shan ^ 111 (not far from Canton). Shells 
which contain calcium carbonate are used and they are mixed 
with fuel and burned until they are changed to lime and 
carbon dioxide. 

There are two kinds of lime kilns, namely continuous and 
periodic. In the continuous kilns less fuel is used and much 
time is saved. In Kwangtung, you can only find periodic 
kilns. They are 12 feet in diameter and 3 feet deep. 

In America, the kilns are built of bricks and are usually 
from 40-45 feet high, by 7 feet in diameter. 

The lime kilns in this province require much fuel and 
time, but are probably preferred because of the simplicity 
and cheapness of building. The lime obtained is not pure, 
but is contaminated with ashes. 

After burning, the kiln is allowed to cool. During the 
time of cooling, discharging, and recharging, the kiln stands 
idle, and thus much time is lost. Moreover, a large amount 
of fuel is necessary to heat the walls of the kiln after each 
recharging, so. that the method is not an economical one. 

No attempt is made in this province to save the carbonic 
acid gas which escapes from the" kiln. In Europe, the gas is 
often collected and used for technical purposes. 

In America and Europe lime is used for mortar and 
cement mixing, bleaching powder, in the Leblanc soda 



CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 141 

process, in the preparation and purification of many chem- 
icals such as acetic, citric, oxalic; and tartaric acids, 
potassium chlorate, caustic soda and potash, etc., for purify- 
ing illuminating gas and sugar solution; in bleaching and 
dyeing cotton; in tanning; in glass making; in metallurgical 
operations; for disinfecting, etc. 

In Kwangtung lime is used only for mortar and cement 
mixing, and in bleaching and dyeing work, in glass making 
and for disinfecting. 

Lime for mortar and many other purposes is always 
slaked immediately before use. 

As a rule 100 catties of good lime stone yield about 60 
catties of lime. 

T'ung Oil ffl vfl. T'ung Oil which is generally known 
as "Chinese Wood Oil" is made in Canton. It has been 
known in America since 1896. It cannot be used in its raw 
state, but must always be heated to a temperature of over 
500 deg. F. It makes a very water-proof material. It is 
obtained from the seeds of aleurites cordata, a tree which 
grows in South and North China and in Japan. 

The seeds are usually roasted, broken into powder and 
pressed as is the case with peanut oil- The cold pressed oil is 
pale yellow, and is known in the trade as "White Tung Oil." 
That resulting from hot pressing is dark in colour, and is 
termed "black tung oil." The raw oil has a peculiar odor 
suggestive of ham. 

Tung Oil is used principally in the manufacture of 
varnishes and linoleum. When it is made with ordinary 
resin, and suitably thinned, a varnish is obtained which is 
not affected readily by water, while varnish made with resin 
and linseed oil alone is quickly turned white by contact with 
water. In consequence of this behavior of tung oil, it has 
become very popular with the varnish maker as a means of 
producing cheap but good varnish. 

Chinese Vermilion. — Chinese vermilion is made in 
Wing Kat & tf in Canton. It is the finest quality of 
vermilion, and its manufacture was long kept a secret. It is 
known to be made by heating mercury and sulphur together 
in shallow iron pans until they combine to form a black 
mercuric sulphide. This is pulverized, and put into retorts 
in small amounts at a time. The larger part of the black 
sulphide sublimes into the upper part of the retort as a 
bright red powder. This is ground, washed and dried. 
Owino- to the patience and care exercised by the Chinese 
workmen, a very fine product is obtained. 

Vermilion is very expensive and is a very heavy, opaque 
and brilliant pigment. It is permanent, and not readily 



142 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUXG PROVINCE 

affected by acids and alkalies. It is also used as Chinese 
red ink and as a medicine. 

Red Lead. — Lead is also made in Wing Kat in Canton. 
It is made by the direct oxidation of metallic lead. The 
process is carried on in two stages. In the first operation, 
the lead is converted into lead monoxide by heating with 
free access of air in a large iron pan which can hold 1,000 
catties, to a temperature just above that of melted lead 
(840 deg. C). The temperature must be carefully regulated, 
for if the lead monoxide melts, it passes into ordinary 
litharge, from which red lead cannot be made. In order to 
do this, it has to be stirred frequently. Finally the un- 
oxidized lead is allowed to run off, and the lead monoxide is 
taken out and cooled. It is pale yellow, of granular texture, 
and contains pellets of unoxidized lead. It is then immersed 
in water to separate the impurities and dirt from it, then it 
is taken out of the water, dried and finely ground and then 
transferred to the second process. 

In the second process, it, is heated to a dull red heat in 
a larger pan. The mass is stirred frequently to assist the 
absorption of oxygen, and to develop the color. It takes 
several days to complete the process, and then the furnace 
is allowed to cool. The product is ground and then sold as 
a pigment and is also used for glass making. 

Soap. — The methods employed by the people in this 
province for making soap are very crude. The art of soap 
making is very old; only Chinese soap was used before 
foreign soaps were introduced into Kwangtung. 

Instead of treating lard or fatty material with a solution 
of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, lime is used to 
react with the oil. So instead of soda soap and potash soap, 
we have lime soap which is made in the shape of a bowl and 
is termed "bowl soap." It is hardly soluble in water, and 
is used only for washing purposes. 

Fire crackers and fireworks are made in Fa-Ti j£ i$, 
Tung Koon M % and Im Bo f| p. Nitre which is the chief 
constituent of these minor explosives has been known in 
this country for many centuries. 

I have given you a brief outline of the chemical industry 
of Kwangtung province. You see that owing to the lack of 
machinery everything is done by hand-work, and. owing to the 
lack of scientific knowledge, there is little improvement in 
methods and products. Furthermore, things are made on a 
small scale as hand-power and, foot-power cannot compete 
with machinery; so there are no facilities for handling large 
quantities on an industrial scale. As much time and energy 
are wasted the manufacturers do not get much profit by the 
industry. 



CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN KWANGTUNG PROVINCE 143 

The factory is managed and the work is supervised by 
men of practically no training and education. Unlike the 
foreign factories where chemists and Chinese engineers are 
employed, and the raw material is carefully analyzed before 
use, the chemical factories in Kwangtung employ no chemists 
or engineers. Their success depends entirely upon the ex- 
perience of the foreman who is most secretive. The factories 
are dark, dirty and poorly ventilated, so that the laborers 
have a very hard time and besides this their wages are low. 
This is a great handicap to the chemical industry in this 
country. 

Again the apparatus and instruments used in chemical 
industry are crude and inefficient . As science finds no place 
in the curriculum of old schools and colleges, it is no wonder 
that men of learning pursue no research work in chemistry. 

This accounts for the fact that the chemical industry in 
this country has made little or no progress. Although wine 
has been made for 4,000 years, the methods which are now 
used do not differ much from those used by people of the 
early ages. 

In America, the university and the chemical factory 
have close relationship. The former sends out men to help 
develop the chemical industry. The chemical factory is the 
best place for a trained chemist and graduate of the colleges 
of chemistry outside of the laboratory. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS IN THE 
MUSEUM OF THE ANGLO- 
CHINESE COLLEGE OF 
FOOCHOW CHINA 



C. R. KELLOGG. 



Preface. 

The birds listed herewith are all in the Museum of the 
Anglo -Chinese College in Foochow, and have been secured 
within the boundaries of Fukien Province so this will serve as 
a representative, though incomplete, list of the commonest 
birds of the province. The classification followed is that of 
the Museum of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society in Shanghai, for most of the names were secured 
through its published list and with the help of the native 
collector, who is also employed by the Shanghai Museum- 
There are still a score or more of birds undetermined in 
our Museum and it is hoped that before long they may be 
classified and their names added to the list so as to make it 
as complete as possible. This does not purport to be a 
complete list of the birds in the province for we are aware 
that there are a number of birds reported from this region 
whose names do not appear in this list. Corrections or 
additions from those who have been working longer on the 
ornithology of China will be welcomed by the writer. 

Although the actual collecting and preparation of the 
specimens has been done by the Chinese taxidermist, 
T'ang-Wang-Wang, the existence of the collection was made 
possible only through the generosity of Dr. J. Gowdy, the 
President of the College, who supplied the funds and whose 
enthusiasm and interest in its development were untiring. 

FAMILY COBVIDAE. 

^Museum' ' SUB-FAMILY CORVIXAE. 

1. Corvus torquatus Less: White-necked Crow. 

2. Corvus dauricus (Pall.) Pied Jackdaw. 

3. Corvus dauricus x neglectus. Hybrid Jackdaw. 

4. Corvus macrorhynchus Wgl. Oriental Raven. 



ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA 145 

No. of A.C.C. 

Museum 

5. Pica caudata (L.) Common Magpie. 

6. Cyanopolius cyanus (Pall.) Chinese Azure-winged 

Magpie. 

7. Urocissa sinensis (L.) Chinese Blue Magpie. 

8. Dendrocitta sinensis (Lath.) Chinese Tree Pie. 

9. Garrulus sinensis (Gould.) South China Jay. 

Sub-Family Parinae. 

10. Parus minor (T. & S.) Lesser Tit. 

11. Parus pekinensis (Dav.) Chinese Cole Tit. 

12. Parus venustulus Swinhoe. Yellow-bellied Tit. 

13. Machlolophus rex (Dav.) David's Yellow-cheeked Tit. 

14. Melanoehlora sultanea (Hodgs.) Sultan Tit. 

15. Aegithalus concinnus (Gould.) Eed-headed Tit. 

16. Silviparus modestus (Burt.) Yellow-browed Tit. 

Sub-Family Paradoxornithinae. 

17. Paradoxornis heudei (Dav.) Heude's Crow-Tit. 

18. Suthora webbiana (Gray.) Webb's Crow-Tit. 

19. Scaeorhynchus sp. Grey-headed Crow-Tit. 

FAMILY CEATEEOPODIDAE. 
Sub-Family Crateopodinae. 

20. Dryonastes perspicillatus (Gm.) Spectacled Laugh- 

ing-Thrush. 

21. Dryonastes sannio (Swinhoe.) White-cheeked Laugh- 

ing-Thrush. 

22. Dryonastes berthemyi (Dav.) Eufous Laughing- 

Thrush. 

23. Ianthocincla cinereiceps (Styan.) Styan's Hwamei. 

24. Garrulax picticollis (Swinhoe.) Collared Laughing- 

Thrush. 

25. Trochalopteron canorum (L.) Hwamei. 

26. Pomatorhinus swinhoei (Dav.) Fukien Large Scimitar 

Babbler. 

27. Pomatorhinus stridulus (Swinhoe.) Chinese Lesser 

Scimitar Babbler. 

Sub-Family Timeliinae. 

28. Alcippe hueti (Dav.) Fukien Quaker-Thrush. 

29. Schoeniparus superciliaris (Dav.) David's Quaker- 

Thrush. 

30. Stachyridopsis sinensis (Grant.) Chinese Eed-headed 

Babbler. 

31. Proparus guttaticollis (La Touche.) lukien lit- 

Babbler. 
10 



146 A LIST OF THE BIRDS IN THE MUSEUM OF THE 

N Tvh of „ A ;5' C ' Sub-Family Brachypteryginae. 

Museum 

32. Myiophoneus coeruleus (Scop.) Violet Whistling 

Thrush. 

34. Drymochares sinensis (Eickett.) Chinese Short- Wing. 

Sub-Family Sibiinae. 

33. Staphidia torqueola (Swinhoe.) Collared Staphidia. 

35. Yuhina pallida (La Touche.) Pale Yuhina. 

Sub-Family Liotrichinae. 

36. Liothrix lutea (Scop.) Eed-billed Liothrix. 

37. Pteruthius ricketti (Grant.) Eickett's Shrike Tit. 

38. Allotrius pallidus (Dav.) David's Shrike Tit. 

Sub-Family Brachypodinae. 

39. Pycnonotus sinensis (Gm.) Chinese Bulbul. 

40. Pycnonotus xanthorrhous (And.) Yellow-vented 

Bulbul. 

41. Hemixus canipennis (Seebohm.) Chestnut Bulbul. 

42. Iolepolti (Swinhoe.) Swinhoe's Green-winged Bulbul. 

43. Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Gould.) White-headed 

Black Bulbul. 

44. Spizios semitorques (Swinhoe.) Swinhoe's Finch- 

billed Bulbul. 

45. Chloropsis lazulina (Swinhoe.) Chinese Chloropsis.. 

FAMILY SITTIDAE. 

46. Sitta sinensis (Verreaux.) Chinese Nuthatch. 

FAMILY DICEUEIDAE. 

47. Buchanga atra (Herm.) Black Drongo. 

48. Chibia hottentotta (L.) Hairy- crested Drongo. 

FAMILY SYLVIIDAE. 

49. Locustella certhiola (Pall.) Pallas 's Grasshopper- 

Warbler. 

50. Acrocephalus orientalis (T. & S.) Eastern Great 

Eeed-Warbler. 

51. Phylloscopus sub-affinis (Grant.) Yellow-bellied 

Grass-Warbler. 

52. P. trochiloides (Blyth.) Blythe's Crowned Willow- 

Warbler. 

53. P. coronatus (Temm.) Crowned Willow-Warbler. 

54. P. superciliosus (Gm.) Yellow -browed Willow- 

Warbler. 



ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA 147 

No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

55. Cryptolopha sinensis (Eickett.) Chinese Flycatcher- 

Warbler. 

56. C. burkii (Burt.) Green-headed Flycatcher-Warbler. 

57. Abrornis fulvifacies (Swinhoe.) Fulvous-cheeked 

Flycatcher-Warbler. 

59. Horornis canturiens (Swinhoe.) Swinhoe 's Bush- 

W^arbler. 

60. Horornis sinensis (La Touch e.) Chinese Bush- 

Warbler. 

61. Prinia extensicauda (Swinhoe.) South China Wren- 

Warbler. 

62. Burnesia sonitans (Swinhoe.) Grey-headed Wren- 

Warbler. 

63. Suya superciliaris (Anderson.) White-browed Hill- 

Warbler. 

FAMILY LANIDAE. 

Sub-Family Laniinae. 

64. Lanius schach (L.) Great Eed-backed Shrike. 

65. Lanius fuscatus (Less.) Dusky Shrike. 

66. Lanius bucephalus (T. & S.) Bull-headed Shrike. 

67. Lanius superciliosus (Lath.) White-browed Eed- 

backed Shrike. 

68. Lanius tigrinus (Drapiez.) Thick-billed Shrike. 

69. Tephrodornis pelvica (Hodgs.) Hodgson's Wood- 

Shrike. 

70. Pericrocotus speciosus (McClell.) Great Scarlet 

Minivet. 

71. Pericrocotus grinseigularis (Gould.) Grey-throated 

Minivet. 

72. Pericrocotus cinereus (Lafresn.) Grey Minivet. 

73. Pericrocotus cantonensis (Swinhoe.) Swinhoe's 

Minivet. 

74. Campophaga melanoptera (Euppel.) Black- Winged 

Cuckoo- Shrike. 

75. Graucalus rex-pineti (Swinhoe.) Chinese Great 

Cuckoo -Shrike. 

FAMILY OEIOLIDAE. 

76. Oriolus indicus (Jerdon.) Black-naped Oriole. 

FAMILY STUENIDAE. 

77. Spodiopsar cineraceus (Temm.) Grey Starling. 

78. Spodiopsar sericeus (Gm.) Silky Starling. 

79. Sturnia sinensis (Gm.) Chinese Starlet. 



148 A LIST OP THE BIRDS IN THE MUSEUM OF THE 

.No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

80. Stumia sturnina (Pall.) Daurian Starlet. 

81. Graculipica nigricollis (Payk.) Black-necked Mynah. 

82. Jicridotheres cristatellus (L.) Chinese Crested Mynah. 

FAMILY MUSCICAPIDAE. 

83. Alseonax latirostris (Eaffles.) Broad-billed Flycatcher. 

84. Hemichelidon sibirica (Gm.) Siberian Flycatcher. 

85. Poliomyias luteola (Pall.) Eobin Flycatcher. 

86. Cyanoptila bella (Hay.) Blue and White Flycatcher. 

87. Xanthopygia tricolor (Blyth.) Tricolor Flycatcher. 
•88. X. nareissina (Temm.) Narcissus Flycatcher. 

89. Terpsiphone incii (Gould.) Ince's Paradise Flycatcher. 

One male reddish-brown. Another male white. 
Latter said to be old. 

90. T. princeps (Temm.) Japanese Paradise Flycatcher. 

FAMILY TUEDIDAE. 

Sub-Family Saxicolinae. 

91. Pratincola maura (Pall.) Eastern Stonechat. 

92. Oreicola ferra (Hodgs.) Grey Stonchat. 

Sub-Family Euticillinae. 

93. Henicurus sinensis (Gould.) Chinese Forktail. 

94. Henicurus guttatus (Gould.) Spotted Forktail. 

95. H. schistaceus (Hodgs.) Grey Forktail. 

96. Microcichla scouleri (Vigors). Little Forktail'. 

97. Ehyacornis fulginosa (Vigors.) Plumbeous Water- 

Eedstart. 

98. Euticilla aurorea (Pall.) Daurian Eedstart. 

99. Cyanecula coerulecula (Pall.) Blue Throat. 

100. Calliope camschatkensis (Gm.) Euby Throat. 

101. Erithacus akahige (T. & S.) Japanese Eobin. 

102. Ianthia cyanura (Pall.) Blue-tailed Eobin. 

103. Copsychus saularis (L.) Dayal Bird. 

Sub-Family Turniinae. 

104. Merula mandarina (Bp.) Chinese Blackbird. 

105. M. pallida (Gm.) Pale Ouzel. 

106. M. obscura (Gm.) Gray-headed Ouzel. 

107. M. hortulorum (Sclater.) Grey-backed Ouzel. 

108. M. cardis (Temm.) Japanese Black Ouzel. 

109. M. naumanni (Temm.) Eed-tailed Auzel. 

110. M. fuscata (Pall.) Dusky Ouzel. 

111. Geocichla sibirica (Pall.) Siberian Ground-Thrush. 



ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA 149- 

No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

112. Petrophila manilla (Bodd.) Eed-bellied Book-Thrush, 
lid. P. gulans (Swinhoe.) White-throated Kock-Thrush 

114. Oreocmcla varia (Pall.) White's Thrush. 

Sub-Family Cinclinae. 

115. Cinclus souliei (Oustalet.) South China Dipper. 

Sub-Family Accentorinae. 

116. Accentor montanellus (Pall.) Mountain Accentor. 

FAMILY PLOCEIDAE. 

Sub-Family Viduinae. 

117. Munia sinensis (Briss.) Chinese Munia. 

118. Uroloncha acuticauda (Hodgs.) Sharp-tailed Munia, 

FAMILY FBINGILLIDAE. 

Sub-Family Coccothraustinae. 

119. Eophona migratoria (Hartert.) Lesser Black-headed 

Hawfinch. 

Sub-Family Fringillinae. 

120. Pyrrhula ricketti (La Touche.) Fukien Bullfinch. 

121. Chloris sinica (L.) Chinese Greenfinch. 

122. Fringilla montifringilla (L.) Brambling. 

123. Passer montanus (L.) Tree Sparrow. 

124. P. rutilans (Temm.) Buddy Sparrow. 

Sub-Family Emberizinae. 

125. Emberiza pusilla (Pall.) Little Bunting. 

126. E. spudocephala (Pall.) Grey-headed Bunting. 

127. E. rustica (Pall.) Eustic Bunting. 

128. E. aureola (Pall.) Yellow-breasted Bunting. 

129. E. chrysophrys (Pall.) Yellow-browed Bunting. 

130. E. elegans (Temm.) Yellow-throated Bunting. 

131. E. cioides (Temm.) Chestnut Bunting. 

132. E. fucata (Pall.) Painted Bunting. 

133. E. tristrami (Swinhoe.) Tristram's Bunting. 

134. E. rutila (Pall.) Euddy Bunting. 

135. E. sulphurata (?) 

136. Melophus melanicterus (Gm.) Crested Bunting. 

FAMILY HIEUNDINIDAE. 

143. Chelidon dasypus (Bonap.) Japanese Martin. 

144. C. kashmirensis (Gould.) Kashmir Martin. 



150 A LIST OF THE BIRDS IN THE MUSEUM OF THE 

No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

145. Cotile riparia (L.) Sand-Martin. 

146. Hirundo gutturalis (Scop.) Eastern House-Swallow. 

147. H. nipalensis (Hodgs.) Nipal Striped Swallow. 

FAMILY MOTACILLIDAE. 

148. M. lugens (Pall.) Kamschatkan Wagtail. 

149. M. melanope (Pall.) Eastern Grey Wagtail. 

150. Motocilla leucopsis (Gould.) White-faced Wagtail. 

151. An thus macalatus (Hodgs.) Eastern Tree-Pipit. 

152. A. japonicus (T. & S.) Eastern Water-Pipit. 

153. A. cervinus (Pall.) Eed-throated Pipit. 

154. A. richardi (Vieill.) Eichard's Pipit. 

FAMILY ALAUDIDAE. 

155. Alauda arvensis (L.) Skylark. 

FAMILY NECTAEINIIDAE. 

Sub-Family Nectariniinae. 

156. Aethopyga latouchii (Slater.) La Touche's Sunbird. 

157. Dicoeum ignipectus (Hodgs. Fire-breasted Flower 

Pecker. 

ORDER PIGI. 
FAMILY PICIDAE. 
Sub-Family Picinae. 

158. Gecinus tancolo (Gould.) South China Green Wood- 

pecker. 

159. Gecinulus viridanus (Slater.) Chinese Three-toed 

Green Woodpecker. 

160. Dendrocopus cabanisi (Malh.) Chinese Pied Wood- 

pecker. 

161. I). insularis (Gould.) Chinese White-backed Wood- 

pecker. 

162. Iyngipicus kaleensis (Swinhoe.) South China Spark- 

headed Woodpecker. 

163. Lepocestes sinensis (Eickett.) Chinese Bay Wood- 

pecker. 

164. Micropternus fohkiensis (Swinhoe.) Fukien Eufous 

Woodpecker. 

Sub-Family Picumninae. 

165. Picumnus chinensis (Hargitt). Chinese Piculet. 



ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA 151 

No. ofA.C.C. a -n 

Museum bUB-JbAMILY 1YNGINAE. 

166. lynx torquilla (L.) Wryneck. 

ORDER ZYGODACTYLY 
FAMILY CAPITONIDAE. 

167. Megalaima virens (Bodd.) Great Chinese Barbet. 

ORDER ANISODACTYLI. 

Sub-Order Coraciae. 
FAMILY COEACIIDAE. 

168. Eurystomus calonyx (Sharpe.) Chinese Broad-billed 

Eoller. 

Sub-Order Halcyones. 
FAMILY ALCEDINIDAE. 

137. Halcyon pileatus (Bodd.) Black-capped Kingfisher. 

138. H. smyrnensis (L.) White-breasted Kingfisher. 

139. Alcedo bengalensis (G.) Common Kingfisher. 

140. Ceryle varia (Strickl.) Eastern Pied Kingfisher. 

141. C. lugubris (Temm.) Great Spotted Kingfisher. 

Sub-Order Upupidae. 
FAMILY UPUPIDAE. 

142. Upupa epops (L.) Hoopoe. 

ORDER MACROCHIRES. 

Sub-Order Cypseli. 

FAMILY CYPSELIDAE. 

Sub-Family Cypselinae. 

169. Cypselus pekinensis (Swinhoe). North China Swift. 

Sub-Family Chaeturinae. 

170. Acanthyllis caudacuta (Lath.) Spine-tailed Swift. 

FAMILY CAPEIMULGIDAE. 

171. Caprimulgus jotaka (T. & S.) Japanese Night-jar. 

ORDER TR0G0NE8. 
FAMILY TEOGONIDAE. 

172. Harpactes yamakanensis (Eickett). Fukien Trogon. 



152 A LIST OF THE BIRDS IN THE MUSEUM OF THE 

ORDER COCCYGES. 
FAMILY CUCULIDAE. 
No^ofA.c.C. Sub-Family Cuculinae. 

173. Cuculus saturatus (Hodgs.) Himalayan Cuckoo. 

174. C. poliocephalus (Lath.) Small Cuckoo. 

176. Hieroccoccyx sparverioides (Vig.) Great Hawk- 
Cuckoo. 

Sub-Family Phoenicophainae . 

178. Eudyhamis honorata (L.) Indian Koel. 

179. Centropus sinensis (Steph.) Common Crow-Pheasant. 

ORDER STRIGE8. 
FAMILY ASIONIDAE. 

Sub-Family Asioninae. 

181. Asio otus (L.) Long-eared Owl. 

182. A. accipitrinus (Pall.) Short-eared Owl. 

Sub-Family Bubonidae . 

183. Bubo ignavus (Forster). Great Eagle Owl. 

184. Scops semitorques (T. & S.) Half-collared Owl. 

185. S. strictonotus (Sharpe.) Chinese Little Scops-Owl. 

186. Glaucudium whiteyi (Blyth.) Whitley's Owlet. 

187. G. brodeie (Burt.) Collared Pygmy Owlet. 

188. Ninox japonica (T. & S.) Japanese Brown Hawk- 

Owl. 

ORDER ACCIPITRES. 
FAMILY PAKDIONTDAE. 

189. Pandion ha-liaetus (L.) Osprey. 

FAMILY VULTUBIDAE. 

189a. Vultur monachus L. Cinereous Vulture. 

(Very rare. Killed near sea-coast. Must have 
lost its way and been driven by storm). 

FAMILY FALCONIDAE. 

190. Aquila chrysaetus (L.) Golden Eagle. 

191. Aquila heliaca (Sav.) Imperial Eagle. 

192. Hieraetus fasciatus (Vieill.) Bonelli's Eagle. 

193. Spizaetus nipalensis (Hodgs.) Hodgson's Hawk-eagle. 

194. Butastur indicus (Gm.) Grey-faced Buzzard-Eagle. 

195. Haliaetus albicilla (L.) White-tailed Sea-Eagle. 



ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA 153 

No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

196. Milvus melanotis (T. & S.) Black-eared Kite. 

197. Circus cyaneus (L.) Hen-Harrier. 

198. Buteo plumipes (Hodgs.) Common Buzzard. 

199. A. gularis (T. & S.) Japanese Sparrow Hawk. 

200. Accipiter nisus (L.) Common Sparrow-Hawk. 

201. Falco peregrinus (L.) Peregrine. 

203. F. subbuteo (L.) Hobby. 

204. iEsalon regulus (Tunst.) Merlin. 

205. Erythropus amurensis (Eadde.) Eastern Bed-footed 

Falcon. 

206. Cerchneis japonicus (T. & S.) Japanese Kestrel. 

207. Microhierax melanoleucus (Blyth.) White -legged: 

Falconet. 

ORDER COLUMBAE. 

FAMILY COLUMBIDAE. 

Sub-Family Columbiae. 

208. Turtur orientalis (Lath.) Eastern Turtle-Dove. 

209. T. chinensis (Scop.) Chinese Turtle Dove. 

210. Turtur humilis (Temm.) Chinese Buddy Bing-Dove. 

ORDER GALLINAE, 
Sub-Order Alectroropodes. 
FAMILY PHASIANIDAE. 

211. Phasianus torquatus (Gm.) Bing-necked Pheasant. 

212. Pucrasia darwini (Swinhoe.) Darwin's Pucras Phea- 

sant. 

213. Gennoesas nycthemerus (L.) Silver Pheasant. 

214. Tragopan caboti (Gould.) Cabot's Tragopan. 

215. Bambusicola thoracica, (Temm.) Bamboo-Partridge. 

216. Coturnix communis (Bonnat.) Common Quail. 

217. Francolinus chinensis (Osbeck.) Chinese Francolin. 

ORDER HEMIPODIL 
FAMILY TUBNICIDAE. 

218. Turnix blanfordi (Blyth.) Blanford's Button QuaiL 

ORDER GRALLAE. 
Sub-Order Fulicariae. 
FAMILY BALLIDAE. 

219. Ballus aquaticus (L.) Common Water Bail. 

220. Hypotaenidia striata (L.) Blue-breasted Banded BaiL 

221. Porzana pusilla (Pall.) Pallas 's Crake. 



154 A LIST OF THE BIRDS IN THE MUSEUM OF THE 

No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

222. Amaurornis aokol (Sykes.) Crimson-legged Crake. 

223. A. phoenicura (Penn.) White-breasted Water-hen. 

224. Gallinula chloropus (L.) Common Moor-hen. 

225. Gallicrex cinerea (Gm.) Water Cock. 
220. Fulica atra. (L.) Common Coot. 

FAMILY OTIT1DAE. 

241. Otis dybowskii. Great Eastern Bustard. 

ORDER LIMIGOLAE. 
FAMILY GLAEEOLIDAE. 

Sub-Family Glareolinae. 

230. Glareola orientalis (Leach.) Eastern Pratincole. 

FAMILY PAEBIDAE. 

227. Hydrophasianus chirurgus (Scops.) Pheasant-tailed 

Jacana. 

FAMILY CHAEADEIIDAE. 
Sub-Family Charadriinae. 

228. Microsarcops cinereus (Blyth.) Grey Lapwing. 

229. Vanellus cristatus (W. & M.) Lapwing. 

231. Charadrius fulvus (Gm.) Eastern Golden Plover. 

232. Squatarola helvetica (L.) Grey Plover. 

233. JEgialitis. veredus (Gould.) Eastern Dotterel. 

234. Stupsila intrepres. Turnstone. 

235. M. geoffroyi (Wagl.) Geoffrey's Sand-Plover. 

236. M. flacidens. Einged Plover. 

237. M. minor (W. & M.) Little Einged-Plover. 

238. M. placidus (Gray). Hodgson's Einged-Plover. 

Sub-Family Haematopodinae. 

239. Mimantopus candidus (Bonnat.) Black-winged Stilt. 

Sub-Family Totaninae. 

240. Numenius variegatus (Scop.) Eastern W T himbrel. 

242. N. minutus (Gould.) Little Curlew. 

243. Terekia cinerea (Gm.) Terek Sandpiper. 

244. Totanus hypoleucus (L.T Common Sandpiper. 

245. T. glareola (L.) Wood Sandpiper. 

246. T. ochropus (L.) Green Sandpiper. 
.247. T. glottis (L.) Greenshank. 



ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA 155 

No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

248. T. brevipes (Vieill.) Grey Sandpiper. 

249. T. calidris (L.) Bed-shank. 

250. Tringa ruficollis (Pall.) Ked-necked Stitt. 

251. T. subminuta (Midd.) Long-toed Stint. 

252. T. acuminata (Horaf.) Sharp-tailed Stint. 

253. T. canutus (L.) Knot. 

254. T. subarcuata (Gould.) Curlew Stint. 

255. T. cinclus (L.) Dunlin. 

256. T. platyrhyncaa (Temm.) Broad-billed Stint. 

257. Eugnorhynchus pygmens. Spoon -billed Sandpiper. 

258. Scolopax rusticula (L.) Woodcock. 

259. Gallinago megala (Swinhoe.) Swinhoe 's Snipe. 

260. G. stenura (Bp.) Pin-tailed Snipe. 

261. G. coelestis (Frenz.) Common Snipe. 

262. Ehynchoea capensis (L.) Painted Snipe. 

ORDER GAVIAE. 
FAMILY LAEIDAE. 

Sub-Family Larinae. 

263. L. vegoe (Stejn.) Pink-footed Herring Gull. 

264. Larus canus (L.) Common Gull. 

265. L. ridibundus (L.) Laughing Gull. 

Sub-Family Sterninae. 
206. Sterna sinensis (Gem.) Chinese Little Tern. 

ORDER STEGANOPODES. 
FAMILY PELICANIDAE. 

Sub-Family 

267. Pelecanus philippensis (Briss.) Spotted-billed Pelican. 

FAMILY PHALACEOCOEACIDAE 

268. Phalacrocorax carbo (L.) Common Cormorant. 

ORDER HERODIONES. 

Sub-Order Plataleae. 
FAMILY PLATALEIDAE. 

269. Platalea minor (T. & S.) Lesser Spoonbill. 

Sub-Order Ciconiae. 
FAMILY CICONIIDAE. 

270. Ciconia nigra (L.) Black Stork. 



156 a list of the birds in the museum of the 

Sub-Order Ardeae. 
FAMILY ABDEIDAE. 

No. of A.C.C. 
Museum 

271. Ardea cinerea (L.) Gray Heron. 

272. A. manillensis (Mey.) Eastern Purple Heron. 

273. Herodias alba (L.) Great Egret. 

274. H. intermediae Wagl. Lesser Egret. 

275. H. garzetta (L.) Little Egret. 

276. Bubulcus coromandus (Bodd.) Cattle Egret. 

277. Ardeoia bacchus (Bp.) Chinese Pond Heron. 

278. Butorides. javanica (Horaf.) Little Green Heron. 

279. Nyctiardea nycticorax (L.) Night Heron. 

280. Botaurus stellaris (L.) Bittern. 

281. Gorsachius goisagi (Temm.) Japanese Tiger Bittern. 

282. A. cinamonea. Chestnut Bittern. 

283. Ardetta sinensis (Gm.) Chinese Little Bittern. 

284. A. eurythma (Swinhoe.) Von Schrenk's Little Bittern. 

285. Dupetor navicollis (Lath.) Yellow-necked Heron. 

ORDER ANSERES. 
FAMILY ANATIDAE. 

Sub-Family Anserinae. . 

286. Anser serrirostris (Gould.) Eastern Bean Goose. 

287. A. cygnoides. Swan Goose. 

Sub-Family Anatinae. 

288. Tadorna cornuta (Gm.) Sheldrake. 
300. Casarca rutila. Buddy Sheldrake. 

289. Nettopus coromandeliamus (Gm.) Cotton Teal. 

290. Anas boschas (L.) Mallard. 

291. A. zonorhyncha Swinhoe. Yellow-nib Duck. 

292. Eunetta falcata (Pall.) Falcated Teal. 

293. Nettium formosum (Georgi.) Spectacled Teal. 

294. N. crecca (L.) Common Teal. 

295. Querquedula circia (L.) Garganey Teal. 

296. Aex galericulata (L.) Mandarin Duck. 

297. Mareca penelope (L.) Wigeon. 

298. Dafila acuta (L.) Pintail Duck. 

299. Spatula clypeata (L.) Shoveller. 

.301. Fuligula baeri (Badde.) ' Eastern White-eyed Duck. 

302. F. mariloides (Kich.) Eastern Scaup. 

303. F. cristata (L.) Tufted Duck. 

304. Oidemia carbo (Pall.) Eastern Velvet Scoter. 



ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE OF FOOCHOW CHINA 157 

N MS f setm C ' Sub-Family Merginae. 

305. Mergus albellus (L.) Smew. 

306. M. castor (L.) Goosander. 

307. M. squarnatus (Gould.) Gould's Merganser. 

308. M. serrator (L.) Eed-breasted Merganser. 

ORDER PYG0P0DE8. 
FAMILY COLYMBIDAE. 

309. Colymbus septentrionalis (L.) Eed-throated Diver. 

310. C. articus (L.) Black-throated Diver. 

FAMILY PODICIPEDIDAE. 

311. Podicipes cristatus (L.) Great Crested Grebe. 

312. P. philippensis (Bonnat.) Eastern Little Grebe. 



FORMOSA 



BY OLD CATHAY. 



The island of Formosa, or Taiwan, originally the largest 
insular possession of China, was formally ceded to Japan in 
1895, and is now becoming so thoroughly surveyed and 
developed by its new rulers that the following notes may 
prove not uninteresting from a European point of view. 

Perhaps it is unnecessary to remark that under the fierce 
latter-day competition of the Japanese, the trading interests 
of all European firms on the Island have steadily declined. 

"Formosa," or "The beautiful Isle," as the Portugese 
first named it, extends between 22° and 26° N. Lat., and 
120° to 122° E. Long. By the British Treaty signed in 
Peking in 1858 three of its ports were thrown open to foreign 
commerce; viz. Tarnsui and Kelung on the North, and Takao 
on the South. From thence an increasing trade has been 
carried on by a few British firms; branches from the Main- 
land ports of Amoy and Foochow; the principal exports being 
Manchester goods, opium and a few sundries; the chief 
exports are sugar and rice from the South; tea, sugar, hemp, 
camphor, liquid indigo, rice and coal from the North. 

A large traffic is also carried on by Chinese merchants in 
junks; they, in exchange for export products supplying the 
emigrants to the Island with clothing materials, agricultural 
implements, raw cotton, crockery, and many other articles of 
every-day use which are best obtained from the mainland 
ports. The Island is rich in natural products and extremely 
fertile. Its Northern coalfields are extensive and only await 
the introduction of mining machinery to turn out large 
supplies of coal for steam purposes; its mountain ranges 
abound with valuable timbers — sixty different kinds have 
been collected — some of very fine grain; two Solfataras are 
known, from which the purest sulphur might be readily 
procured; whilst the locale of petroleum oil springs has been 
discovered, the natives in their vicinity employing the oil 
in its crude state for lighting purposes. 

The great drawbacks of the Island are, want of deep- 
water harbours, — that of Kelung on the North being the only 
one suited to a deep-draught vessel, — and the excessive 



FORMOSA 159 

humidity of the climate during the greater portion of the 
year. 

What may be described as the native population of 
Formosa consists of no fewer than four classes of people, 
viz : — 1st, the Aborigines of the Island who have been driven 
inland by the emigrants from China, and who now occupy 
the wooded hills and mountains of the interior, also the 
Eastern seaboard. 2nd. Ping-poo-hwans, or savages, of the 
plains, i.e. those Aborigines who originally occupied the 
table-lands adjacent to the Coast, and who, by contact with 
the Chinese, have now adopted to a more or less extent their 
manners or customs, and who further owe allegiance to 
China's Emperor. 3rd. Hakkas, a peculiar race of Chinese 
emigrants, who were in their turn emigrants from the more 
Northern to the Southern provinces of the Mainland. 4th. 
Chinese from the opposite coast of China, and chiefly natives 
of the Fuh-kien province. 

As to the peculiarities of these four classes, it may be 
noted, that the Aborigines in appearance resemble the natives 
of the Malay Archipelago, and, like them, are inclined to 
slothful and indifferent habits. They appear to be split up 
into several tribes; feuds are common amongst them, and 
one and all are bitter enemies to the Chinese emigrants, 
whom they only tolerate because, by means of a barter trade 
with them, they obtain articles of raiment, arms, ammuni- 
tion, and that greatest of necessaries, salt. They pay but 
little attention to agriculture, being content to subsist on 
mountain rice, sweet potatoes, and the products of the chase. 

The Ping-poo-hwans or tame savages, as they are now 
called, are certainly improved by their inter-marriages and 
intercourse with the Chinese, both as regards physique and 
industrious habits. They still, however, retain their ab- 
original simplicity of disposition, and on this account are 
often the victims of Chinese duplicity. 

The Hakkas I may style the Scotch of the Chinese 
emigrant element. Most industrious, keen in business, 
daring in disposition, they are ever to the front when a new 
tract of land is being colonised or where, by running more 
than ordinary risk, they may succeed in establishing a new 
border station. 

The Chinese, amongst whom are included the mercantile 
and manufacturing classes, are as industrious and as keenly 
alive to their own interests as their brethren of the mainland. 

The island and its people having now been roughly des- 
cribed, I will give a short account of a journey, undertaken 
during the dry weather of the Autumn of the year, 1873, 
with a view of penetrating to the savage territory and seeing 



1G0 ' FORMOSA 

the savages on their native soil. My companion was a 
worthy missionary, who had succeeded in establishing chapels 
and gaining converts among the "tame" savages. 

For the first three days after leaving the treaty-port, our 
route lay in a generally South and westerly direction across 
elevated table-land, with intervening valleys of some miles 
in breadth, running parallel to the coast, and in a high state 
of cultivation. 

On the evening of the fourth day we found ourselves in 
a village peopled by tame savages, amongst whom my com- 
panion had laboured and who boast of a chapel of their own. 
I was much struck with their kindly disposition, and parti- 
cularly decorous and attentive behaviour at evening service. 
They being in direct communication with the savages of the 
woods, it was with some of their party that we expected to 
resume our march on the morrow. 

Soon after daylight, therefore, we started with two of 
them as guides, and pursued a path running up a rugged- 
looking valley, bestrewed with boulders, and trending East, 
towards the hills. By noon we reached a low line of hills, 
and after some three hours of up and down work, we came 
upon the first party of savages, who were on duty at a small 
clearing where bartering was carried on between their people 
and the Hakkas, but beyond which point the latter would 
not dare to be caught. 

On seeing us, the savages, who had ugly-looking iron 
knives in wooden sheaths hanging at their girdles, and who 
were otherwise armed with long gingalls, jumped to their 
feet. The men, small in stature, like the Malays, were 
tattoed in one straight line, about half an inch in breadth, 
right down the forehead to the bridge of the nose, and again 
from the lower lip to the extremity of the chin; those who, 
in raids against the Chinese, had been successful in bringing 
home heads of any of their foes, were further tattooed in 
parallel lines of the same breadth below the nipple of the 
breast, each line representing a head brought home. 

Their clothing consisted of a sleeveless jacket, cut from 
coarse cloth of their own make, and of a strip of the same 
material bound round their loins. Nether garments and 
shoes they had none. Nearly all the group were ornamented 
with strings of very common-looking beads, which they, 
nevertheless appeared to prize highly; and all were furnished 
with short bamboo pipes, at which they sucked incessantly. 

The women, some of whom had sharply cut features and 

1 beautiful eyes, were tattooed in three lines from beneath the 

lobes of each ear across the cheek-bones to the centre of the 

>chin, the spaces between the broad lines being filled in with 



FORMOSA 161 

ornamental work. In regular Malay style, they wore a loose 
sort of petticoat twisted round their loins, and reaching to the 
ankles, the rest of their dress consisting of the same sleeve- 
less jacket as the men. 

The women were somewhat timid, but not so the men, 
who at once asked to be shown foreign guns and pistols, and 
who evidently judge of a man by the style of his weapons. 
Their houses, by the way, are miserable affairs, having roofs 
formed of split bamboo and walls of mud or thatch. As to 
their language we could learn but little. It would seem, 
however, they employ but a limited vocabulary, and that 
different dialects exist in the tribes occupying territory com- 
paratively adjacent. The tame savages, who acted as inter- 
preters, when asked what so-and-so was called would point 
North, and say, "Up there they call it by such a name, and 
down here by another." 

The chief of the tribe we were visiting being absent in 
the woods, we were disappointed in our plan for a further 
advance into the hills, none of the savages being willing to 
conduct us. After a short trip, therefore, on the second day 
of our stay, to a spot where some natives were engaged in 
cutting and splitting rattans ready to carry to market, we 
decided to quit savage territory, and return to the Foreign 
Settlement. 



11 



THE ATTRACTIONS OF 
ENTOMOLOGY 

Enhanced by a Simple Method of Preserving- 
Insects, Etc. 



ALFRED MOORE, B.A. 



Until very recent years the collection of insects was 
regarded by most people as an employment suitable only for 
children, whilst adults who devoted themselves to the study 
of these creatures were looked upon as amiable simpletons 
wasting their time in an utterly useless pursuit. There can 
be no doubt, that the study of entomology forms a very 
congenial and efficient, though greatly neglected, method of 
training all the most important faculties of mind and body 
in the young, and it likewise provides an extremely delightful 
and instructive hobby which can be pursued with unfailing 
lifelong interest by intelligent adults of all ages and widely 
different tastes. Lovers of beauty, in colour, in form, and 
in structure, are richly rewarded by observation of these 
as displayed by insects, particularly in tropical or semi- 
tropical countries. Those who are interested in mechanical 
problems do well to study the infinite variety of strange 
devices with which insects are endowed, for it is scarcely an 
exaggeration to say that most human contrivances, — either 
simple tools, such as hooks, knives, files, saws, drills, etc, or 
complicated machine processes, like spinning, weaving, etc., 
or even such modern inventions as aeroplanes, submarines > 
etc., — are merely clumsy imitations of the wonderfully com- 
pact instruments and efficient arrangements found even 



1 To exemplify this statement ; the finest surgical needle is a coarse 
article compared with the proboscis of a mosquito, yet this latter is in 
reality a complete surgical dressing case comprising a pair of lancets, 
a delicate probe, a couple of fine saws, an only too efficient aspirating 
needle, and a hypodermic syringe/ We are dependent on an insigni- 
ficant caterpillar for the delicate thread which forms our most beautiful 
silken fabrics — the aeroplane is obviously modelled on the structure of 
a dragonfly, — whilst the submarine and its periscope find their living 
likeness in a mosquito larva with its breathing tube. 



THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY 163 

amongst the simplest forms of insect life. 1 Again, persons 
attracted by biological questions connected with the origin 
and development of life on the earth, find much food for 
abstract thought in observing the springs of life actually at 
work in the transparent tissues of some of these perfectly 
constructed creatures; in following out their strangely com- 
plicated metamorphosis ; in noting their wonderful adaptation 
to environment and fierce struggle for existence ensuring the 
survival of the fittest; in the amazing intelligence revealed 
by their social life, and in their altogether inexplicable powers 
of instinct : — Surely then we should also obtain inspiration 
in insects, if we can find 

"Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks 
Sermons in stones and good in everything." 

More practical minds, however, care for none of these 
things and demand impatiently whether the study of these 
low forms of life has any direct bearing on human affairs, or 
serves any directly useful purpose in every day life. The 
astonishing and far reaching practical results obtained by the 
study of entomology during the last quarter of a century 
warrant a very decisive affirmative reply to these questions. 
For a long time past it has been known that insects were 
essential agents in the fertilization of plants, as well as in 
scavenging all the dead, useless, putrefactive matter that 
would otherwise render the earth unfit for habitation, — thus 
playing a twofold beneficial role in the economy of Nature. 
But, as so frequently happens in this world, evil is inextric- 
ably associated with good in both these processes, and quite 
recently, serious attention has been drawn to the ravages 
committed by insects on the fruits, cereals and vegetables 
that form such a large part of the world's food supply, and on 
many other plants necessary for various industrial purposes. 
So large have been the losses sustained from these causes 
that many civilised countries find it advisable to maintain 
experimental stations where the life histories of these pests 
are carefully investigated with a view to preventing their 
growth and development, for it is chiefly in the larval or 
caterpillar stage that such insects exert their most injurious 
effects on plants. But although vast quantities of valuable 
food material are saved every year through the study of what 
may be called agricultural entomology, yet this represents 
only a small fraction of the total practical results obtained 
from applying our knowledge of the life history of insects. 
For whilst the larvae are such potent factors in destroying 
useful forms of vegetable life, the full-grown insects have 
been found to be equally dangerous to animals, the human 
race in particular suffering terribly from various diseases 



1 64 THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY 

propagated by these parasites; and it is only by carefully 
working out all the different life stories and habits of these 
deadly pests that we are gradually gaining knowledge which, 
if systematically and intelligently applied, will enable us to 
stamp out these fell scourges. As an illustration of these 
statements may be mentioned the fact that the first attempt 
to construct the Panama Canal failed, owing largely to the 
decimation by malaria and yellow fever, of those who were 
engaged in the work. At that time it was not known that 
these diseases were caused by the bite of two different kinds 
of infected mosquito, but when this fact had been ascer- 
tained, and the breeding habits of these special varieties had 
been thorouhly investigated, it became possible to equip an 
effective anti-mosquito brigade whose work enabled the 
gigantic undertaking to be completed without further hind- 
rance from this cause. Again, the simple fact that fleas 
desert the corpses of plague-infected rats and carry the 
disease to human beings, has enabled intelligent measures to 
be adopted, whereby Europe has been protected from this 
deadly scourage, although Asia has been terribly and ex- 
tensively ravaged by it for the last quarter of a century, and 
the two continents are closely associated both geographically 
and commercially. Many other instances might be given of 
the part played by insects in propagating human diseases, 
and of the scientific triumphs achieved by the judicious 
application of measures directed against these infection 
carriers, but enough has been said to show how essential to 
man's very existence is the study of this branch of natural 
history. 

How is it then that this subject is very generally 
neglected notwithstanding that it is so attractive to every 
healthy minded child, is inexhaustibly full of strange and 
wonderful beauty, is replete with material for abstract 
thought, and at the same time is of such immense practical 
importance to man's welfare? There appear to be two rea- 
sons for this regrettable lack of popular interest. In the first 
place entomologists in the past have largely concentrated 
their attention on the mere outward form and structure of 
insects, and have constructed very elaborate and complicated 
systems of classification based on the number of hairs, or 
bristles, or scales possessed by closely related insects, the 
slightest variation being deemed sufficient justification for 
labelling a specimen with some distinctive, outlandish name. 
Very often, further study sho'ws the creature to possess an 
overlooked hair or some undetected remnant of an organ 
entitling it to be put into another class with a new name; 
or two observers may have described the same insect in- 



THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY 165 

dependency and baptised it differently, or an old obsolete 
account may be discovered giving it a long-forgotten title in 
which case this supersedes the modern name. As a result, 
the already innumerable species known bear in very many 
cases half a dozen synonyms each, and everv year this 
confusion in regard to nomenclature is becoming worse con- 
founded, so that the intelligent layman who desires to get 
a good general idea of entomology is dismayed and repelled 
by this formidable array of dry, uninteresting tables of 
names. 

Now a complete system of classification is indeed essent- 
ial to accurate scientific knowledge, but the ordinary man 
may very well leave these refinements to the specialist, and 
simply confine himself to the characters of the chief sub- 
divisions, referring to a good text-book for any further details 
of structure and classification whenever he requires them. 
This is all that is really necessary in order to give him an 
adequate idea of the position occupied by whatever insects 
engage his attention for the moment, and he is then 
sufficiently prepared to take an intelligent pleasure in observ- 
ing their life history and habits either under natural or arti- 
ficial conditions. Such seems to have been the method 
adopted by that "incomparable observer," J. H. Fabre, 
whose fascinating memoirs reveal most clearly the charm of 
this subject, and show T what splendid results can be achieved 
by a self -trained student in his leisure hours. 2 

The other reason why so many people are discouraged 
from the pursuit of entomology consists in the fact that, no 
matter what may be the object in view, a collection of some 
sort is indispensable, and the methods adopted for preserving 
these delicate creatures are very troublesome, mutilate the 
specimens badly, and yield by no means satisfactory results. 
Most people, at some time in their lives, have started such 
collections, and after pinning the specimens in the usual way 
and labelling them carefully, have been disheartened to* find 
in a few weeks that they were completely dried up, the 
beautiful colours had faded, the shrivelled limbs became 
detached with the slightest touch, and in utter disgust the 
collection was relegated to the dust heap, with a muttered 



2 This obscure country schoolmaster, born of peasant parents in 
France, spent all his spare time during a very long life, in closely- 
observing and experimenting on the insects in his immediate neigh- 
bourhood ; the results he embodied in the ten volumes of his "Souvenirs 
Entomologiques" which have provided material for several excellent 
English extracts under the titles of "Social Life in the Insect World," 
"The Wonders of Instinct," etc., etc. 



166 THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY 

vow not to waste any more time on such things in the 
future. In Museums, too, many valuable specimens are 
ruined by ants, beetles, moths, or moulds, notwithstanding 
all precautions in the shape of tightly fitting cases, applica- 
tion of preservatives, etc. ; moreover the extreme fragility of 
pinned out insects makes it undesirable to handle them freely 
and this interferes with their educational value. Such speci- 
mens are indeed very awkward to examine satisfactorily even 
with a simple lens, and are altogether unsuitable for adjust- 
ment on a microscope stage. All these drawbacks can be 
avoided by the following very simple method, which consists 
merely in enclosing each insect in a separate flat transparent 
little chamber, hermetically sealed so that destructive agents 
of all kinds are completely excluded from gaining entrance, 
and the specimen itself cannot give off its natural moisture 
and so become dry and shrivelled up. This is very easily 
effected by laying the insect in a suitable position on the 
centre of a slip of clear glass; — a convenient size is 2 in. by 
1^ in., — surrounding it with a somewhat thicker ring of the 
modelling putty called "plasticene," covering it with another 
glass slide of the same size, and pressing this down until it 
first flattens out the plasticene ring evenly all round, and 
then, with a little further pressure, comes to bear very lightly 
on the enclosed insect, thus keeping it in position. The 
opposite ends of the two> superposed slides are next securely 
bound together by passing half inch wide strips of gummed 
paper round each in turn, taking care while doing so that 
sufficient pressure is maintained to keep the slides in close 
contact with the flattened plasticene ring without pressing 
unduly on the enclosed insect. Finally full details concern- 
ing the specimen should be written on the ample surface 
provided by the paper binding. 

In the case of very small insects ordinary microscope 
slides, 3 in. by 1 in., should be used and a thin round cover 
glass be placed directly on the plasticene ring and pressed 
down on it by a second glass slide which is then removed 
leaving the cover slip in position; any excess plasticene 
which may have been pressed out beyond the end of the 
cover slip should be trimmed off and the specimen completed 
by affixing a paper label with the details on the end of the 
slide; the cover slips being very thin, of course allow these 
minute objects to be examined with high powers of the 
microscope. 

In order to afford protection against injurious agents of 
various kinds, it is advisable to incorporate a preservative, 
such as napthalene, with the plasticene; for this purpose 
about | an ounce of the former substance, finely powdered, 



THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY 167 

is sprinkled over a table, on which a pound of plasticene is 
then rolled out with a rolling pin or bottle, and another 
i ounce of the napthalene having been sprinkled on the top 
of this, is well rolled in and kneaded up. This will probably 
make the plasticene dry and crumbly, in which case it must 
be moistened with glycerine or liquid paraffin until it regains 
its former sticky condition, suitable for modelling. 3 This 
material, which may be called "napthaplas," should be kept 
m a covered tin, and not be exposed to strong sunlight or 
other source of heat, as this makes it soft and messy. 

The rings of "napthaplas" are best prepared by putting 
a small piece, — about the size of a bean, but varying with 
the size of the insect, — on a flat surface, and covering it with 
a glass plate, or one of the above slides, which is then rolled 
backwards and forwards a few times, under gentle pressure, 
until the "napthaplas" takes the shape of an elongated roll 
of the required thickness; viz., about once and a half the 
thickness of the specimen. The two ends of this roll are 
taken up between the finger and thumb and the loop so 
formed is cast round the insect as it lies in position on the 
slide, making a complete circle wide enough to allow for the 
spreading of the insect's limbs, etc., under the pressure of 
the upper slide; the superfluous stalk of the loop is then 
detached, and at this point where the ends meet on the slide, 
a secure joint is made by a few touches with a blunt stick 
or pen handle, care being taken to make it the same thickness 
as the rest of the ring; the specimen is then completed as 
previously described. With a very little practice the whole 
process can be neatly carried out in a few minutes, and when 
complete, the little preparation permits the most fragile 
insect to be handled with impunity, enables every part of it 
to be readily examined with the naked eye, lens, or micro - 



3 If the very poisonous substance, cyanide of potassium, be incor- 
porated with the plasticene in an exactly similar manner to the above, 
the resulting material, which may be called "cyanoplas," can be spread 
out in a thick even layer on the bottom of a tin with a tightly fitting 
lid, so as to form a very effective killing receptacle for freshly caught 
insects. The layer of "cyanoplas" can with advantage be covered 
over with a sheet of perforated tin so as to prevent the insects adhering 
to its sticky surface, and a further improvement consists in dividing 
the interior into four compartments by means of two thin plates at 
right angles to each other, so that, say, moths, beetles, flies and spiders 
may be kept separate from each other. This forms a very convenient 
killing and collecting box combined, and inside it insects remain 
perfectly fresh and supple for an indefinite period pending mounting. 
A few little glass tubes, each fitted with a plug of "cyanoplas" 
(wrapped in muslin to facilitate removal) are very useful for tiny, 
delicate specimens which would be lost or damaged in the large tin. 



168 THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY 

scope, and is so compact that two hundred such specimens 
can be safely stowed away in a 100 cigar box; further it is 
veiy easy at any time to reopen the preparation if it is desired 
to remove excess of moisture, to readjust the specimen, or to 
use it for dissection, the supple, pliant condition in which it 
remains greatly facilitating these operations. 

A very moderate amount of ingenuity will enable all 
sorts of instructive preparations to be mounted in this 
way, using larger glass plates if necessary. For example 
when mating couples are captured they can be mounted 
on the same slide so as to demonstrate the frequently 
extraordinary difference in structure between the male and 
female. Leaves, twigs, bits of tree bark, or small stones 
on which insects have laid their eggs can be mounted 
intact, and in some cases the mother may be shown with her 
offspring; e.g. a queen ant in her cell surrounded by her eggs, 
or a spider carrying her purse of eggs. Caterpillars should, 
if possible, be displayed in their natural habitat (inside galls 
or rolled up leaves, etc.), and cocoons be opened so as to 
exhibit the pupa lying inside, whilst all the stages in 
development : egg, larva, pupa, and mature insects — can 
be advantageously arranged in one specimen. The mimicry 
of insects may be illustrated by including the imitated 
object, characteristic poses should be reproduced, and pre- 
daceous creatures exhibited clutching their victims, etc., etc. 
In this way the mounting of insects ceases to be a 
stupid, mechanical process of empalement and becomes 
a pleasing and instructive art. Nor need the method be 
restricted to spiders and insects for it can obviously be 
applied to all other small creatures and indeed to innumer- 
able interesting objects presented by the hazard of the chase. 

It will be seen from the above description that the only 
materials requisite for this process are (1) the "napthaplas," 
a pound of which suffices for several hundred specimens, 
(2) the glass slides and cover glasses obtainable at small 
cost from any dealer in microscope sundries, and (3) 
half inch wide strips of strong white, gummed paper; 
to these may be added a couple of needles, preferably 
mounted in pen handles, scissors, forceps, and a large cigar 
box for storage. For collecting purposes a little buttercloth 
net (on a metal ring which can be screwed on to the end of 
a walking stick) and the "cyanoplas" tin and tubes pre- 
viously described are the only other items required to com- 
plete the entomological outfit, 'which however ought to be 
supplemented with a good lens and if possible a microscope. 
With these simple and inexpensive requisites both children 
and adults can add greatly to the enjoyment of their leisure 



THE ATTRACTIONS OF ENTOMOLOGY 169 

hours and holiday trips. Searching for specimens invests the 
ordinary aimless walk with quite an absorbing interest; 
mounting the preparations affords a pleasant occupation for 
rainy weather, whilst the completed collection forms a most 
delightful and instructive souvenir for subsequent reference 
during long winter evenings, particularly if its examination 
be aided by a microscope and well illustrated books on the 
subject. But let it not be forgotten that collection, pre- 
servation, and classification, are merely means to an end, 
and form only an introduction to the study of entomology 
proper. This really consists in investigating the living insect 
during all phases of its existence; its birth, development and 
education; its habits and mode of life; the nature of its 
nourishment and methods of obtaining it; its courtship and 
marriage; its relation to its fellow creatures; its character 
and mental capacity; the wonderful powers and strange 
limitations of its instinct; in short a complete investigation 
of the niche each particular insect occupies in the great 
scheme of Nature and the qualifications of mind and body it 
possesses for fulfilling its "destined end and way." 

Along such lines this most captivating subject furnishes 
any intelligent observer with abundant opportunities for 
adding to our stores of useful information, and at the same 
time, like every other branch of Nature study, it brings the 
thoughtful mind into close association with the hidden my- 
steries of the Universe — for Nature is indeed the chief, if 
not the only, infallible medium, through which we are able 
to comprehend somewhat of the wonder workings of the 
Infinite. 

Note.— By kind permission of the Curator, Dr. Stanley, a selection of 
specimens mounted by the above process, will be kept on view 
at the Eoyal Asiatic Society's Museum during the next few 
months. 



A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF 

THE FLORA AND FAUNA OF 

SOOOHOW AND VICINITY 



N. GIST GEE 

Soochow, China. 



For several years we have been trying to get together as 
many as possible of the identifications that have been made 
of the plant and animal life in this portion of China. Un- 
fortunately, the literature is badly scattered and we have 
been forced to make our own collections and get specialists 
to check up our identifications or in many cases make these 
determinations for us. It is only within the last year or so 
that we have had the time and help that would allow us to do 
this and it has been done as we have taken our classes out 
from time to time for field work. 

Our location is unusually fine for all kinds of fresh-water 
biological work and many of our lots of material have come 
from the water. We are surrounded by clear lakes, canals 
abound everywhere, ponds-both temporary and permanent- 
are very numerous on every hand, and ditches and puddles 
can be found in all open places. 

Algae. 

In such places as these the Algae naturally abound and 
can be found throughout the entire year. We are listing a 
few of the forms and will doubtless be able to double this 
number and give more specific determination when we have 
heard from several specialists who have material now in hand 
and are working it over for us. 

Dr. West, Mr. Collins, and Dr. Mann have helped us in 
naming some of these species. 



AND FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 



171 



Some Soochow Fresh Water Algae. 



Blue Green Forms. 

Chroocoecus sp. 
Clathrocystis sp. 
Gloeoeapsa sp. 
Microcystis sp. 
Chamaesiphon sp. 
Arthrospira sp. 
Spirulina sp. 
Lyngbya sp. 
Oscillatoria princeps. 



Oscillatoria tenuis. 
Oscillatoria tencrrima. 
Phormidium angustissimum 
Phormidium tenue. 
Anabaena sp. 
Cylindrospermuni sp. 
Nostoc sp. several species. 
Plectonema sp. 
Calothrix sp. 



Green Forms. 

Sphaerella sp. 
Chlamydomonas sp. 
Pandorina sp. 
Eudorina sp. 
Vol vox sp. 
Gonium sp. 
Tetraspora sp. 
Protocoecus sp. 
Eremosphaera sp. 
Scenedesmus quadricauda. 
Scenedesmus bijuga. 
Scenedesmus denticulatus. 
Scenedesmus obliquus. 
Scenedesmus obliquus var. 

dimorphus. 
Ankistrodesmus falcatus. 
Ankistrodesmus falcatus 

var. acicularis. 
Pediastrum sp. 
Hydrodictyon reticulatum. 
Vaucheria sp. 3 species. 
Chaetomorpha herbipolensis 



Cladophora keutzingiana. 

Cladophora fracta? 

Cladophora sp. 

Ulothrix zonata. 

Ulothrix subtilis. 

Chaetophora sp. 

Stigeocloniun lubricum. 

Draparnaldia plumosam , 

Aphanochaete vermiculoid- 
es. 

Mougeotia sp. 

Zygnema, several species. 

Spirogyra longata. 

Spirogyra, many species. 

Sirogonium sp. 

Closterium acerosum. 

Closterium leibleinii. 

Pleurotaenium sp. 

Cosntarium granatum. 

Oedogonium, several spec- 
ies. 



The Diatoms to be found around us are numerous and 
beautiful. The preparation and study of these fascinating 
little plants give us some idea of the marvellous design in 
nature and test out our microscopes as no other common 
forms do. To watch the motion and study the structures of 
these forms is a continuous pleasure. The list we give here 
includes the forms taken at Ningpo years ago and published 
in Fauvel's notes on Chinese plant and animal life. 



172 



A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA 



Some Diatoms Eecorded from China. 



Achnanthes brevipes Ag. 
Achnanthes lanceolata (Breb.) Grun. 
Achnanthes marginulata Grun. 
Achnanthes subsessillis Ktz. 
Achnanthes subsessillis var. enervis Fauv. 
Actinocyclus ehrenbergii Ealfs. 
Actinoptychus undulatus Ktz. 
Amphiprora alata Greg. 
Amphora cost at a W. Sm. 
Amphora cymbelloides Grun. 
Amphora cymbifera Greg. 
Amphora ergadensis Greg. 
Amphora hemicolor Grun. ? 
Amphora lineata, Greg. 
Amphora ovalis (Breb.) Ktz. 
Arachniodiscus ehrenbergii Bail. 
Biddulphia aurita (Lyng.) Breb. 
Chaetoceros baoillaria Bail. 
Cocconeis lineata (Ehr.) Grun. 
Cocconeis ningpoensis Fauv. 

Cocconeis placentula Ehr. 



Cocconeis scutellum Ehr. 
Cocconema gracile (Bab.) 
Coscinodiscus concinnus W. Sm. 
Coscinodiscus excentriscus Ehr. 
Coscinodiscus gigas Ehr. ? 
Coscinodiscus heteroporus Ehr. 
Coscinodiscus lineatus Ehr. 
Coscinodiscus lineatus oculatus Fauv. 
Coscinodiscus minor Ehr. 
Coscinodiscus nodulifer A. S. 
Coscinodiscus oculus iridis Ehr. 
Coscinodiscus radiolatus Ehr. 
Coscinodiscus subtilis Ehr. 
Cyclotella operculata Ktz. 
Cyclotella rotula (Ehr.) Ktz. 
Cyclotella sinensis Ehr. 

Cymbella lunata Bab. 
Cymbella obttisa Greg. 
Cymbella stomatophora Grun. 
Cymbella tumida Breb. 



Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo, 

Nimrod Sound. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo, 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow, 

Ningpo, 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo, 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 



AND FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 



173 



Epithemia gibba Ktz. 
Epithemia lunaris (Ehr.) Grun., var. 
Epithemia westermanni Ktz. 
Epithemia zebra (Ehr.) Ktz. 
Gomphonema acuminatum Ehr., with vars. 
Gomphonema capitatum Ehr. 
Gomphonema intricatum Ktz. 
Gomphonema micropus 
Hyalodiscus subtilis Bail. 
Melosira sulcata (Ehr.) Ktz. 



Melosira varians Ag. 
Melosira costata Grev. 
Navicula ambigua Ehr. 
Navicula amphirhynchus Ehr. 
Navicula appendiculata Ktz. 
Navicula bisulcata Lag. 
Navicula brebissonii Ktz. 
Navicula elliptica W. Sm. 
Navicula elongata Grun. 
Navicula gemina Ehr. 
Navicula gracilis Ehr. 
Navicula graeffii Grun. 
Navicula longa Greg. 

Navicula parca A. S. 

Navicula pupula Grun. 

Navicula major 

Navicula smithii Breb. 

Navicula sp. 

Nitzchia angustata (W. S.) 

Nitzchia compressa (Bail.) 

Nitzchia distans Greg. 

Nitzchia macilenta Greg. 

Nitzchia minuta Bleisch. 

Nitzchia palea (Ktz.) W. S. 

Nitzchia panduriformis Greg. 

Nitzchia sigma (Ktz.) W. S. 

Nitzchia thermalis (Ktz.) Grun. 

Nitzchia tubicula Grun. doubtful. 

Nitzchia (Homaocladis) vidovichii Grun. 

Pleurosigma affine Grun. 

Pleurosigma acuminatum W. S. 

Pleurosigma formosum W. S. 

Eaphoneis fasciolata Ehr. 

Raphoneis scutellum Ehr. 



Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo, 

Soochow, 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo, 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 



174 



A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA 



Bhoicosphenia curvata Grim. 

lihoikoneis bolleana Grun. 
Podosira nummuloides Ehr. 
Stauroneis phoenicenteron Ehr. 

Stephanodiscus sinensis Ehr. 
Surirella fastuosa Ehr. Type. 

Surirella fastuosa, many forms. 

Surirella gemma Ehr. abundant. 

Surirella ovalis Breb. 

Surirella pinnata W. S. 

Synedra sp. ? (similar to S. tabulata Ktz. 

which is brackish) 
Synedra pulchella (Barfs.) Ktz. 
Synedra ulna var. amphirhynchus (Ehr.) 
Syringidium daemon Grev. 
Triceratium rostratum Fauv. - 
Triceratium sinense Schw. 

Fungi. 

So far as we can learn, next to nothing has been done 
on Chinese fungi and this promises to be an interesting field 
for the one who can take up this line of investigation 
seriously. Three or four unique things have already come 
to hand in even our haphazard collecting of these forms. 
Lysurus sinensis proves to be a new species though some- 
thing very similar to it was recorded from China about 138 
years ago. 

Another one that was picked up on Mokanshan growing 
on the immature forms of a cicada has been named Isaria 
mokanshanii by Mr. Lloyd who has kindly gone through all 
of the fungi which I have sent in to him. 



Soochow, 
Nimrod Sound. 
Nimrod Sound. 
Nimrod Sound. 
Soochow. 
Ningpo . 
Ningpo. 
Ningpo, 

Nimrod Sound. 
Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound. 
Soochow. 
Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Ningpo. 

Ningpo. 

Nimrod Sound 



Some Chinese Fungi. 
Calvatia lilacina Berk. 
Cordyceps sinensis. (Medicine). 
Cyathus stercoreus Schw. 
Daedalea sp. 
Fomes applanatus Pers. 
Hirneola auriculae- judae Linn. 
Isaria mokanshanii Lloyd. 
Isaria sp. 
Lentinus lepideus. 
Lentinus sp. 
Lenzites subferruginea Berk. 



Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Mokanshan. 

Mokanshan, 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 



AND FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 175 

Lysurus sinensis Lloyd. Soochow. 

Marasmius sp. Mokanshan. 

Morchella esculenta Linn. Soochow. 

Phallus rugulosus Cibot. Soochow. 

Polyporus adustus Willd. Soochow. 

Polyporus lucidus Beys. Soochow. 

Polyporus puttemansii. Soochow. 

Polystictus n. sp. Soochow. 

Polystictus velutinus Fr. Soochow. 

Polystictus versatilis Berk. Soochow. 

Polystictus veriscolor L. Soochow. 

Polystictus sanguineus L. Soochow. 

Polystictus sp. Soochow. 

Schizophyllum commune Fr. Soochow. 

Stemonitis ferruginea Ehrens. Soochow. 

Stemonitis splendens Lath. Soochow. 

Trametes? Soochow. 

Xerotus n. sp. Mokanshan.. 

Xylaria sp. Soochow. 

Also an unidentified Hyphomycete from Mokanshan. 

Higher Plants. 

The higher plants we have already listed in a little 
pamphlet, '"'A Preliminary List of the Plants of Kiangsu 
Province." This lists the ferns and seed plants that have 
been reported up to the time that we published it. Just now 
this list is being revised enlarged and will soon be again 
ready for publication doubling the former lists. In addition 
to this there is great need for a comprehensive list of the 
common cultivated plants used for food and in the industries. 
We are getting together a good deal of data on the food 
plants, confining our efforts to our section of the country. 
This could well be done in many sections and the combina- 
tion of these lists would prove of great value. 

The mosses and liverworts have been neglected and we 
see many of them which we cannot name at all. Marchantia, 
Asterella, Eiccia and other forms are to be occasionally found 
even in Soochow, doubtless the streams and shaded nooks 
on the hills will furnish many attractive forms. 

Some Soochow Animals. 

The simplest forms of animal life find conditions under 
which they thrive and almost any little mass of material 
brought in will yield its full share of the lower forms of life. 

We will simply name a few of the genera of Protozoans 
which are readily found. Several species of Amoeba can be 



176 A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA 

obtained though not always just when one wants them for 
class work. A number of species of Difflugia and Areella 
with their delicate shells can be located in canal or pond 
material after it is left for a short time in dishes on the table 
in the laboratory. The following additional forms are not at 
all rare : — 

Actinophyrs sp. Urostyla sp. 

Euglena, a large number of Vampyrella sp. 

species. Carchesium sp. 
Coleps sp. ' Epistylis sp. 

Paramoecium, several spec- Podophyra sp. 

ies. Lacrymaria sp. 

Stentor sp. Actinosphaerium sp. 

Oxytricha sp. Centropyxis sp. 

Stylonychia sp. Vaginicola sp. 

Vorticella, several species. Dinobryum sp. 

Nuclearia sp. Amphilepsis sp. 

Phacus, two species. , Trachelocerca sp. 

Spirostomum sp. Chilodon sp. 

Halteria sp. Loxodes sp. 
Uroleptus sp. 

These and numbers of other forms occur here in large 
quantities. 

Chinese Fresh Water Sponges. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Annandale of Calcutta, who 
has identified all of our earlier sponges, we are able to report 
a number of sponges from Soochow. Including his collec- 
tions there are now ten species of fresh water sponges known 
from round Soochow. Three from Yunnan have also been 
found and we list them all herewith : — 

Yunnan. 

Spongilla (Euspongilla) lacustris. 

Spongilla (Stratiospongilla) dementis Annandale. 

(synonym = S. yunnanensis). 
Nudospongilla coggini (Annandale). 

Kiangsu. 

Spongilla (Euspongilla) micron Annandale. 

Tai Hu, Soochow. 
Spongilla (Euspongilla) semispongilla (Annandale). 

Soochow. 
Spongilla (Eunapius) geei Annandale. Loen Mung, 

Soochow. 



AND FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 1 77 

Spongilla (Eunapius) conifera Annandale. 
Spongilla (Stratospongilla) sinensis Annandale. 

Foo Mung, Soochow. 
Spongilla (Stratospongilla) stanleyi Annandale. Tai Hu, 
Ephydatia meyeni (Carter). Foo Mung, Soochow. 
Ephydatia bogorensis Weber. Soochow. 
Trochospongilla latouchiana Annandale. Loen Mung, 

Soochow. 
Trochospongilla sol Annandale. Si Dong Ding, Tai Hu. 



Other Animals. 

There seems to be only one Hydra in and around Soo- 
chow. It is rather a pearly colour and is easily obtained in 
suitable locations. These provide us with all of the materials 
that we need for class work and can be had in large numbers 
in the fall from many of the ponds. 

The worms and the larvae of the aquatic diptera occur 
abundantly in the scums from the ponds and canals, or may 
often be found in masses of algae or water weeds. The 
larvae of the Chironomous, a little fly resembling a mosquito, 
are possibly those which occur in largest numbers. Chae- 
tonotus, a "lithe and graceful little creature," is occasionally 
found and we believe that there are several species of this 
little fellow. 

Two planarians are more or less common. A small one 
under stones and bricks in the canals and a large brown 
bodied one, which we often see in our gardens, that has a 
fan shaped head. The former is Planaria sp. and the latter 
Bipalium sp. The latter becomes several inches long and 
has distinct lines down the middle of its dorsal surface. 

Anguillula occurs in Chinese vinegar and others of 
related genera occur in the water plants. 

A very small worm with reddish freckles over its body 
is frequently found, it is Aelosoma sp. Stylaria sp. is a 
regular form in our aquaria. 

Rotifers. 

The rotifers have furnished us a great deal of interesting 
material. The occurence of these forms seems to be subject 
to peculiarities that we are not yet familiar with and often 
we will find one thing in abundance at one visit to the pond 
and the next time it will have almost disappeared. We have 
with the help of Mr. Hairing got the following list of Chinese 
forms : — 

12 



178 



A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA 



Chinese Eotifers. 

Ascomorpha volvocicola 
Actinurus neptunius 
Anuraea hypelasma 
Asplancha sp. 
Asplanchnopus myrmeleo. 
Brachionus bakeri. 
Brachionus pala, long spirted. 
Brachionus pala, short spined. 
Brachionus falcatus. 
Brachionus militaris. 
Brachionus urceolaris. 
Brachionus urceus. 
Cathypna flexilis ? 

Cathypna luna. 
Cephalosiphon limnias. 
Colurus caudatus. 
Diaschiza? 
Diglena forcipata? 
Euchlanis (dilatata ?) 
Floscularia campanulata. 
Lacinularia megalotrocha. 
Lacinularia racemovata. 
Limnias annulatus. 
Limnias ceratophylli. 
Megalotrocha procera. 
Megalotrocha semibullata. 
Megalotrocha spinosa. 
Melicerta ringens. 
Metopidia triptera. 
Microcodides chlaena. 
Monostylla (bulla?) 
Noteus quadriconis. 
Octotrocha speciosa. 
Oecistes? 
Pedalion mirum. 
Philodina macrostyla? 
Polyarthra platyptera. 
Pterodina patina. 
Battulus (longiseta ?) 
Rotifer vulgaris? 
Rotifer macroceros. 
Rotifer tardigradus. 
Triarthra longiseta. 
Triarthra mystacina. 
Trochosphaera solstitialis. 



Wuhu. 

Y^uhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow, Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Yangtse River. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow, Wuhu. 

Soochow, Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow, Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Soochow, Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Soochow, Wuhu. 

Soochow, Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Soochow. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Wuhu. 

Soochow. 

Wuhu. 



AND FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 



179 



While the Bryozoans are not so plentiful as some of the 
other forms mentioned above, yet we have recently found the 
two forms, Plumatella repens, and Lophopodella (carteri?) 
in several new localities. 

We have not been able to get our common earthworms 
named yet, but we are still hoping that soon some one will 
have the patience and the time to undertake this job for us. 
There are other interesting forms of this group that we have. 
Branchiura sowerbyi is a common form found here. To those 
who are interested in leeches, however, and we are able 
through the kindness of Prof. Oka of Japan, to give this 
splendid list of Chinese leeches, most of them from Soochow. 



Chinese Leeches. 



Glossiphonia lata Oka. 
Glossiphonia smaragdina Oka. 
Glossiphonia (Helobdella) sp. 
Hemiclepsis kasmiana Oka. 

(In Anadonta woodiana). 
Hemiclepsis marginata (Muller). 
Herpobdella atomaria (Carena). 
Herpobdella sp. 
Hirudo nipponia Whitman. 

Mimobdella japonica Blanchard. 
Myxobdella annandalei Oka. 
Ozobranchus jantseanus Oka. 

Piscicola elegans Blanchard. 
Piscicola sp. 

Placobdella, close to torugosa (Verrill). 
Scaptobdella blanchardi Oka. 

Trachelobdella sinensis Blanchard 

(from Carp). 
Whitmania acranulata (Whitman). 
Whitmania edentula (Whitman) var. 



Whitmania laevis (Baird) var. 



Soochow. 
Soochow. 
Soochow. 
Soochow, East Dong 

Ding Creek. 
Woochang, Changsha. 
Soochow, Peking. 
Soochow. 
Soochow, Woochang, 

Peking, Changsha. 
Soochow, Changsha. 
Hongkong. 
Moh Doh (Soochow), 

Woochang. 
Kiukiang. 
Soochow. 
Soochow. 
Soochow, Woochang, 

Changsha. 

Soochow. 

Woochang. 

Soochow, West Dong 
Ding Creek, Woo- 
chang. 

Soochow, East Dong 
Ding Creek, Woo- 
chang, Paoting, 
Zangtuh. 



Entomostraca 

The list that we give of this group has been worked out 
very carefully by one of our students, Mr. Wu Chen Fu, 



ISO 



A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA 



and his results have been checked up by Professor Juday in 
America. Mr. Wu's work has been on the group Cladocera 
and we believe that this represents most of the common forms 
which occur in our immediate vicinity. The other groups are 
doubtless like the other data given here, just the beginnings, 

List of Entomostraca 

Cladocera. 

Sida crystallina (Muller). 
Daphnia psittacea (Baird). 
Daphnia pulex (de Geer). 
Daphnia. pulex var. obtusa 

Kurz. 
Daphnia longispina var. 

hyalina form galeata. 
Simocephalus vetulus 

(Muller). 
Simocephalus exspinosus 

(Koch). 
Scapholeberis mucronata 

(Muller). 
Ceriodaphnia rigaudi 

Richard. 
Ceriodaphnia quadrangula 

(Muller). 
Moina macrocopa Straus. 
Moina brevicornis Sars. 



FOUND IN SOOCHOW. 

Moina affinis Birge. 
Bosmina longirostris 

(Muller). 
Macro thrix rosea (Jurine). 
Camptocercus rectirostris 

Schoedler. 
Leydigia acanthocercoides 

(Fisher). (Leydigia pro- 

pinqua also described from 

Central China). 
Pleuroxus denticulatus 

Birge. 
Pleuroxus trigonellus 

(Muller). 
Chydorus globosus (Baird). 
Chydorus sphaericus 

(Muller). 
Leptodora kindtii Focke. 



Copepoda. 

Diaptomus sp. 
Cyclops leuckarti Claus. 
Cyclops serrulatus Fischer. 
Cyclops strenuus Fischer. 
Cyclops viridis Jurine. 

Ostracoda. 

Cypris sp. Several species. 



Pseudodiaptomus forbesi. 
Pseudodiaptomus inopinus. 
Limnocalanus sinensis. 
Canthocamptus sp. 



Iliocypris sp. Two species. 



Crustaceans. 
The list herewith is the result of Dr. Annandale's collect- 
ing around in this region on a recent trip up from India. 
Dr. Kemp worked out the identifications. 

List of Crustaceans. 
Caridina denticulata (de Haan) sub. sp. 

sinensis Kemp. Tai Hu, Soochow. 

Caridina nilotica Roux. sub. sp. graci- 

lipes de Man. Shanghai. 



AND FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 181 

Eriocheir leptognathus Eathbun. Shanghai. 

Eriocheir sinensis (Milne-Edwards) Moo Too, Shanghai, 

Woosung. 

Leander annandalei Kemp. Shanghai. 

Leander modestus Heller. Tai Hu, Shanghai. 

Palaemon asperulus von Martens. Tai Hu, Shanghai. 

Palaemon nipponensis de Haan. Tai Hu. 

Palaemon sinensis (Sollaud). Soochow, Shanghai. 
Potamon (Potamon) denticulatum 

(Milne-Edwards). Tai Hu. 

Ehynchoplax introversus Kemp. Tai Hu. 

Sesarma dehaani Milne Edwards. Shanghai. 

Sesarma intermedium (de Haan). Shanghai. 

Tympanomerus deschampsi Eathbun. Shanghai. 

There are other smaller Crustaceans yet to be worked 
out. We name three that we have located. 

Crammarus sp. 

Ichthyoxenus geei Smith, a common isopod parasite 
on carp. 

Armidillidium vulgare L., the common pill bug. 

It is a matter of much interest to find the carp so much 
beset with parasites. We have found a small round worm 
in great masses in the abdominal cavity, the Agamonema 
capsularis; the Trachelobdella sinensis, a good sized leech, 
attached to the inner side of the gill covers; and a large 
isopod parasite, Ichthyoxenus geei, often in a cavity in the 
flesh on the ventral line between the pectoral fins. 

A Few Insects. 

To attempt to enumerate the insects would be too big 
an undertaking for the present, but we give the latest deter- 
minations which we have received, Dr. Wheeler has named 
the Ants and the Smithsonian Institution has sent us the 
determinations of the water beetles. 

Some Soochow Ants. 
■*Aphaenogaster geei Wheeler. 

Camponotus caryae Fitch, var. 4-notatus Forel. 

Camponotus herculaneum L. sub. sp. japonicus var. 
aterrimus. 

Cremogaster laboriosa F. Smith. 
*Liometopum sinense Wheeler. 

Mescor sp. 

Pheidole rhombinoda Mayr. 

Pristomyoimax japonicus Forel, new var. 
*Solenopsis soochowensis Wheeler. 

Tetramorium caespitum L. new var. 



182 



A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA 



Another collection of Mokanshan ants is now 
worked over, the results have not yet been received. 

Common Local Water Beetles, and Bugs. 



being 



Amphiops mater. 
Appasus japonicus. 
Bidessus japonicus. 
Canthydrus sp. 
Cybister limbatus. 
Cybister tripunctatus. 
Dineutes marginatus. 
Eunectes sticticus. 
Haliplus sp. 
Helocharis sp. 
Helophonus sp. 
Hydaticus fabricii. 



Hydaticus fabricii, var. 
Hydatrious bowringi. 
Hydrocanthus sp. 
Hyphydrus orientalis? 
Ilybius apicalis. 
Kirkaldyia deyrollii. 
Laccophilus difficilus ? 
Philhydrus sp. 
Sandracottus festivus. 
Sphaerodema rusticum. 
Stethonus cashmiriensis. 
Volvulus profundus. 



There are several additional specimens which are just 
now under study and not ye-t determined. This list will be 
considerably lengthened later. 



Mollusks. 

Our little collection of mollusks represent the Province. 
Mr. Moffett of Kiangyin has assisted us a great deal in 
getting together these shells and we give also a list of the 
forms of this group collected by Dr. Annandale in the 
Tai Hu. 

List of Mollusks found in Tai Hu 
by Dr. Annandale. 



*Anodonta woodiana (Lea). 
Assiminea scalaris Heude. 
*Bythinia striatula Benson. 
Bythinia longicomis 

Benson. 
Corbicula sandai Eoin. 
Hypsobia minuscula 

Annandale. 
Limnea classini Neumayr. 
*Melania cancellata Benson 
*Modiola lacustris von 

Martens. 
*Nodularia douglasiae 
(Gray). 
Nodularia dactylina 
(Heude). 



Planorbis saigonensis 

Crosse and Fischer. 
Pseudovivipara hypocrites 

Annandale. 
Sphaerium sp. 
Stenothyra decapitata 

Annandale. 
Vivipara catayensis 

(Heude). 
Vivipara lapillorum 

(Heude). 

*Those starred have also 
been found around Soo- 
chow. 



AND FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 



18S 



MOLLUSKS FROM KlANGSU. 



Anodonta woodiana, var. 

pulchella Heude. 
Anodonta woodiana (Lea). 
Arconaia lanceolata (Lea). 
Buliminopsis buliminus 

strigata Mlldf. 
Buliminus cantori Ph. 
Bythinia fuchsiana Moller. 
Bythinia striatula Benson. 
Bythinia toucheana Heude. 
Clausilia shanghaiensis Pfr. 
Clausilia tan hunanensis 

Mlldf. 
Corbicula fluminea Mull. 
Corbicula squalida Heude. 
Cuneopsis capitatus Heude. 
Cuneopsis heudei (Heude). 
Cuneopsis pisciculus 

(Heude). 
Cytherea lusovia Ch. 
Eulota ravida Benson. 
Eulota similaris Fer. 
Hyriopsis cumingi (Lea). 
Lanceolaria cylindrica 

(Simpson). 
Lapidodisma languilati 

(Heude). 
Lymnaea sp. 
Lymnaea pervia Mts. 
Lymnaea plicatula Benson. 
Melania cancellata Benson. 



Melania ningpoensis Lea. 
Meretrix (?) compressa 

Komer. 
Modiolus (Modeola)lacustris 

Von Martens. 
Nodularia douglasiae (Gray) 
Nodularia grayana (Lea). 
Planorbis sp. 

Planorbis cantori Benson. ? 
Parreysia chinensis, var. 

squammosus (Heude). 
Plectopylis (Traumatopnora) 

triscalpta Mrts. 
Plectotropis gerlachi hun- 

anicola Gredl. 
Quadrula fibrosa (Heude). 
Quadrula leai, var. leleci 

(Heude). 
Quadrula leai (Gray). 
Quadrula polystictus 

(Heude). 
Quadrula tortuosa (Lea). 
Schist odesmus lamprey anus 

(Baird and Adams). 
Stenothvra hunanensis 

Mlldf. 
Vivipara angularis Mull. 
Vivipara chinensis (Benson). 
Vivipara lecythoides 

(Benson). 
Vivipara quadrat a (Benson). 



Higher Animals. 

The difficulties of working with the lower animals are 
lessened when we come to the higher and larger forms, and 
there has always been a fascination for sportsmen in working 
out these forms. Consequently we know the birds pretty 
well and Mr. Moffett and I have attempted to put the 
common forms into such a shape as to be useful for the 
beginner in our "Key to the Birds of the Yangtse Valley." 
Mr. Sowerby has worked out the Mammals in North China 
and has published his list in a former issue of the Journal. 
Dr. Stanley has done a splendid piece of work on Chinese 
Eeptiles and Amphibians and it is through his help that we 
give the following list of forms which are likely to be found 
in and around Soochow. 



184 A BEGINNING OF THE STUDY OF THE FLORA 

\XI) FAUNA OF SOOCHOW AND VICINITY 



List of Amphibia in and around Soochow, 



AMPHIBIA. 

Ranidae. Frogs. 

Rana kuhlii, D. & B. 
Rana plancyi, Lataste, 
Rana tigrina, Duad. 
Rana limnoeharis,Weigm. 
Rana esculenta, L. 
? Rana latouchii. 
Hylidae. Tree Frogs. 
Hyla arborea, var. im- 

maculata, Boett. 
Hyla arborea, var. sinen- 
sis, Gthr. 
Rhacophorus leucomys- 
tax, Gravh. 



B ufonidae . Toads. 
Bufo vulgaris, Laur. 
Bufo vulgaris, var. bufo 

bufo asiaticus, Stein. 
Bufo vulgaris, var. bufo 
bufo gargarizans, Can- 
tor. 
? Bufo melanostictus. 
Salamandridae . Salaman- 
ders. 
Diemictylus pyrrhogaster, 
Boie. 
Amphiumidae . 
Cryptobranchus maximus, 
Chapmn. 



List of Reptiles in and around Soochow. 



REFT ILIA. 

Trionychidae. Soft Shelled 
Tortoises. 
Trionyx sinensis, Wiegm. 
Trionyx maachii, Brandt. 
Tesludinidae. True Tortoi- 
ses. 
Damonia reevsi Gray. 
Damonia reevsi, var. uni- 
color (Black variety 
from Tai Hu), 
Lacertidae. Lizards. 

Takydromus septentrion- 
alis, Gthr. 
Scinidae. Skinks. 

Eumeces sinensis, Gray. 
Eumeces elegans, Blgr. 
Geckonidae. Geckos. 
Gecko japonicus, D. & B. 



Colubridae. Snakes. 

Lycodon rufozonatus, 
Cantor. 

x\.blabes major, Gthr. 

Simotes cyclurus, Cantor. 

Coluber taeniurus, Cope. 

Coluber rufodorsatus, 
Swinhoe. 

Coluber dione, Pallas. 

Zaocys dhumnades, Can- 
tor. 

Tropidonotus annularis, 
Hall. 

Tropidonotus tigrinus, 
Boie. 
Viperidae. Pit Vipers. 

Ancistrodon blomhomi, 
Boie. 



Lygosoma laterale, Say. 

Also Alligator sinensis, Fauvel. 

Father Courtois has made a brief systematic list of some 
of the fishes of China and we have already printed a list of 
some three hundred species, representing about one third of 
the forms known from China. A complete listing of the 
fishes is a thing much to be desired. 

It is to be hoped that before very much longer des- 
criptions and keys to these various groups may be made so 
that more students may begin to' work along these lines. 



NOTES ON KANSTJ. 



GEORGE E. KING, M.B.CH.B. 
LANCHOWFU, KANSUH. 



In the course of medical wanderings in the little-known 
north-western corner of China, various peculiar and interest- 
ing experiences are met with, and now not so much to impart 
information but to invite explanation, I am putting on paper 
a few details of things seen in Kansuh. 

The province is most easily understood as consisting of 
three tracts — a central tract, made up of the basins of the 
Yellow Eiver and some of its great tributaries, and bounded 
on north and south by two mountain-chains : the northern- 
chain separating it from the Mongolian deserts, and the 
narrow strip of watered land between the mountains and the 
deserts that constitutes the northern tract of Kansuh. And 
a southern tract of land sloping southwards towards Szechuen 
where the streams flow into the Yangtse. This southern 
tract is mountainous and partakes of the characteristics of 
western China. Indeed, the contrast between the north and 
south parts of Kansuh is so great as to make it almost un- 
believable that they belong to one province. Again, on the 
west the province rises into the mountains of Tibet and the 
steppes of Central Asia, so that for variety of scenery, 
diversity of inhabitant, and glamour of novelty, the province 
has hardly an equal throughout China. 

The northly tract as I have described it is long — reaching 
from Ningsiafu to Kanchowfu and Ansihchow. It thus 
would take some 35 days to travel from one end of it to the 
other, though its utmost width cannot be greater than 250 li 
or 3 days journey. It is the product of the age-long war 
between the desert and the mountains — the last stand as it 
were of man on the encroaching desert edge, where faced 
with the limitless expanse in front that would engulf him, 
and with his back to the stable mountains behind that 
nourish him with their streams of water, the race is fighting 
still the battle against the unhasting, unstaying desert sands. 
Each of the cities here might be the duplicate of the other 



18(5 NOTES ON KANSU 

in a general kind of a way, with the irrigated plain and 
orchards, and desert to the north, and hills to the south in 
each case. Some day if a strong government will set itself 
in earnest to the irrigation of this area and conservation of 
the waters that are so largely lost, this tract may support a 
much larger population and be greatly widened in area at 
the expense of the desert. Many of these cities have good 
coal supplies, and the hills to the south are known also to 
contain gold, tin, copper affid iron. In one of these hills I 
came across a volcano — as I suppose — at least the "crater" 
has been smoking for some 600 years. The fumes given out 
are very sulphurous, and the local people use them to make 
alum by the conversion into that substance of some stone 
they dig from the hills near by. It does not seem to be 
widely known that there is more than one smouldering 
volcano in that part of Kansuh bordering on the desert. 

One original method of obtaining salt used not far away 
from there is to pour the brine (taken from wells) upon the 
soil, and let it dry. Then the soil is removed and packed 
into large filters, more brine poured on, and the filtrate 
subsequently boiled dry. In this way it is said that three 
times as much salt is obtained as by boiling the brine in the 
ordinary way. I do not know the explanation. 

Historically this northern tract belongs to the Tarigut 
Kingdom which had its capital at Ningsia. Repeated en- 
quiries in that district, however, elicited little information as 
to the former Si-hsia Kingdom. The ground is so alkaline 
that old monuments are few in the city or near it. But we 
heard that in the hills 60 li to the west there was, or used to 
be, a monument in that strange writing. Probably search 
among these hills that run north as a spur from the main 
East to West range, would be productive of interesting- 
results. The scene of some old Chinese plays is laid in the 
same range and there are interesting temples and tombs of 
an early age. 

Let us now cross the mountains and enter the central 
tract of Kansuh — the Yellow River system, with its shapely 
loess hills, and alluvial plains and here and there the great 
rock mountains that are hid from the traveller usually, as he 
wanders along in the dusty loess cuttings of the hillsides. 
This is the most characteristic part of all Kansuh, and here 
both the most beautiful and least beautiful of scenery is to 
be found; on the one hand, enchanting mountains, abundant 
verdure, singing birds, and flowers everywhere ; on the other, 
bare dusty breathless hillsides brown in winter, and only 
beautiful by the yellow wheat and pink buckwheat and brown 
millet of autumn, or, the universal green of Spring. Here 



NOTES ON KANSU 187 

to cope with the scanty rainfall an ingenious method is in 
use by the farmers. The surface of the soil is covered with 
4 or 5 inches of gravel, and the crops come up through this. 
The gravel prevents desiccations of the soil, and perhaps 
helps the earlier ripening of the grain. It has to be renewed 
every 30 or 40 years, and the effort is so beneficial that the 
great labour involved is cheerfully undertaken, and newly 
gravelled land will fetch almost as high a price as irrigated 
land. The gravel is obtained from deposits mainly, and only 
rarely from river beds. In some cases the deposit beds are 
very deep and the gravel is brought up in buckets as out of 
a well, but more often it is carried on men's shoulders. This 
peculiar method is said to have been originated some 
hundreds of years ago by a man who noticed how well the 
grass grew in the gravel turned up with the roots of a fallen 
tree. I wonder if there is any other part of the world where 
this is done? Possibly the "dry farming" in America has 
the same principle behind it. 

Huge waterwheels are erected along the course of the 
Yellow River to draw up water to a sufficient level to put it 
upon the land. Some are 70 feet high, and consist of a hub 
and spokes, at the outer of which there is a series of paddles 
and buckets, all of which are of wood. As the wheel revolves 
the buckets are carried up filled, and empty themselves into 
a trough that leads into the fields. The mechanism is simple 
but effective. Some of these erections are worth hundreds 
of pounds. 

Another interesting thing is the coal mine, and one who 
has climbed down the miles of steps into the part where the 
miners are working is not likely soon to forget the experience. 
Each step is the lower side of a hexagonal frame that 
supports the tunnel, and the deeper the mine goes the more 
of course the steps. At the same time the main shaft is 
being sunk a parallel air shaft is also being sunk, and there 
are frequent passages connecting them. Notwithstanding 
the air at the bottom is foul and almost intolerable, and the 
weird sight of the naked figures of the long queue of carriers, 
each with his basket on his back, crouching in the tunnel till 
his turn comes — men from all parts of China, many blind, 
some runaway rogues, others poor to a degree, leaves an 
indelible impression on the mind. 

Another peculiar plant must be referred to, for the ex- 
planation of which any book on bacteriology may be consulted. 
The gardeners tend their pear trees with great care. Here 
indeed are to be found perhaps the best pears in China — and 
each year they scrape off the bark (doubtless to remove insects 
and grubs) and then cover the bare underbark with a layer 



JM.X NOTES ON KANSU 

of mud. But first this earth is boiled in large cauldrons and 
then applied. Here is antiseptic surgery for you, surely ! 

Did time permit I might go on to speak of many peculiar 
medical points — of the incidence and prevalence of goitre, or 
of leprosy or of elephantiasis, and of the popular Kansuh 
explanation of the etiology of each of these — or of Kansuh 
local hospitals or medicinal hot springs — or of folklore in our 
dear old queer old province. Some day there may be 
opportunity of referring to these or to our rather peculiar 
internal communication by road and water. But I trust I 
have said enough to whet the appetite of some readers to care 
more for the little-known and barely touched Kansuh. 



AN EXHIBITION OF PICTURES 
BY A RUSSIAN ARTIST. 



E. B. HOWELL. 



The Society was fortunate at the end of last year to have 
an opportunity of inspecting a series of water-colour and 
crayon pictures of Chinese and Mongolian life which broke 
entirely new ground in the pictorial representation of the 
peoples of this portion of the Far East. Many European 
artists have visited China but their work has hitherto been 
confined to scenery, architecture, and human types which, 
while interesting enough, were so mainly for reasons of 
picturesqueness that would have justified their portrayal in 
any part of the globe. 

The work in China of Mr. Alexander Iacovleff, however, 
stands alone. He is a young Kussian, who, having won by 
his art in Petrograd before the war a scholarship that enabled 
him to pursue his studies in any part of the world he fancied, 
selected the Far East as the scene of his labours. He lived 
for eighteen months in China and is now working in Japan. 
Mr. Iacovleff has approached his immense subject from a 
point of view which has either not appealed to or has 
appalled all previous workers. He has chosen as the subjects 
of his pictures in China not the curling roofs and temple 
walls, the pagodas and the sunsets, that have so engrossed, 
and with reason enough, other artists, but the human beings 
that he saw around him— the ragged beggar, the petty shop- 
keeper, the obese compradore, the bawling virago, and, m 
Mongolia, scenes of religious celebration and of tent and 
pastoral life— uniting the touch of the artists with the keen 
vision of the student of anthropology to an extent which 
entitles his work to be called unique. 

To produce satisfactory photographs of human subjects 
in China is rendered a difficult enough task by reason of the 
curiosity and the superstitious fears of the lower classes, to 
say nothing of the reluctance felt by most Europeans to 
coming into close contact with a Chinese crowd. But to be 
able to show such careful and accurate human documents as 
Mr Iacovleff has produced, under circumstances which those 
who live in China can well imagine, places Ins work well-nigh 



11)0 AN EXHIBITION OF PICTURES BY A RUSSIAN ARTIST 

hors concours, and argues a wonderful quickness of touch 
and memory combined with rare personal qualities. 

Two exhibitions of his pictures were held in the Society's 
library, the first on 12th December and the second on 8th 
January. The former consisted of pictures produced for the 
most part in Peking and comprised a large number of 
portraits in sepia and sanguine, the latter representing his 
work during a summer stay in and around Dolonor and 
Lamamiao in Inner Mongolia. 

It is not possible within the scope of this short notice to 
attempt any detailed description of Mr. Iacovleff 's work. 
Photographs of two of his pictures are reproduced here — the 
one representing a Lama wearing the curious head-dress used 
by Mongolian Buddhist dignitaries, the other of a Chinese 
actress, who wears in the original a brilliant scarlet robe. 
Among the pictures in the first series exhibited were many 
of actors and actresses in the old-fashioned costume which 
now shows sign of being improved off the stage of New China, 
and it is understood that Mr. Iacovleff made a special study 
of the theatrical world in Peking. 

The Mongolian pictures which were exhibited on the 
12th of January consisted of about seventy water-colour 
sketches and fifty crayon drawings; and some idea of the 
rapidity of Mr. Iacovleff 's work and his devotion to his art 
may be gained when it is stated that this whole series was the 
result of only forty days stay in Mongolia. Some of his 
sketches were but lightning indications, though not one but 
was instinct with life and feeling : others were careful studies 
which must have taken considerable time to^ elaborate. 
Living and working all day in the open air, in the wonderful 
weather of the Mongolian summer, Mr. Iacovleff slept in one 
of the round felt tents which were represented in so many of 
his pictures. The daily occupations of the people round him 
formed the subjects of most of his sketches but there were 
also exhibited careful studies of the interiors of tents and 
temples and detailed drawings of head-dresses, garments and 
utensils. 

Mr. Iacovleff intends to publish reproductions of his 
work in an album illustrative of his tour and work in the 
Far East. 




A Lama wearing the curious head-dress used by Mongolian Buddhist Dignitaries. 

{see page 190] 




A Chinese Actress. 



[see page 190] 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS. 



The New Atlas and Commercial Gazetteer of China. Compiled by 
the Far Eastern Geographical Establishment and Published by 
the North China Daily News and Herald. 

A work must not only be judged from its size but its utility. 
Were size and weight the only criterion of value this Atlas would 
indeed be valuable. It makes one pant to carry it from one room to 
another. A motor car seems necessary to the owner of such a work. 

That it requires a table or desk to itself is evident : and that 
business house that has the Atlas so placed is a business house of good 
augury, for it implies that trade is good and that further developments 
in trade and the capacities of the Country are being studied. 

The work has been wholly produced at the Commercial Press : 
European editors and Chinese skilled workmen collaborating. This 
in itself was a difficulty. When the binding, the need of type, the 
coloured maps and a 100 other things are considered it will be at once 
evident that the art of printing and book-binding have made great 
strides in China, during the last few decades. To see people ruddy of 
countenances and still smiling after such operose labours implies also a 
good moral basis. 

That the work had to be bulky and heavy stands to reason. Such 
a large volume demanded heavy binding : the fine maps demanded wide 
spaces ; and thick strong paper was necessary to give consistency and 
strength to the whole work. So the demands of the mechanical parts 
made it essential to have such a heavy volume. It is bulky and 
weighty. 

This quality however after all is secondary. The essential thing 

is the utility of a work. At the outset it should be said that this is 

great. It may be shown that this private enterprise will be for 

merchants the first and essential step in the development of business. 

Without a thorough knowledge of a country under every aspect it is 

impossible to organize business in an adequate way. One of the 

questions in Fawcet's 'Political Economy' is, 'What relation does a 

cricketer's bat bear to political economy' ? The answer shows that the 

relation is very deep and comprehensive. A similar question might be 

asked relative to a thousand things in China such as what relation does 

a knowledge of the Climatology of China bear to the success of the 

British merchant in the country. A little consideration will amply 
. ..-■.. | .1 ii , 

Mr, Edwin J. Dingle is the Organizer and General Editor of the 

Gazetteer. It will be known for short as "Dingle's Gazetteer." 



192 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

demonstrate a wide connection. The reviewer once had occasion to 
enquire into the work of the Japanese in Manchuria. Here, as every- 
where, they are equipping their people most thoroughly in the com- 
mercial knowledge of the country. If they are not doing much for 
others they are missing no avenue in mastering the knowledge of that 
country's resources for themselves. It was found that by commercial 
day and night schools, Japanese boys and young men were taught most 
carefully and thoroughly in everything pertaining to the commercial 
possibilities of Manchuria. As the British merchant has not organized 
any such training schools for his nationals it is hoped that this 
Gazetteer will be the first step in such a direction. In itself it will 
offer a liberal education to the commercial student, but w T e hope it will 
also stimulate British merchants to develop their plans for a better 
organization of business in China. Given a proper and suitable table 
business people and commercial students could spend profitable hours 
poring over the maps and letterpress of this volume : and as the 
panorama of people, sources of wealth, agriculture, industries and 
communications of this great land began to unrol themselves before 
the mind it would more and more offer unparalleled attractions to the 
merchant, traveller, student, missionary. Recently a lady came to 
enquire of the writer as to sources of information on the Canals of 
China. Having exhausted one's knowledge easily the lady was recom- 
mended to consult the Gazetteer to which she replied that it had already 
been done, and that this work really had supplied the only information 
that she had been able to get on the subject ! Thus the help that the 
Gazetteer had given to this lady over an out-of-the-way subject indicated 
its scope and utility to the general public as well as the business people. 
It is one of the most comprehensive works ever published in China. 
It opens with a General Introduction full of valuable information on 
commerce. It covers a wide field : geography, politics, engineering, 
and so on : a succinct conspectus is given of many fields. This is 
followed by a section given to a Geographical and Economic survey of 
China : and then a section follows dealing with the Provinces of China, 
giving a brief description of each of the 18 with a list of their pro- 
ducts, agriculture, minerals, and so on. Then follows an index, giving 
the place-name and province both in Chinese and English and its 
position N.E. It would have been of great advantage if the map 
number had been inserted. As it is, given only the name of the 
province, the place is not easily found since the maps are not alph- 
abetically arranged. 

The Forest Conditions in China is written by Mr. Norman Shaw. 
After his paper we have a list of the Changed Place-names, followed 
by a summary of values of Latitudes and Longitudes. 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 193 

On page 36 begins a marked feature of the Gazetteer, the Pro- 
duction maps of China. These must have entailed immense labour, and 
should prove of great value. The graphs are really marvels of work. 
The series opens with the New Productions map of China. In this small 
compass we have a bird's-eye view of the mineral and other production 
of the land. It may be said in passing that there is no indication of 
the hill near Kuo Hsien where gold is supposed to exist. The Roths- 
childs were interested in this once. The Index to this Map is also 
full : but it should be pointed out Arrow-root is not a speciality of 
Yenchowfu Shantung. Hangchow is renowned for this both for quality 
and quantity. Besides it is grown in almost every province. Vast 
fields of it may be seen almost anywhere. The same may be said of 
Indigo. Shensi is noted for it. 

Half the contents of this monumental work has not been told. In 
a work of such scope and great merit ; and in view of the imperfect 
statistics existing of the country it is not surprising that the work is 
not entirely free from errors and omissions. Space will only permit us 
to point out a few of these : for instance Chiang Chou is one of the 
leading towns of South Shansi and not of Shensi as given (p. 34). 
San Yuan (in Shensi) and Chiao Ch'eng (in Shansi), one being the great 
banking and piece goods centre of Shensi and Kansu, the other one 
being the leading fur-curing centre in China are not mentioned. 
South Shansi has the great and celebrated salt lakes in Yiin Ch'eng, 
but no mention is made of these : whereas Shensi is said to have salt 
as one of its great industries when as a matter of fact the salt of Shensi 
is unimportant. M. 



Totemic Traces Among the Indo-Chinese" (Reprinted from 
"the Journal of American Folk-Lore, " October-December, 1917). 
Sous ce titre, M. Berthold Laufer a rassemble plusieurs donnees de 
grand interet pour l'ethnographie des peuples sino-tibetains. Ces 
donnees se referent aux liens, attestes par le tabou, la tradition ou 
l'onomastique, qui rattachent certaines tribus ou families a telle ou 
telle classe d'animaux, de vegetaux ou d'objets. Les groupements 
ethniques envisages sont les Tai noirs du Haut Ton Kin, les Lolo du 
Yunnan meridional, les Hei-miao du Kouei-tcheou, les Man alias Yao 
de la frontiere sino-annamite, les Sia du Fu-kien, les anciens Ai-lao du 
Nan-tchao, les anciens K'iang occidentaux du Kan-su et les Tangut, 
enfin les chinois eux-memes. La documentation utilisee comprend 
d'une part, des sources chinoises, d'autre part, des travaux francais 
publies tant a Hanoi qu'a Paris, et un article de M. A. Henry dans le 
journal de "1' Anthropological Institute." 
13 



1<)4 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

Des precisions curieuses sont empruntees a une etude de M. Henri 
Maspero sur quelques interdits existant chez les Tai noirs en fonction 
des noras de famille. La tribu dont il s'agit habits a l'ouest du Fleuve 
Rouge, dans la province tonkinoise de Yen-Bay. La plupart des tabou 
cites derivent de l'homonymie : ainsi, la famille Lau ne peut manger ds 
jeunes pousses de bambou (no-lau) ; la famille Vi ne peut user 
d'eventails (vi) pendant le repas, au moment ou Ton sert le riz ; la 
famille Tong ne peut porter de pointe de cuivre (tong) au chapeau. 
Mais, a cote de tabou de cette sorte, en figurent d'autres plus enigmati- 
ques, comme celui de la famille Luong vis-a-vis des champignons qui 
poussent sur un arbre ebranche. II est a noter qu'aucun rite expiatoire 
n'est connu, qui puisse relever du tabou. Chez ces memes Tai noirs, 
la principale famille est assignee a l'ascendance du tigre. Elle est 
tenue au tabou alimentaire, lequel s'etend aussi a la chair de chat, et 
au tabou de chasse. Elle doit, de plus, lendre des honneurs au tigre 
mort, lequel est salue du titre de grand pere. Mais l'amnite de cette 
famille avec le tigre la prive du droit de paraitre dans les lieux de 
culte et de contracter des alliances avec le pretre hereditaire ou ses 
freres. 

Chez les Lolo de Tse-mao, etudies par M. A. Henry, la facon 
courante de s'enquerir du surnom de quelqu'un consiste a lui demander 
a quoi il ne touche pas. Ainsi, celui qui est surnomme Bu-lu, ancien 
mot pour Sa-lu, citron, repondra qu'il ne touche pas au citron. 

Dans les indications fournies par M. Schetter sur les Hei-miao du 
Kouei-tcheou, il n'y a rien de decisif pouvant faire conclure a 
l'existence du totemisme. 

Les Man alias Yao qui chevauchent sur le Haut Ton-kin et le sud de 
la Chine reconnaissent, encore aujoud'hui, un chien pour ancetre. Une 
de leurs chartes, conservie a Hanoi a l'Ecole frangaise d'Extreme 
Orient, en porte l'image. Cette tradition se trouve deja relatee aux 
annales des Han. Certaines tribus Man s'abstiennent de manger du 
chien ; d'autres retiennent dans leur costume la forme d'une queue de 
chien ; enfins detail plus typique encore, des losanges brodes aux 
epaules sur des robes de femme figurent la place ou se poserent les 
griffes du chien ancetre, aux epaules de la princesse epousee par lui. 
Une petite tribu du Fu-kien appelee Sia se dit egalement issue d'un 
ancetre a tete du chien et possede un temple ou elle en adore l'image. 

Dans le meme ordre d'idees, et au temoignage des annales des Han, 
les anciens Ai-Lao du Nan-tchao se tatouaient de l'image d'un dragon 
et partaient a leurs habits des queues de dragon, parce qu'ils avaient 
un dragon pour ancetre. 

Selon les annales des Han et des Sui et selon le Wei-lio de Yu- 
Huan, les anciens Si-K'iang du Kansou, appartenant au trone tibetain, 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 195 

se dissocierent en plusieurs clans sous des rubriques animates, tels 
les clans du Yak, du cheval blanc du Loup, du Bceuf jaunes du chien 
blanc. II imparte de mentionner aussi un clan a nom vegetal : le clan 
de l'Ail. 

Se rattachant a ces anciens K'iang, les fameux Tangut oomportaient 
eux-memes un clan du Singe. Ceci nous ramene a la legonde tibetaine 
bien connue du couple ancestral forme d'un singe et d'une Raksasi. 

M. Berthod Laufer parle enfin des chinois et remarque qu'en raison 
du formalisme social, etabli de longue date, il n'est guere facile de 
discerner des elements primitifs pouvant deceler le totemisme. II cite 
totifais de nombreux noms patronymiques qui sont des noms de plantes 
au d'animaux et conclut a juste titre qu'il y a la tout un champ ouvert 
a l'investigation. J. Ch. T. 



" Origin of Tibetan Writing " (Reprinted from the Journal of 
the American Oriental Society, Vol. 38). 

Sur l'origine de l'ecriture tibetaines qui a toujours ete assignee a 
1'Inde par les Tibetains eux-memes, M. Francke a avance et M. 
Hoernle epouse une theorie hasardeuse, dont M. Berthold Laufer fait, 
sous le titre precite, une excellente refutation. 

Cette theorie consiste a regarder l'ecriture tibetaines comme venant 
non pas de 1'Inde, mais de Khotan. 

A la verite, les alphabets usites au Turkestan etaient eux-memes 
venus de 1'Inde et l'origine de celui du Tibet demeurerait au fond la 
memes puisque, en definitive, il est bien certain qu'il derive d'une 
ecriture indienne du Vile siecle, passee ou non dans la Serinde. Je 
pencherais, pour ma part, vers l'opinion du Dr. Cordier, le grande 
tibetanisant francais, mort en 1914 des suites d'une dure captivite en 
Allemagne, et qui a insiste sur l'analogie avec l'ecriture Gupta du 
Vile siecle. 

Ce qui est le moins admissible, a mon sens, dans la theorie que 
combat M. Laufer, c'est de nier le voyage jusqu' a 1'Inde de Thon-mi, 
1'envoye du roi Srong-btsan-Sgam-po. M. Francke pretend que 
Thon-mi s'est arrete en route, au Kashmir, et que c'est la qu'il a recu 
de Li-byin l'alphabet de Khotan M. Francke avance cette negation du 
voyage de 1'Inde sur la foi d'un texte du Ladakh, qui apparait des 
plus douteux c'est vraiment insuffisant pour meconnaitre la tradition 
precise et constante du Tibet central, d'ou venait Thon-mi. 

Quant a Li-byin, il est tout ensemble improbable et que Thon-mi 
1'ait rencontre au Kashmir et que son nom signifie "gloire de Khotan." 
L'argument soi disant historique ne porte pas davantage : M. Laufer 
observe avec raison que les Tibetains ne vinrent en contact avec Khotan 



L9fi REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

que vingt ans apres la mort du roi Srong-btsan-Sgam-po : or le roi avait 
recu l'ecriture dont son envoye Thon-mi rapportait les elements. 

Dans une epigramme finale, M. Laufer dit : "Turkistanitis is a 
new form of learned disease." Je suis pourtant d'avis que l'importance 
de revolution du Buddhisme au Turkestan a reellement. ete consider- 
able et que nous n'en connaissons pas encore toute l'etendue. Mais je 
suis d'accord avec M. Laufer pour regarder comme inadmissible la 
these de M. Francke et de M. Hoernle analysee ci-dessus. 

J. Ch. T. 



An English-Chinese Dictionary of Peking Colloquial. By Sir 

W. Hilliee. c.b. New Edition enlarged by Sidney Barton, c.m.g. 
and Edmund Backhouse. Shanghai. Printed at the American 
Presbyterian Mission Press. $7.00. 

Of the making of dictionaries there is no end. This is a good 
thing for students. Dictionaries are the most useful and fascinating of 
all books ; and the person who can use properly, and enjoy the treasures 
of a dictionary has entered into great possessions. It is fortunate that 
there are persons of ability and leisure to compile them. When Sir 
W. Hillier published his work he became a public benefactor. And 
Sir E. Backhouse and Mr. S. Barton share in this philanthropy. The 
revision and additions of these two scholars must have involved great 
drudgery. And the least the public can now do is to use the book that 
has cost so much labour. It will not be a matter of hsi?ig shan for 
them to do so. they will have their money's worth. We cordially 
commend this work to our readers. It will often help them in a 
difficulty, and open up avenues of suggestion and lines of thought. 
It is compact and handy and can be easily taken with one. The 
revisers give the reason in the preface for this new undertaking. They 
say, 'The eight years which have elapsed since the first edition of this 
dictionary was published have witnessed the advent of a Republican 
regime in China, followed by a development of parliamentary and 
legal institutions and of the press, all of which events have had a 
marked effect on the language. New terms have been found necessary 
in order to enable public and private speakers and writers on the events 
of the day to convey to their audiences the new ideas connoted by 
revolution and progress. It was inevitable under the circumstances 
that, in order to meet this need, recourse should be had in the first 
instance to the kindred language 'of the neighbour Japan, where large 
stocks of expressions coined in recent years to give currency in the 
East to the ideas of the West were ready at hand. So marked has been 
the Japanisation of the modern Chinese vocabulary as a result of this 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 197 

borrowing that it is hardly too much to say that a Japanese dictionary 
has become almost an essential in the study of the language in its 
present form.' 

There is truth and exaggeration in this language. It is true that 
Japan has been a factor in the creation or rather the resurrection of 
old words : but it is an exaggeration to say that there has been a 
Japanisation of the modern Chinese vocabulary. The influx of French 
words during the Norman conquest was considerable but the language 
was still Anglo-Saxon and maintained its identity. It was in no sense 
Gallicized. It is a suitable parallel to the present tincture of words 
from Japan. Chinese remains Chinese and the language is in no sense 
Japanised. Even most of the words that bear the Japanese complexion, 
are old Chinese terms. The purely new Japanese creation are very 
few. Another apt illustration of the case may be found in the expres- 
sive slang of America. These can be traced largely to old English, as 
is pointed out by Lowell in that interesting disquisition that forms an 
introduction to the Bigelow papers. Further it is questionable how 
far this influx has affected the colloquial. It mostly affects literary 
compositions. 

Much of the ' difficulty of dictionary makers and translators is to 
determine the exact value of a word or phrase etymologically. There 
appears to be a certain inexactitude and indefiniteness attached to 
Chinese phraseology that is confusing. In Wenli this may arise from 
dissociation : and until the word is seen in its connection it is hard to 
define its value. Position and function govern the etymology. The 
same word may have different values just as in Shakespeare we have, 
'But me no buts, but,' etc. We shall find that the compilers of this 
dictionary have experienced these difficulties, without surmounting 
them in many instances. And students must be prepared to find a 
good many errors, in this respect, in this dictionary of many excel- 
lencies. 

Some interesting study in words is suggested by this dictionary 
as the value of fit) in the phrase £ft fi§| /£§&. This gives quite a new 
view of ti to the beginner. It is clothed with substance and not a 
mere ghost of a word. And the same may be noted of f cp under 
abandon p. 2, underneath p. 950 : about p. 4 and so on. Students will 
take note of some tricky expression and discern how a little word 
makes a difference. Chu te hsia is sufficient accommodation : but Chu 
pu hsia is not only the opposite, but may connote a moral idea as well : 
but this is not noticed in the book. 

There are some glaring omissions, as well as an insertion of 
phrases we little expected to find. Jones has the entree into the 
legations— surely a new idea to the Chinese, is given; but older and 



IDS REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

more popular ideas are absent. We have looked in vain for such words 
as legate, cardinal, prelate. These are as old as Kang Hsi, at any rate, 
and we should have expected an entree for them into this work. Jones 
it is true is more modern, but these venerable terms should not have 
been forgotten. 

The equivalents for the word condemn are very incomplete. There 
are ecclesiastical, moral and legal condemnations. The last only is given. 
It would be useful if the authors had given the noun condemnation. 
Comparisons of such formations throw much light on the flexibility of 
language. 

The foreigner finds certain adverbial and other expressions difficult 
The look of them startles him ; such as As early as : From time to 
time : In the meantime : The secret of it was : The venture was 
justified : Bring into contact with : but unfortunately he will find no 
relief here. Many acids are given but the most common and colloquial 
carbolic is absent. Under secret there are many valuable phrases 
entered, but a most puzzling one to the student, he made no secret of it 
is omitted. Just what he wanted too ! Also he took the risk. 

On the other hand there are many happy phrases. Under triumph 
we have a Pyrrhic victory : and those troublesome words object and 
subject are found. 

We have found that a few phrases lack correspondence, or may it 
be said that they are complements : such as absent-minded is given as 
9c 1^' ffi If but under Minded-absent we have Jg |tji, 'g| >fr. It should 
be pointed out that these terms do not quite imply the same state of 
mind. Ch'u shen is not quite the same as shih shen and hardly means 
absent-minded, but implies quite a different meaning. Wang shen is of 
doubtful validity ; huang hsin is flurried. The colloquial expressions 
Hsin pu tsai, pu liu hsin are not given. 

There are a few errors arising from an incomplete exposition, too, 
to be pointed out. For example Ability, — a person of, is given as 
Yu ts'ai kan. But this phrase equals He has ability. The noun 
should be Yu ts'ai kan ti. Administrative ability is given as Yu 
ching chi but this is a predicative form; and Ability, — great natural is 
given as t'ien fen kao which is qualitative : a better phrase would be 
3^ 53"- We should also like to draw attention to the phrases given 
for abstract, — in the : account, — advance on : Again under monopoly , 
Monopolist is given as Chuan mai, but this is a descriptive verb. 
Monopoly is given as Chuan mai ch'iian : it would have been better if 
in the sense of a patent had been added. To monopolize is given as 
pao Ian the better term is H glf ; lung tuan is given but the character 
lung is not correct : Pao Ian is in the sense of contracting and the idea 
of monopoly can only be very indirect : and the phrase pa ch'ih JE !# 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 1 <)<> 

should have further explanation. It conveys the idea of penalizing as 
in the acts of Trades Union, etc. The phrase conveys a certain amount 
of opprobrium and illegality. 

A line of useful study is suggested by the reading of this 
dictionary in this way that it greatly helps to an exact knowledge of 
words,— not only of Chinese but English words too and for the 
English speaking person. It is marvellous how inexact we are as to 
the shades of meaning. 

It should be mentioned that phrases run away with their authors 
occasionally : and therefore there is much Wenli in the work. Collo- 
quialism seems unequal to the occasion. Thus the student must by no 
means try to speak all the phrases in this work. 

The length of the review will show that we have found it most 
interesting. It is a mine of information. We most heartily commend 
this useful work. M. 



Indian Archaeology. 

(1) A Guide to Sanchi, by Sir John Marshall, Director General 

of Archaeology in India, Government Printing Office. 
Calcutta, Zs/9d. 

(2) A Guide to Taxila, Government Printing Office, Calcutta, 

4s /6d. 

(3) The Astronomical Observations of Jai Singh, by G. R. Kaye, 

in India, Government Printing Office, Calcutta, 23s/ — 

The Indian Raj has always shown an intelligent interest in the 
antiquities of that great country, and these books are excellent ex- 
amples of what can be done in the way of reserch. While they do not 
bear to any extent on Chinese matters (except in so far as Taxila was 
visited by both the famous pilgrims Fa Hsien and Hsuan Tsang) yet 
they have a great indirect value to Sinologues. 

The first two books relate to ancient Buddhist shrines and help to 
support several hypotheses which are of great importance in regard to 
the development of Asiatic culture, viz : — the predominance of the 
Hinayana type of Buddhison in early days, the assimilation by Budd- 
hism of the worship of death and the strong influence of Greece on 
Indian art. 

The third book relates to culmination of oriental science in India 
under the enlightened Maharajah Jai Singh of Jaipur in the early 
eighteenth century and although covering quite a different field from 
the other two books also shows how much the Orient owes to the West. 

It is of course an insoluble problem whether any real physical 
knowledge of any value ever originated in India, but in any case it is 



200 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

\ t rv unfavourable to the hypothesis of those who think that the Indian 
sages penetrated the secrets of the cosmos to find that the wisest of the 
Indian potentates was obliged to borrow extensively from Greece, 
Arabia and even France and England. 

Sanchi is the site of the most important of the Bhilsa topes, or 
Buddhist relic mounds, in the State of Bhopal. These remains date 
from the third century B.C. to the eleventh century A.D. so covering 
almost the whole period of Indian Buddhism. The oldest stupa dates 
from the reign of the Buddhist Constantine, Asoka, but it was sub- 
sequently enlarged and four decorative gateways were added to it in 
the middle of the first century B.C. There gateways or toranas, seem 
to be the direct prototypes of the Japanese torn and Chinese pai-lou. 
They are elaborately carved with scenes from the life of Buddha and 
the Jatakas or legends of Buddha's previous metempsychoses. Some- 
what as with early Christian antiquities, Buddha himself is never 
figured, being only indicated by a symbol. 

The stupa itself was surmounted by a railing and an umbrella, the 
latter indicating the presence of relics, and it was surrounded by a 
processional path for the early circumambulatory ritual. 

There are many other remains of a later date, stupas (in some 
which relics, have been found), pillars, temples and monasteries, and 
are all well described and illustrated. The stupas show one more 
example of the grave mound in all its variations from the simple earth 
mound covering the coffin of primitive man in N. China to the 
pyramids of Egypt or the hill of Chin Shih Huang Ti. 

Taxila is more elaborate and better known than Sanchi. It was 
probably part of the Achaemenid Empire and was later occupied by a 
Macedonian garrison. Being recaptured by Chandragupta it later 
became the vice-regal seat of Asoka, was captured by the Graeco- 
Bactrians and overrun successively by the Scythians and Kushans, and 
was finally ruined by the White Huns in the 5th century. It was 
visited by Apollonins of Tyana, St. Thomas, Fa Hsien, Sung Yiin and 
Hsiian Tsang. It naturally shows in its art the most varied influences, 
but the most noticeable feature is the quickening effect of the Greek 
spirit. The remains are similar to that of Sanchi but include palaces, 
and also coins and inscriptions. 

Jai Singh's astronomical instruments and buildings are very re- 
markable and remind one of the Chinese instruments referred to in 
the Shu Ching and the old equipment of the Peking observatory. 
Mr. Kaye describes the astrolabes and other portable instruments and 
the large masonry sundials and observation structures in great detail 
with excellent diagrams and photographs. He gives Jai Singh's 
literary sources and collates all the records, calibrations and memonics 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 201 

on the instruments. Ptolemy, Ulu Begh, De la Hire and Flamsteed all 
contribute their quota of data but unfortunately the instruments were 
put to but little use and in view of improvements which had already 
been made at the time of their construction in Europe could not hope 
to do much more than serve for demonstration purposes and relatively 
simple observations. Herbert Chatley. 



Berthold Laufer.— The Story of the "Pinna and the, Syrian Lamb" 
(the Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. 28, No. 108, April-June 
1915, pp. 103-128). "Optical Lenses, I. Burning -Lenses in China 
and India" (Tung-pao, 2nd series, vol. 16, No. 2, May 1915). 
"Card airs Suspension in China" (Holmes Anniversary volume, 
Washington, 1916). 

Since the publication of Hirth's celebrated work "China and the 
Roman Orient" much new information has come to hand which has 
enlarged our knowledge of this interesting subject : the relations of the 
realms of Ta Ts'in (the Roman or Greek near East) with China. 
Mr. Berthold Laufer has recently — in a series of papers of different 
sizes — further contributed to this knowledge and it seems only fit that 
mention should be made of this here. The papers referred to are 
remarkable by their ingenuity, by the sagacity shewn by the author, 
and by that considerable wealth of information of which he has already 
given so many proofs. 

I. — Pinna (or more correctly pina) is the generic name of a large 
family of sea mussels (pinnidae) which inhabit the Mediterranean and 
the Indian Ocean. One of these bivalves, the pinna nobilis or pinna 
■<<jt/(/ni(,sa possesses this peculiarity that it fastens itself to the bottom 
of the sea by the means of a bunch of fibres which, suitably spun, can 
be made into a tissue of the colour of dark gold. Even in our days the 
Italians of the gulf of Taranto manufacture this particular tissue. The 
Annals of the later Han period (25-220), the Wei-lio (written between 
239 and 265) mention this material as being used by the inhabitants of 
Ta-Ts'in, but they ascribe its origin to a sea-sheep. Furthermore, the 
narrations of travellers of the middle ages mention an agnus scythicus. 
Yule has presumed a relation to exist between the "sea-sheep" of the 
Chinese and the "lamb" of Brother Odoric ; Hirth, in his work on 
the Roman Orient, has made certain reservations without, however, 
elucidating the problem ; Schlegel, on the other hand, has made the 
matter even more obscure by many confused theories. It is Chavannes 
who has been the first to point out that it is necessary to make a clear 
distinction between the two notions : the sea-sheep and the Scythian 



202 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

lamb, and this he has done justly although the 2 notions, in the 
historical development of the legend, end by becoming partly united. 

Chavannes while correctly connecting the origin of the material 
referred to, with the filament of the "pinna, only relies on the authority 
of an Arab author of the tenth century, Istakhri, according to whom 
he reconstructs the legend which may have given birth to the Chinese 
idea of the shui-yang or sea-sheep. In fact, according to Mr. Laufer, 
the Arab traditions as well as those of the Chinese are reducible to a 
Hellenic tradition. 

The first Greek author to mention materials made of the fibres of 
the pinna is the sophist Alciphron who, in his letters, calls them 
"woollen stuff out of the sea" Ta sx irtq Oxlouravic ''Iota As the 
sheep is the principal animal to furnish wool one is thus lead, so to 
say, to the idea of a sea-sheep. Tertullian, in his treaty "De Pallio," 
written after 208, explains why he wears a pallium instead of a toga 
and he there takes the opportunity of alluding to the fleece recovered 
from the ocean where are to be found certain shells of rather large size 
and furnished with mossy hair. ' Basile the Great (4th century), in 
one of his homilies, expresses wonder at the golden fleece of the pinna 
which no dye is able to imitate. 

The Arabian authors also speak of this sea wool which is so 
beautiful that a robe made of it is worth more than a thousand gold 
pieces. The arabian idea undergoes a curious development : the tissue 
which, at first, was thought to be a product of an aquatic animal 
becomes finally that of the plumage of a bird. This transformation, 
so Mr. Laufer says, may be explained by linguistic and commercial 
reasons. Pinna in Latin meant also "feather" (the form penna is later) 
and this ambiguity may have lead the Arabs to understand the fibres 
of the pinna as being the plumage of a bird. The Chinese texts bear 
witness to the existence in the Far East of such materials woven of 
feather; the Arab word suf (wool or down) even passed during the 
Mongol period into the Chinese language under the form of su-fu or 
so-fu (Watters, Essays p. 355). According to Bretschneider (Mediae- 
val Eesearches, pp. 258, 291, 308) so-fu (wool or down) was sent to 
China from Samarkand in 1392, from Ispahan in 1483 and from Lu-mi 
(Rum, Byzantium) in 1548 and 1554. The Chinese works which 
mention these materials are rather numerous. They have also picked 
up another tradition which, upon close examination, seems to be a 
development of the history of the shui-yang, namely that of lambs born 
of the womb of the earth and connected with the ground by the 
umbilical cord. The annals of the Tang (618-906) mention that they 
are to be found at Fu-lin (Syria, possibly including Byzantium) and an 
earlier text, cited by Chavannes, determines their habitat as being the 
country of Ta Ts'in (that is the Roman or Hellenic near East), the 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 203 

same being the case of a later text quoted by Pelliot. This allows to 
determine the date for the transmission of the legend to China as being 
before the beginning of the sixth century, this being the period when 
the name Fu-lin appears for the first time. 

Mr. Laufer finally shows that the original "pinna transformed into 
a sheep, into a lamb, even into a bird ends by becoming a human being 
in the Talmud. But Mr. Laufer goes further : considering that Syria 
when the legend came from there, was christian and further, that the 
expression yang-hao used by the Chinese follows intentionally the 
Syrian tradition and consecrates the substitution of the sheep by the 
lamb, he finally arrives at the supposition that the old Hellenic story 
of the sea-sheep has become modified under the influence of the 
christian allegory of the divine lamb. 

It is out of question here to follow the thought of the author in 
all its developments as this would lead as out of the limits for this 
review. Let it suffice to say that thanks to the author we are now able 
to follow the history of the legend of the pinna-agnus which extends 
over fifteen centuries and which, founded on a natural fact of trifling 
importance, has developed into a marvellous and intricate story which 
has interested Europe during centuries and kept the sagacity of in- 
numerable scholars on the look-out for the lamb producing this wonder- 
ful golden fleece. It is remarkable that the principal evidence which 
enables us to follow step by step the development of the legend, is 
furnished by the Chinese texts which reproduce the data of the western 
folk-lore. 

II. — Mention will only be made here of that part of the paper 
which deals with the knowledge which the Chinese have had of 
burning-lenses, a question on which the current idea is totally wrong. 
As the French saying goes : one lends only to the rich, so it has indeed 
been the custom to attribute the invention of the lense to the Chinese. 
Mr. Laufer mentions a Dr. E. Hill who in 1914 wrote : "it is said that 
a Chinese Emperor used lenses as long ago as the year 2283 before 
Christ to observe the stars" ! Even professional sinologues as F. I. G. 
Schlegel and, quite recently, Forke, have maintained that burning- 
lenses were known to the Chinese long before they were known to the 
Greeks and quite a long time before the Christian era. 

Mr. Laufer applies himself to show that the conclusions of these 
scholars are based on an illusion due to their not having understood 
the texts. Referring to the remark of Th. W. Kingsmill concerning 
the modern myths 1 he adds not without irony : "I apprehend that the 



1 "Myths have been not inaptly described by Max Muller as a 
disease of language ; and to this category we may perhaps relegate the 
group of modern myths which have grown up in and around our 
description of China and its arts." Chinese Recorder, Vol. VII. 1876, 
p. 43. 



204 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

assigning to the ancient Chinese of burning-lenses belongs to this 
category of modern myths based on misinterpretation of terms." He 
shows without difficulty how Forke and Schlegel have been lead astray 
in their common error. 

Indeed, even if the Chinese have known the lenses and some of 
their properties, they are nevertheless not their inventors; their 
knowledge of them came from India. The first historical mention of 
them is found in the T'ang shu in connection with a tribe called 
Lo-cha (fi^J) living on an island in the eastern P'o-li (§|flj) archipel- 
ago (Bali) ; according to the annals their country produces fire-pearls 
(huo-chu ^c 3^c) ; when held against the rays of the sun "mugwort 2 
and rushes will be ignited at once by fire springing from the pearl." 
It is possible from this text and from another taken from Kiu T'ang shu 
to conclude, that these fire-pearls were convex lenses of rock crystal 
which were used to generate fire for cauterising purposes ; to conclude : 
they were used for the same purpose as the copper or bronze mirrors 
of an earlier period (a text from the fourth century mentions this 
practice). 

It is furthermore known that in the second quarter of the seventh 
century the Champa offered to China burning-lenses which he had 
procured from the Lo-ch'as. But how had the Lo-ch'as, a savage tribe, 
obtained them ? Mr. Lauf er says : from India, although unable to 
show in what manner ; more especially from Kahmir which, in the 
T'ang shu, is indicated as producing fire-lenses; the Chinese term : 
huo chu represents the translation of a corresponding Sanskrit word. 

China has received the fire-lenses from India as Europe of the 
middle ages and the Arabs received them from Greece and from Eome. 
The following problem then presents itself : "in what reciprocal 
relation or obligation are India and Hellas ? Mr. Lauf er concludes 
that the priority belongs to Hellas considering that in 423 Aristophanes 
in "The Clouds" mentions burning -lenses and it is likely — for very 
good reasons — that India at that time did not know them. The 
Hellenic Near East should thus have made the lenses known to India 
between the fourth and the sixth century and from there they have 
passed into China at the beginning of the seventh century. 

III. — In this short article Mr. Laufer describes a brazier which he 
has purchased in China for the Field Museum at Chicago and which 
probably dates from the Ming dynasty. The peculiarity of this brazier 
is that it is furnished with a Cardan suspension ; filled with live coal 
it may serve as a bed warmer as the vessel cannot be upset. Mr. 



2 Artemisia vulgaris, a plant common in China and used for 
cauterising the skin. 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 205 

Laufer cites a passage from Berthelot saying that "suspension a la 
Cardan has been employed in eastern Asia probably from times 
immemorial, as the Chinese do not change their processes." He adds, 
however, that this point requires further elucidation. 

Well, in accordance with Chinese tradition, this manner of sus- 
pension is due to Ting Huan, a renowned mechanic of the Han period 
(226 B.C. — A.D. 220) ; to him indeed is attributed the invention of 
"the brazier in the bed-clothes." This tradition refers to an appliance 
as the one described and it is quite possible that its origin goes back 
to the time of the Han, "the period when mechanics and engineering- 
awoke in China" and because it is just during this epoch "when along 
the trade-routes leading across Central Asia into the Roman Orient 
Hellenistic ideas and inventions were conveyed to the Chinese." 

The author terminates with an assertion which — generalised and 
extended from the realm of the mechanical science — may serve as a 
conclusion to this series of reviews : "A single case certainly lacks 
convincing force, but the totality of coinciding phenomena with which 
we are now confronted is so overwhelming that Hellenistic influence on 
Ancient China can no longer be denied. . . . All that is recorded 
of mechanical innovations in the Han period is traceable to the writings 
and models of the Alexandrian mechanicians." 

C. B. M. 



The Kan Ying Pien. ^ M U With full Introduction, the Text, 
Translation, and Notes. By Rev. James Webster. Price, $1.00. 
For sale at the Mission Book Company, Shanghai. 

Of this book Wylie in his Notes on Chinese Literature says : 
"Among all the publications of the Taoists, there is none which has 
attained a greater pupularity. The assumption that it is the work of 
Laou Keun is a fable, which few, if any believe. It appears to have 
been written during the Sung, but the author is not known. This 
treatise which is composed in a style easy of comprehension, has for 
its object to elucidate the doctrine of future retribution. The various 
editions are innumerable, it having appeared from time to time in 
almost every conceivable size, shape, and style of execution. Many 
commentaries have been written on it. and it is frequently published 
with a collection of several hundred anecdotes of the marvelous, and 
pictorial representations appended, to illustrate every paragraph seria- 
tim. It is deemed a great act of merit to aid by voluntary contribu- 
tion towards the gratuitous dissemination of this work." 

Mr. Webster's edition is bound in cardboard. It is well printed. 
It contains 14 pages of Introduction, 16 pages of Chinese text with 



206 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

translation and Notes and a vocabulary of ten pages. The Introduction 
contains four sections, dealing with Tracts in Chinese Literature, 
Popular Taoism. The authorship and date of the Kan Ying Pien, 
Analysis of the Kan Ying Pien. The remarks on Chinese Tracts are 
interesting and the account of Popular Taoism is on the whole a fair 
one. But credit should have been given for the way in which Taoism 
has peopled the minds of a quarter of the human race with a store of 
imaginary persons, as well-known and popular in China as Robin Hood 
or Jack the Giant Killer in England. Taoism is the Chinese fairyland. 
In transliterating Chinese words Mr. Webster uses Wade's system 
of spelling. He writes good English and his translation will be read 
with pleasure by the general reader. "As shadow follows form 3 so are 
good and evil requited" ; "to murmur against Heaven and blame men; 
to rave at the wind and curse at the rain" ; are sentences from the 
Kan Ying Pien that have become proverbial in China. The student of 
Chinese will also welcome the translation, but it would be still more 
welcome were it more literal. At times it is too diffuse. On page 21 
(last line) it is hard to find any Chinese equivalent for "robbing them 
for his own advantage," and many sentences might have been rendered 
more accurately : e.g. on p. 28, line 1 |J£ "7» ?U ffjj = "not that these do 
not fill you for the time being," instead of "these may, indeed, bring 
temporary pleasure" ; on p. 22, line 7, ^ \ ifc J$| = "he seeks success 
by shaming others," not "triumphs over another's disgrace" ; on p. 22, 
line 9, /gj ^g $£ |jfc = "to escape dishonourably leaves him unashamed," 
not "shamelessly excuses himself for his crimes." 

L. A. L. 



Ancient Chinese Paper Money as Described in a Chinese Work 
on Numismatics. Proceedings of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences — June 1918. 

This is a translation of the Ch'iian Pu T'ung Chih by K. Tomito, 
who writes a short Introduction dealing with the main principles he 
has followed in turning the Chinese terms and words into English. 
Mr. Andrew McF. Davis contributes the Foreword. In this we have 
an account of the genesis of the book itself and a general survey of 
Chinese paper notes. He treats the question historically and discusses 
the sizes and designs on the face of the notes. Facsimiles of many 
notes are given together with the seals attached to them. Except the 
Seal characters these are plain enough. The illustrations have been 
reproduced from the pages of the Ch'iian Pu T'ung Chih. The article 
by Dr. S. W. Bushell in the Journal" of the Peking Oriental Society 
has been freely drawn upon and discussed. We do not notice any 
reference to the compilation of Ma Tuan Lin on the question of 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 207 

currency. He is an authority that should not be neglected or over- 
looked. 

The translator in his Introduction says, "In translating the inscrip- 
tions on the various notes, the original wording has been followed as 
closely as possible, with the purpose of bringing out such distinctions 
as," etc. ; "to translate the Chinese freely . . . would have been 
simpler, but by this method the slight but important distinctions in 
the text of each issue could not be brought out," (p. 477). 

But this attempt at literalness has its dangers as we shall point out 
later on. What should be aimed at in translations is not a free trans- 
lation, but rather an idiomatic rendering equivalent in meaning to the 
original. It is here that the translator has failed badly. Let one term 
be taken in confirmation of this criticism. Tien hsia J£ "F occurs on 
almost every note. This is translated, under the Heavens : 'To the 
world' and so on. Neither of these translations is good, since they do 
not convey to the English reader the idiomatic significance of the 
original. Tien hsia is the idiomatic term for ''Empire or country.' So 
in attempting to be too literal the translator has confused the meaning. 
It must be owing to the same reason that other obscurities remain. 
For instance / Kuan ^ft j£ is gives as one Kuan. It would have been 
more consistent to say 'One String' or simply i Kuan, and so on 
throughout. Again Yin tsao EP$j| is 'Coins' or 'fabricates' and not 
prints and issues, (p. 480). I 

Fen hsing Tien hsia should be rendered for Circulation in the 
Empire, rather than, distributed under the heavens (p. 488). Again, 
Shou ts'ung f§" $£ is given by principal or conspirator but should be 
principal and accomplice (p. 514, etc.). The 3rd line on plate 33 is 
rendered by "authorization decree." A more correct rendering would 
be The Imperial decree having been received by the Civil Board, 
authorizing this script to bear the value of 30 taels. It is questionable 
whether 'which value cannot be altered' is the correct rendering. The 
word Ssu 5}c£ is rendered privately it would be better to use the 
technical term of illegally or clandestinely. Pan pu jjg Jftj seems to 
have disappeared in the translation of plate 10, p. 490. 

And on page 499 we have the phrase 'petitioned the Imperial 
decree.' Now the Imperial decree cannot be petitioned — it is a dead 
thing. Ch'ing chih ff| H is a phrase meaning, 'Having asked or 
prayed for authority to do' (p. 501). One more : the 2nd line on 
plate 22 is given as prints and issues (p. 503). Should it not be 'com- 
mands the printing of?' There are many such discrepancies and they 
are pointed out partly to show that the translator in trying to be too 
literal has often missed the meaning. 

The Academy is to be congratulated on its enterprise and this new 
production is most interesting and valuable. M. 



208 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

China and the World War. By W. E. Wheeler. New York. 
The MacMillan Co., 1918. 

This is a lucidly articulated account of the foreign relations of 
China, during the four years of the world war. Brief statements of 
the events leading up to the beginning of the period are furnished, and 
in a most valuable series of appendices appears the "Black-Dragon" 
statement of Japanese policy in China as a result of the European war, 
documents relating to the twenty-one demands made by Japan on 
China, official statements in relation to the Lansing-Ishii agreement 
between America and Japan concerning China, a summary of treaties 
and agreements with reference to the integrity and sovereign rights of 
China, and the "open door" policy and "equality of opportunities," 
and a summary of treaties and agreements with reference to Korea. 
Finally there is an introductory bibliography on China, in which the 
reviewer is happy to note that a suggested substitution in the list has 
been adopted. 

We reject a novel if it does not entertain us ; a historical novel 
must be even more careful to do so ; and the demand for entertainment 
has caused some modern writers of narrative history to be more 
concerned about the entertainment than the facts ; or at least they 
weave about the facts a glowing and sumptuous garment of inter- 
pretations. In the East, especially, there is so much behind the scenes 
at which the historian can only guess ; the observable facts often tell 
little about their causes and their effects ; and the temptation to fill out 
the picture is most alluring, and has proved the call of Circe to more 
than one writer. There may be a plot into which the events would fit, 
if it were known, and there may not be. To confine one's self to the 
more immediate construction which events will bear may not be 
romantic, but it is satisfactory to the wayfaring reader, desirous to 
know where events are leading, and it is the method adopted by 
Mr. Wheeler. The result may be dry reading to one who is not able 
from memory and experience to fill in the colours which the picture 
suggests, but it is most useful. Mr. Wheeler is not without his own 
opinions as to the meaning of the events he narrates, but he is not so 
much in love with them as to brandish them in the reader's face, as 
who would say, "Accept this or confess that you cannot read the signs 
of the times." The tale is clear, consecutive and complete, and if the 
reader is of the number of those who prefer making their own opinions 
to having them made for him by a clever special pleader, he will be 
correspondingly grateful. 

The atrocious crime of being a young man is something which 
Mr. Wheeler should not worry over as much as some of his critics. 
It should be a cause for rejoicing that a young man should begin, as 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 209 

soon as he arrives in China, to collect material bearing on current 
history there, and that he should have the patience which was required 
to work that material into a useful book. If every young missionary 
and every young business man were to choose some field of study 
outside the immediate requirements of the work he does, and try with 
perseverance to make himself the master of it, the result would be most 
useful to the individual, and would make fruitful some fields that now 
a,re sadly barren. But then how soon should he publish? One would 
suppose that the answer might be, "As soon as he has something 
timely to say." At least the book should be judged on its actual 
merits, and not be decried on the ground that its author has been only 
a few years in China. Moreover, where is the line to be drawn? If 
we are inclined to laugh at George Kennan, who steps ashore from his 
travels in the midst of the Mixed Court riots, and promptly gets all the 
facts and the meaning of them, and distributes praise and blame in 
omniscient fashion for the numerous readers of The Outlook, yet we 
remember that Professor Ross, who was in the country only six 
months, gathered his material by the wise questioning and the wise 
observing possible only to a trained mind, and produced a book worthy 
to be included in Mr. Wheeler's prize list, and useful to beginners. 
Time alone will tell whether Mr. Wheeler's opinions on the present 
state of affairs in the East are sound judgments or not, but it would be 
far from surprising if his temperate and carefully thought out book 
should be considered an authority long after more pretentious works 
were forgotten. In a 1 ! books of the sort, there must be an ephemeral 
element, and in some details this book is already out of date, so rapid 
is the movement of events in Chinese politics. But the main effect is 
quite otherwise, and the promise of the book is such as to make us 
look forward to Mr. Wheeler's further work in this field. 

H. K. W. 



Greek-Chinese-English Dictionary of the New Testament, By 

J. Leighton Stuart, d.d. Shanghai. Presbyterian Mission Press. 
China is moving, or at any rate, the foreigner in China is making 
her move. This volume is quite a new departure. It proposes to lead 
China back to the antiquity of Europe, by offering the theological 
student, of the Chinese church, an opportunity of studying for himself 
an ancient vehicle of thought, and move in a sphere of speech that 
was contemporaneous with their own Han period. It is a bold venture 
and time alone will show the justification. But the publication of this 
volume shows unmistakably the enterprise of the Church. Whether the 
student will be able to cope with it in addition to his other studies 
time alone will prove : or whether he would not have been bette* 
14 



210 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

equipped if he had devoted his time to the study of English. Every- 
thing that can be said for Greek is now to be found in English, thanks 
to the abundant labours of all the scholars that have devoted their 
time and talents to this field of learning. In any case Dr. Stuart is to 
be highly congratulated on the end of this difficult task. He has 
produced a substantial volume. The Greek words are arranged in 
alphabetical order. Parts of Speech are indicated. The Chinese 
equivalents are given followed by an English equivalent. References 
are also given to where the words are found in the N. T. 

The printing has been done in an excellent way. It must have been 
very exacting work and the Printers are to be highly congratulated. 
The whole cost of the work 'has been generously assumed by the Ginter 
Park Presbyterian Church Richmond Virginia' ; it is to be hoped that 
this linking of China with ancient Greece by way of America will bear 
happy fruit, for the good of the nations. 



Index to the China Review. By John C. Ferguson. Kelly and 
Walsh, Ltd., Shanghai, 1918. 
This is an extremely useful subject index to an important publica- 
tion. Mr. Ferguson disarms adverse criticism to some extent by saying 
that the preparation of the Index has followed the lines of his reading, 
and "the result will, therefore, not be wholly satisfactory to anybody 
else." The chief fault observed is one that would have meant more 
labor; for the Index is far from complete. There is no index of 
authors. There is no gathering of titles into general classes of subjects, 
and those who wish to look up what the volumes of the Review have 
to offer, for example on Chinese Religions will have to run their eyes 
over the whole work, — a matter of some two hours labor. The cross 
references are not consistently planned. " Corvee Services," and 
" Ningpo Dialect," for example are each found under both title words ; 
but whereas Eitel's articles, "Fragmentary Studies in Ancient Chinese 
Philosophy," are found only under "Chinese Philosophy," the same 
author's "Chinese Philosophy before Confucius" is to be found only 
under "Philosophy." But all this is to look a gift horse in the mouth. 
When Mr. Ferguson has already relieved us of much labor, it is un- 
generous to reproach him for not relieving us from more. We join in 
what will surely be a hearty chorus of thanks to him from all students 
of things Chinese. H. K. W. 



The Mentor Department of Art. Serial Number 168. 

This number is wholly composed of matter dealing with Chinese 
Paintings written by our Hon. Librarian, Mrs. F. Ayscough. It is a» 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 211 

instructive and artistic number. It is a volume to please the eye and 
inform the mind. Mrs. Ayscough gives much out of the way informa- 
tion on paintings and painters. She handles the subject in a most 
sympathetic manner and endeavours to appreciate the spirit of these 
ancient things. 

It is by such methods as these that people generally will get a 
knowledge of the treasures of art — and from the art itself it is not a 
long step to the spirit and the ideas that pervaded these great men. 
A service is thus rendered to the diffusion of culture, and fine feeling 
becomes more liberally distributed. A spirit of this kind is much 
needed in these practical and industral times. There is a tendency to 
became hard and rough ; art and religion should be more widely 
diffused to give more lustre and spirituality to the web and woof of 
life. 

Mrs. Ayscough's remarks as to the intimate connection between 
writing and painting suggest many thoughts. The Chinese hand is 
fashioned for philosophy and penmanship. Look at the long tapering 
fingers of the nation. Writing has to do with nerve and lines. It is 
to a great extent a matter of the eye and hand, and, of course, infinite 
effort. Again calligraphists are good and bad. The question is 
whether painting and poetry are not more qualities of the mind. It 
does not follow that all calligraphists are painters neither are all 
painters poets. There have been many poets without the gift of 
drawing and most excellent penmen have written no more than routine 
verses. It would be illogical, and contrary to experience, to say that 
all good penmen are painters. So may it not be said that it is an 
accidental idea that there is this connection between calligraphists and 
painters. Is there not something true in the saying that these men are 
born not made. Nevertheless it has been noticed that those foreigners 
who know something of drawing and painting have a greater capacity 
to get hold of Chinese characters than others. But this may be a 
superficial capacity only. The Chinese script lends itself to the art of 
calligraphy : their very form calls forth the best hand and all that 
is in man that way. M. 



Timber Rafts on The Lower Yangtze. Shanghai. Statistical 
Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs. 

This is one of the papers issued periodically by the Customs. The 
compilation is by Mr. S. F. Wright. It is not a very long paper, but 
it is a most important one. The Customs are doing most valuable work 
besides levying dues and collecting money. The papers they issue from 
time to time are most valuable historically and full of interesting 



212 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

matters to the Sociologist. A very full and complete description of 
timber rafts are given in this paper. A view of one of these rafts from 
a steamer is a daily occurrence, and it would never enter the mind of 
any one casually looking at them, that much art and mechanical 
ingenuity have gone into the making of one of these. But so it is. 
The construction and the voyage of one of these is fully described by 
letterpress and diagrams. The largest raft on record of the past 
15 years as reported was some 280 feet in length by 110 feet in width, 
with a depth of 22 feet from deck to keel. The average size would 
be about 180 feet : and the timber composing this would be worth 
about Hk. Tls. 20,500. About four months is taken to do the trip and 
the wage bill would amount to $2,800. But the heaviest item of all is 
inland taxation. Timber coming from Kan Chou to Nanking is obliged 
to pay taxes ten times. So that a raft composed of 220,000 cubic feet 
would have to pay between 5-7 . thousand taels in dues: or inland 
taxation comes to about 25% of the capital value. No wonder things 
are in a bad way in this country. We said this was not a very large 
volume : that is so : but the amount of work in its compilation must 
have been great. M. 



An Anglo-Chinese Glossary for Customs and Commercial Use. 

By C. A. S. Williams. Shanghai. Commercial Press, Ltd. 

Though printed and published privately and not by the Customs it 
must be concluded that the volume was primarily intended for use by 
the Customs staff. This can be the sole reason why the book has not 
been reviewed before. We don't remember seeing a review of the 
book anywhere. It certainly merited a review, so in a way the work 
hasn't had its proper deserts. The learned author evidently didn't 
push his wares. So far the public has been the loser. For this is a 
work that deserves recognition. The compilation has involved much 
labour. The subjects dealt with are Maritime and Native Customs : 
Chinese and Foreign Trade : Postal, Political, Geographical and Mis- 
cellaneous matters. It is rich in names of Goods, Business terms, 
Shipping and such things : the Geographical terms are manifestly in- 
complete. There is still room for additional phrases in postal matters ; 
for example insurance of letters is not given. Now that the study of 
Chinese is on the flood, students and British merchants will consult 
this Glossary. Here they will find names and expressions for anything 
they may deal in now or hereafter. 

We wonder why the author translated typhoon by ta fengl Did 
he do so on the idea that typhoon is a transliteration of the sound 
ta feng. This etymology is no longer held. It is now taken that the 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS . 213 

word is derived from the Greek. Would not pao feng be a truer 
rendering? This admirably prepared book is heartily commended to 
the student of Commercial Chinese. M. 



The New China Review. Nos. 1 and 2. Edited by S. Couling, m.a. 

We most heartily welcome a resuscitation of the China Eeview. It 
was a happy thought of Mr. Couling to do this. There is not only 
room for such a magazine, but surely a demand. In such a vast field 
with so many workers there must be many students of Chinese things. 
Speaking of the sinologues of the past, Legge, Kingsmill, Eitel,. 
Chalmers, Edkins, the Editor says, 'in the former Review these men 
had room to express themselves' : and he thinks that there must be 
many "successors to these scholars who are equally keen to give 
expression to themselves but who have lacked the medium so far." 
The opportunity is now placed at the disposal of these 'expectants' so 
we should have a general flowering of talent, — talent that has been 
lying dormant, or ts'ang as Chinese philosophy has it, preparing 
during a winter of obscurity for some spring and summer of oppor- 
tunity. We hope so. 

We should like to congratulate Mr. Couling on the get-up of 
the magazine. There is something in dress after all : and commercially 
it is always said that if you are not well dressed no business can be 
done. Well this magazine is well dressed. Paper, type, and even 
cover do much to commend this new venture. The appearance and 
feel of it are all in its favour. 

The Editor has succeeded in placing a great variety of subjects 
before his readers. The 'few remarks' by Dr. Giles, Sen. are very 
seasonable and refreshing. Dr. Giles very truly says that the British 
are half asleep regarding Chinese Study. Still we must not be des- 
pairing. We must remember the work of Legge, Giles, Chalmers, 
Parker, Edkins and a host of others. These are all British and their 
work has been unexcelled. And further we must not give undue 
assent to the statement that the Germans have beaten the British 
hollow in Latin and Greek. From Bentley downwards the British can 
make a good show. There is no room for depression. It would be 
very interesting to find out why Major Yetts took to Taoist tales. 
This personal experience would be as interesting as the stories them- 
selves. It is well to have a few of the hsiens activities and pro- 
digies. But really many of them are wearisome. We wish he would 
tackle the serious side of Taoism. We wonder if Major Yetts is 
correct in saying that the Sou Shen Chi is a Taoist book. It 



214 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

must not be assumed that all that is marvellous is the creation 
of the Taoist : even the Confucianist is not altogether free from 
that. And the first item in the Shou Shen Chi is a biography of 
Confucius in which a vivid description is given of the personal 
appearance of the sage. But he is hardly a hsien. We think that 
Major Yetts' assumption is not correct. Dr. Chatley begins his studies 
in Chinese Psychology. The whole question is treated from the modern 
point of view. The author does not so much give a description of 
Chinese thought on the subject as he attempts to account for certain 
phenomena in China. The treatment is interesting, we should not like 
to say it is inconclusive : but the student will not find much that is 
Chinese as to fixation of Soul, Fate and so on. It is a modern dis- 
quisition hung on to an old subject. It is none the less valuable for 
that. Is it true that the Chinese literati have always opposed govern- 
ment by women ? Women from time immemorial have taken an active 
part in ruling China : but the question of sex in Chinese philosophy is 
an interesting subject. 

Space and time forbid mention of all the articles, and a reference 
to some does not imply that the others are less important. The Chinese 
would say that Fate has something to do with the choice. Some are 
luckier than others. And so we will close with another touch of Fate — 
that Mr. Morley's article begins well. M. 



"Sport and Science on the Si no-Mongolian Frontier." By 

Arthur de Carle Sowerby, f.z.s., f.g.s. London : Andrew 
Melrose, Ltd., 3 York St. Covenfc Garden, W.C., 1918. 

To the sportsmen of the Far East no introduction of Mr. Sowerby 
is needed. His ever-welcome books have made his name a houseboat, 
as well as a household word. To the sportsmen of the wider world he 
has appealed as one having that rare commodity — something new to tell 
and sell. For if even the Far Eastern sportsman of the ordinary type 
is yet in almost Cimmerian darkness regarding the possibilities and the 
whereabouts of China's sport, how much denser is the gloom in which 
the European and American must wander? Mr. Sowerby has done 
much to lighten the darkness hitherto prevailing, and his present book 
continues that most laudable work. 

It takes us to and over the Ordos border : it explores for us the 
forests and lakes of the Fen Ho basin : it introduces us to sport round 
Tai-yiian Fu : it takes us on a trip to Hsi-wan-tzu, to K'uei-hua-ch'eng, 
and the T'ai Hai : it gives us a glimpse of argali and wapiti hunting : 
and after showing us what life is like on the Mongolian plateau, it sets 
seriously to work to collect for us all the scattered discoveries con- 
nected with the Flora of the regions visited, their trees, fruits, flowers 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 215 

and cryptogams. Lastly it does what nobody has done before over the 
same ground and to the same extent, it provides an introduction ko the 
geology of the whole region, and goes into details regarding va\rious 
sections of it. The book is, therefore, at once a most interesting 
record of sport, and a very valuable contribution to science, and the 
two are so interwoven in the earlier sections of the volume as to appeal 
specially to that ever increasing class, the sporting naturalists. 

But there is adventure as well as sport and science in these pages, 
and the episode at Ku-shan-pu, where the author and his companion 
were compelled to extricate themselves from real danger by a vigorous 
use of their natural weapons will give an idea of the possibilities 
awaiting wanderers in these out-of-the-way places. Travel over 
trackless hills and mountains is full of risks and hardships. Mr. 
Sowerby had his full share. 

We refrain from reproducing any of the exciting episodes with 
which the narrative teems, but one specimen of Mr. Sowerby' s powers 
oi description will be welcomed. In the chapter, "After Argali and 
Vapiti," p. 123, we read as follows : — 

"We were now in the very heart of a region of high, rugged and 
precipitous mountains, the deep gorges and ravines of which were filled 
vith small timber. This extended up the steep slopes in many places, 
vhile away down in the shadowy ravine bottoms sparkling brooks, now 
oily partially ice-bound, gurgled and plashed over the rounded pebbles 
aid polished boulders. Here and there deep pools temptingly invited 
a plunge, but the little fringe of ice acted as a gentle reminder of the 
sill frigid temperature. In these pools shoals of small fish might be 
sen darting in and out of the dark caves beneath the overhanging 
neks. On the mountain sides the tender green of the sprouting 
ppulars and hazels contrasted strangely with the deep colour of a few 
sattered pines, while the mountain peach and wild apricot blossomed 
pik and white, lending a soft beauty to the landscape. Above all the 
jajged needle-like peaks of granite towered away into the azure blue 
oithe cloudless sky, like the enchanted castles of our childhood's fairy 
taes." 

But one thing more needs telling. We had read Mr. Sowerby's 
bok through from cover to cover, and then wishing to refresh our 
mmory on one or two points, turned to consult an index which . . . 
wsn't there ! Gr. L. 



BUetin of the School of Oriental Studies. London Institution, 
1918. 
The School of Oriental Studies is to be heartily congratulated on 
tb its second (?) Bulletin. Like the School itself the Bulletin is 



210 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

Catholic. It reviews many languages and peoples : quoting from their 
prose and poetry as well as dealing with linguistic matters. The 
Philoligist will find much matter of interest here. Sinologues will also 
find several topics dealing with China. Dr. Lionel Giles replies to 
Dr. Steele's criticism of his notes on the Nestorian Monument in the 
previous number. 

Mr. A. Waley gives a rendering of more poems from Po Chu I. 
Yf ithout wishing to be critical, as we have had no time to consult the 
original, a few questions may be asked. (1) 'An early oriole sang on 
the roof of my house.' Is the oriole such a bold bird as to stand 
prominently on the roof ? It is rather a shy bird, and eschews 
publicity. (2) 'The tallest of them is six roods high' : 'The lowest is 
not more than ten feet.' Would it not be better to read, 'the lowest 
is not less than 10 feet high. ' (3) The character for Lii must be wrong. 
It is repeated three times, thus it is hardly a printer's error. The 
correct word may be %fc. The word fg: mei should be -fa. Theise 
errors easily slip in, and Mr. Waley's criticism of the transliteration^ 
in Encyclopedia Sinica that they have been carelessly done will there-! 
fore be somewhat modified by a locus poenitentia. Of course two 
blemishes is no justification. But the absence of aspirates and other 
marks whilst a matter of regret is easily excused. This is a thorny 
subject, but generally the criticism should be received in a spirit of 
meekness. Mrs. Ayscough of course was using a translation of the 
Canons which was already in existence, and the source of which she 
gives in brochure of a lecture on Chinese Painting, and published 
3rd April, 1917. 



The Awakening of Asia. By H. M. Hyndman, Cassell & Co., 1919 
From his comfortable fireside within the peaceful purlieus of Wei 
Walk, Hampstead, old Mr. Hyndman discourses on the awakening o 
Asia. The book is full of those half truths which are half lies. H 
begins the section devoted to China with the entirely inaccurate state 
ment that 'practically all Chinaman can read, write and cast accounts 
This is but an example of many inaccurate statements by which h 
develops his theme of 'the blighting influence of the Occidental 
The author seems to forget that trade is mutually beneficial. In th 
case of China trade is in reality an exchange of piece goods of qualit 
for such raw materials as silk, oil seeds and hides. 'Asia for th 
Asiatics' is Mr. Hyndman's war cry. And there seems no need for i' 
Besides the merchants, there are as many engaged in teaching an 
healing the sick, bringing the benefits of modern education an 
scientific medicine to thousands of orientals. And these are mostl 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 217 

temporary sojourners, who, after completing their work, return whence 
they came. The greatest benefit the Occident has conferred on the 
Orient is the bringing to it of natural science, which has caused more 
progress in civilisation during the last fifty years than during the 
previous five thousand. In return for this, the East has given the 
West one of its discarded religions. The progress of Japan has been 
due to her application of Western science under the tutelage of 
Europeans. A ferment of socialism pervades the book, of a kind that 
is calculated to be entirely misunderstood by most oriental people. 
The general tenour is such that one cannot but commend the censor 
who held up the book for two years. 



Chinese Pottery of the Han, Tang and Sung Dynasties. Pakish- 

Watson & Co., New York, 1917. 

There is a suspicion that this volume is a glorified trade catalogue, 
yet happily there is no mention of money, so it may be accepted as 
untainted with commercialism. Suffice it to say that it is beautifully 
printed and the seventeen coloured illustrations extraordinarily good, 
notably Nos. 133, 61 and particularly 132. It is difficult to understand 
why No. 30, a glazed earthenware dog of the Han dynasty period, 
is included except that there is a demand for ugly quaintness ; some of 
these figures of distorted animals and mankind, by a sort of reversion 
to totemism, commanding very high prices. Perhaps the explanation 
may be found in the subtle distinction between artistic and intrinsic 
value mentioned in the text. It is also hard to find sufficient reason 
for perpetuating so promiently the pair of crudely designed and 
coloured Sung jars, No. 109. There is a good summary of the chief 
characteristics of the earthenware of the periods dealt with, derived 
from well known authorities to whom due acknowledgement is made ; 
but the description of the actual exhibits is strangely crude and in- 
consequential. 



La Temperature en Chine et a Quelques Stations Voisines. 

published by the Mission Catholique at T'ou-se-we, 1918. 

This monumental work has been compiled by Pere H. Gauthier, 
S.J., director of the Zikawei Meteorological Observatory, from daily 
observations made at 100 stations. The compilation was begun in 1913, 
and shows the result of persevering work carried on for 50 years. 

The book, which is in three volumes, is divided into two parts : 
(1) an introduction, which is dealt with later; (2) the results of 



218 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

thermometrical observations at 100 stations in Manchuria, Korea and 
China Proper, extending from Aigun on the Amur to Lamko in the 
extreme South. The observations give the mean daily temperature 
obtained in three different ways ; the mean of maximum and minimum 
temperatures ; the daily range — net and adjusted ; and the extreme 
maxima and minima observed at each station, with the year of 
observation. The number of years since records were first taken is 
recorded, Zikawei Observatory going back to 1873, followed by Hsien- 
hsien (Shantung) in 1877. Finally, records are given for 1916 — the 
latest available year — showing the difference between the mean tem- 
perature in that year and the normal previously registered, also the 
maxima and minima and range. There are also notes on bird migra- 
tion, phenological observations, and of the fall of snow. Each of these 
observations is shown for every day of the year, and the collection of 
this mass of material represents a vast amount of labour in the aggre- 
gate, work voluntarily done to further the cause of science. 

The first part of the book deals with the methods of taking 
observations at Zikawei and elsewhere, and gives (1) the amount of 
heat projected on the soil; (2) the mean temperature of the air, as 
influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere. This is detected in 
many ways : by the Arago-Davy actinometer, by a heliograph register, 
and by a thermometer placed below the soil. Atmospheric pressure is 
also a factor, as well as absorption of heat by carbonic acid, ozone and 
the vapour in the air. 

The modification of the local conditions by those prevailing in 
neighbouring regions has also been the subject of study, and tables are 
given showing the influence of wind on temperature (its evaporative 
force) and also the influence exerted by the sea, the latter calculated at 
Shaweishan and at the Saddles. 

The second article comprises a study of the daily variation of 
temperature at Zikawei and Part II of this section with the other 
stations from which records have been sent, monthly conditions being 
shown in regard to atmospheric pressure, wind, mist, rain, and tem- 
perature. This is a valuable statement, of the normal atmospheric 
situation throughout the year in a wide region extending from North 
Siberia to the region where typhoons are born. Charts follow giving 
the isotherms of China and — by way of comparison — of North America, 
during each month. 

The number of graphs is innumerable, a valuable aid to the layman 
who wishes to learn something of the conditions under which he lives 
in the Far East. It may be said ' in conclusion, that although the 
erudition in this great work is above the head of the average man, 
there is still much which will be of great help to him, and to the 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 219 

expert in matters meteorological. "La Temperature En China" comes as 
a work which has been long looked for, and all who are interested in 
this most important branch of science will extend their gratitude to the 
Zikawei Observatory for having filled the gap in knowledge. 

Nantungchow, or South Tungchow, so named to distinguish it from 
Tungchow on the Peiho, is a town situated near the mouth of the 
Yangtze, a very suitable position for meteorological observations. The 
whole region is highly developed industrially and agriculturally through 
the initiative of Chang Chien, the scholar-statesman, to whose efforts 
the inception of the Observatory of Chen-shan, whose first annual report 
(for 1917) is the subject of this review. 

Studies are undertaken of temperatures, pressure, dampness, winds, 
and tides, rain-fall, thunderstorms, and there are besides tables show- 
ing the temperatures when the various crops sprout and are harvested — 
a very valuable record for the welfare of the farming community, as 
Father Moidrey says in his foreword. He suggests also that statistics 
should be kept concerning noxious insects and plants. The plagues of 
locusts which from time to time visit Kiangsu could perhaps be anti- 
cipated and dealt with in advance if knowledge about the conditions 
favourable to their diffusion were obtained. 

The aims of the Observatory, besides those directly connected with 
meteorology, are stated in the preface to be investigations in aid of 
commerce, sanitation, river conservancy and agriculture. Mr. Chang 
Chien is to be congratulated on his latest work and Mr. W. C. Lew, 
the principal observer, on the excellent turn-out of this book. The 
work is purely Chinese, and appears to be one of the best efforts 
controlled entirely by native skill and industry which has come under 
our notice. N. S. 



Foreign Financial Control in China. By T. W. Overlach. 
New York, The Macmillan Co., 1919. 

If there is such a thing as making the science which is dismal in 
theory interesting in practice, we have an example of it in this book. 
To one on the spot, at least, the tale of the financial operations of 
foreigners and particularly of foreign governments in China for the 
j>ast thirty and more years, related in a straightforward manner and 
with a minimum of technical economic phraseology, is almost absorbing. 
And yet so rapidly do events move in this part of the world that a 
large part of the book must be classed as ancient history, while the 
collapse of Russia and the twenty-one demands of Japan do not appear 
at all. It has the interest, therefore, and the instruction, of a past 
that is very much past indeed. We must be grateful, however, for a 



220 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

complete, and yet not prolix account of the course of the dealing of the 
various important nations with China. After theoretical and historical 
introductions, Great Britain, Russia, France, Germany, Japan and the 
United States, are taken up in the order named, and there is a chapter 
on International Control, and a final chapter in which the author's 
conclusions are summed up. It is an evidence of the soundness of his 
method that his conclusions will need very little revision in the light 
of developments since the book was written. As this is the only book 
we have on this subject, it offers the first chance to follow the tale of 
foreign finance in China without distraction, and a sorry tale it is, 
on the whole. The conclusion of the author on p. 272 is not too severe : 

"This, then, is a point of supreme significance, namely : that the 
bottom idea of all the treaty stipulations and agreements as to inter- 
course, customs, extraterritoriality, spheres of interest, railway con- 
cessions and control was not the welfare of the people of China, but 
the profit and ease of doing business by the people of the West. With 
the exception of a few missionaries, and a few scholars, writers and 
artists who admire Chinese civilisation, the interest of the world was 
a money interest pure and simple." 

We judge that the author's wide preparatory reading was done 
away from China, and that he has never been there for any length of 
time. Any disadvantage arising from that fact is more than com- 
pensated by the greater impartiality of attitude which it has been as a 
consequence possible for him to cultivate. 

H. K. Wright. 



Lectures on Biology. By P. M. Bayne, m.a. Chengtu. Printed at 
the Canadian Methodist Mission Press. 

This work in Chinese contains lectures delivered to students by 
Mr. Bayne at the West China Union University. The book is well- 
arranged and in good, easily-understood style. The printing has been 
well-done. We must add, however, that it would have increased the 
value of the book if there had been a list of terms in English and 
Chinese. 



The History of China's Pictorial Art. An Introduction to the 
History of Chinese Pictorial Art. By Herbert Giles, ll.d. 
Shanghai : Messrs. Kelly & Wash, Ltd. 

Professor Giles did a great service by his first edition of History 
of Chinese Pictorial Art. This has been much valued and lately 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 22 1 

difficult to get. The issue, therefore, of a second edition is welcome. 
"It has been carefully revised and considerably enlarged. New 
biographical notices and other items have been inserted : six beautiful 
pictures, chosen by Mr. L. Binyon . . . have been added : a seventh 
has been borrowed from an interesting article by Mr. A. D. Waley 
. . . an eighth . . . shows the passing of Shakycmmni Buddha. 
Lastly an exhaustive General Index has been prepared, etc." These 
are the additions in Dr. Giles' words. The letterpress of the old 
edition was 171 pp., and the new 202 pp. This will show the quantity 
of new matter. Apart from a remark here and there, this is composed 
of more translation of the biographies of painters from Chinese sources. 

This work for the most part is a translation of Chinese works. 
So we have directly the mind of the Chinese on these matters. 
Biography, criticism, anecdote, the art of painting — ink and colour 
mixing are all judiciously placed together as in the Chinese authorities : 
and make very interesting reading. 

It is to be noticed that Dr. Giles has had no further light on that 
very difficult sentence "never put pupils to the eyes even for several 
years" (p. 18). It is possible the Journal of the North China Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society will offer some help. 



Sayings of the Mongols, Dictons et Proverbes des Chinois Habitant 
la Mongolie Sud-Ouest. Par Le R. P. Joseph Van Oost, 
Imprimerie de l'Orphelinat de Tou-Se-Wei, Zi-Ka-Wei, pres, 
Chang-Hai. 
It does one good to walk in the ways of the Gentiles now and 
then : by this we mean amongst people who are pagans to ourselves : 
an inspection of their ways of thought, an acquaintance with their 
common judgements of daily life, and the deeper intricacies of social 
intercourse may do much to vary the stagnancy that results from 
following the same grooves which most people have to do. This new 
book opens up to us new avenues through whose long vistas we may 
peer into the customs of alien peoples and gain acquaintance with their 
daily thoughts. Much of a people's profoundest philosophy is im- 
bedded in popular sayings, and a lot of the philosophy of life may be 
gathered from proverbs. Pere Van Oost has opened a new field for 
us in these proverbs of the Chinese inhabiting the Ordos. It will be 
interesting to learn how these wide and rolling plains have impressed 
the emigrant inhabitants. What new tales have been whispered by 
the winds that sweep over those steppes. For such may often be 
reflected in the proverbs that the people use. Camels, horses, dogs, 



2 22 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

cats recur frequently in these sayings indicative of the daily life of the 

people. 

But not only so, proverbs further become a powerful instrument 

in speech. 

Who learns the sayings of the wise 
Will speak with ease without advice 

is proverb No. 120 and heads the preface. And the author begins by 
saying that "nowhere is the value of this proverb better illustrated 
than in south-west Mongolia. Most of the natives are illiterate, a 
proverb is an argument with them." The most natural way of entering 
their intellects and hearts is through their own compressed thoughts 
where a fund of ideas and experience live hid behind a telling couplet. 
And he who is able to wield these aright has a powerful instrument. 

The work contains exactly 1,000 proverbs or dictons, in two 
languages — French and Chinese. These are arranged alphabetically as 
indicated by the author in his preface. But readers must not get 
bewildered on seeing the sounds sha, shan coming first in the book. 
For according to the continental sounds these characters are romanized 
as cha chan, etc., so they are entitled to come first. In the arrange- 
ment of these, the Chinese text is given first : then come, line for line, 
the romanized sounds, followed by a translation in French. Lest the 
significance even now may not be quite clear, an amplification of the 
meaning and the method of application are further given by the author. 
So that when done with, the proverb, in all its bearings, should be 
quite clear. Nevertheless some like No. 291 are even then somewhat 
obscure. 

Looking at this beautifully arranged volume one would not think 
there is a war in the world or that paper and ink are scarce and have 
soared in prices. There is an art in bookbinding with its beautiful 
tooling and decoration : there is art also in the simpler dress of a 
volume in paper covers. This book is artistically arranged on lovely 
paper : there are generous spacings, giving the impression that you are 
after all living in a liberal world : the type is clear and diversified : 
different inkings making a distinction between the settings. Great 
care has been used in the make up ; proof reading has been done 
carefully. A few errors exist, as chand for chaud (p. 284). In Proverb 
No. 20 chieh is romanized as ti : this is repeated in the preface, where 
the proverb is reproduced. Whether this represents local pronunciation 
or is a mistake we are undecided. It looks like a misprint. 

It is interesting to note that both in Vol. 50 and 49 of this series 
the sound usually romanized as erh 'is spelt eid. This is interesting, 
confirming a contention long held that in Chihli and certain parts of 
North China the terminal I is found. 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 223 

It is impossible or would be purposeless to quote any of these 
"dictons." They do not seem to be generally current throughout 
China but rather confined to the Mongolian steppes. They were born 
and abide there though perhaps some may have leaked out into the 
northern confines of China. But though differing in words they reveal 
the great community of human beings and the unity of the human 
temperament. They are full of the touches that show the kinship of 
men : marking their characteristics and idiosyncracies, their folk-lore,, 
and customs. One very useful one at the present time is No. 360. 
"An official has ten ways open to him : but no one can ever guess which 
one will be acted on." That is just what we are thinking of present 
events in Peking. What decision will the authorities come to? It is 
vain to guess. 

It should be mentioned that there is a Table at the end, 'D'apres 
l'ordre Alphabetique des Matieren' ! 

From the N. C. Daily News. By permission. 



The International Relations of the Chinese Empire. By Hosea 
Ballou Morse, ll.d. 2 Volumes. Published by Messrs. 
Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., 1918. Price Mex. $10.00 each Volume. 

Mr. Morse has solved the problem which confronts so many of 
those who, after spending the best years of their life in the Far East 
find themselves for various reasons faced with an indefinite period of 
enforced leisure, by devoting the years following his retirement from 
the Chinese Customs Service to a close study of the records of China's 
relations with foreign powers during the nineteenth century and after, 
and in giving the results of his investigations to the world in the 
form of a series of histories of which the volumes now under review 
form the second and third instalments. 

The first volume published in 1910 under the title "The. Inter- 
national Relations of the Chinese Empire" and the sub-title "The 
Period of Conflct" (1834-1860) is well-known to all students of Chinese 
history as one of the standard works on the subject of the reluctant 
opening of the Chinese Empire to intercourse with the outer world, 
a landmark in the history of China which was finally set up by the 
treaties of 1858 and 1860. The second volume under the same title, 
to which the author has given the sub-title of the "Period of Sub- 
mission" (1861-1893), carries on the narrative down to the outbreak of 
the war between China and Japan, and the third volume of the series, 
to which he has assigned the sub-title of the "Period of Subjection" 
(1894-1911), describes those troubled years before and after 1900 which 



224 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

culminated in the downfall of the Manchu Dynasty and the uneasy 
birth of the Chinese Republic. 

We believe we are right in saying that one of the principal reasons 
which prompted Mr. Morse to divide his history into sections was the 
fact that on the completion of the first volume in 1910 his state of 
health was such that he could not count with any degree of certainty 
on being able to finish his task. The appearance of these volumes and 
a consideration of the close and sustained effort which he must have 
given to their production, may, we trust, be taken by Mr. Morse's 
friends in China, among whom his many readers must be included, as 
an indication that his health has happily improved and an encourage- 
ment to hope that he may live to add yet another volume to his series, 
for which one would fain wish that he might be able to allot the 
sub-title "The Period of Reconstruction.''' 

In the preface to the second volume the author mentions that his 
first idea was to make Sir Robert Hart and the Customs Service his 
central figures around which he would weave the threads of the story of 
China's international relations in the nineteenth century. Circum- 
stances prevented him from carrying out this intention, and while the 
narrative may have lost somewhat in human interest in consequence, we 
venture to think that the substitution of a history for a biography has 
undoubtedly enhanced the educational value of the work for the 
student of Chinese politics and its usefulness as a book of reference for 
all who are interested in the welfare of China and her people. At the 
same time the figure of Sir Robert Hart, the "Great I. G." still 
looms large throughout the pages of this history and reading of 
the part he played for so many years in trying to save China from 
the consequences of the folly of her rulers and his untiring efforts 
to place her finances on a firm foundation of honest and efficient 
administration, one marvels at the persistent and almost inexplicable 
failure of the Chinese Government, whether imperial or republican, 
to follow the example of Japan and call to her aid in adapting the 
fabric of China's medieval form of government to the exigencies of 
modern fashions, the statesmen, scientists and teachers of Europe 
and America who would so willingly have responded to the call. 

For close on a century China has had regular intercourse with 
foreign nations and has been gradually forced by irresistible pressure 
to learn and adopt their ways of life and thought, yet during all these 
years the few foreigners whose advice her rulers have sought and 
followed may be counted on the fingers of one hand : Gordon, Hart, 
and one or two others, among whom one may hope history will find a 
place for Sir Richard Dane. And even Sir Robert Hart's sound and 
loyal advice was, as these pages will show, more often neglected than 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 225 

followed, so that by the irony fate he found himself at the end of a 
long life devoted to the service of the Chinese Government and people 
an unwilling spectator in that midsummer madness of 1900 in Peking 
when the edifice he had toiled so hard to erect came crashing down, at 
least so it must have seemed to him, in smoke and ruin. One would 
gladly believe that the Republican leaders of to-day in China, profiting 
by the mistakes and misfortunes of their predecessors had learnt the 
hard lesson of accepting disinterested if often unpalatable foreign 
advice and assistance and thereby saving their country from these 
perpetual internal disorders and schisms which must inevitably tend 
towards loss of independence and final disintegration. But recent 
events force one reluctantly to the conclusion that this is not so and 
the long looked for conclusion of a World Peace finds China divided 
against herself, governed in name only by cabinets and parliaments 
which are a travesty of democratic institutions, while the people are 
robbed and oppressed by military despotisms, and we witness the 
extraordinary spectacle of unpopular ministers being driven from office 
by the shrill voices of school children and student and merchant 
associations directing the policy of the country through the medium 
of the telegraph and the public press. At the conclusion of his preface 
Mr. Morse truly says that "this history demonstrates that advance, 
progress and reform must proceed from the work of the Governments 
which follow the Tsing Dynasty" and he adds that it is the fervent 
wish of every friend of China that "reform and development may 
bring an end to corruption, disorganization and weakness," a wish in 
which we most heartily concur believing with Sir Robert Hart that the 
country "will stagger onwards through all sorts of mistakes" and will 
eventually extricate itself from the difficulties which now threaten from 
within and without by reason of the innate industry, energy and good 
sense of the Chinese people. 

It would be impossible to attempt an analysis of the varied and 
detailed contents of these two volumes which range from the T'ai-p'ing 
Rebellion to the Boxer outbreak, from the Burlingham Mission to the 
American boycott, from Factory days and the Canton Hoppo to the 
abdication of the Manchu Emperor and the summoning of China's 
first parliament. There are besides a series of illuminating and authori- 
tative essays on such subjects of general interest but uncertain general 
knowledge as the Customs Service, its origin, development and 
functions, the attitude of the Chinese towards foreign missions ; extra- 
territoriality and foreign jurisdiction in China ; the development of 
China's foreign trade, her railways, posts and communications ; and 
last but not least a brief but clear account of the origin of the foreign 
settlements at Shanghai, an area set apart, in the words of the author 
15 



226 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

as "a safe and agreeable place of residence for foreign merchants," 
which might be studied with advantage by some of the latter day 
critics of the Shanghai Municipal Council. 

The author's views and statements on all these complex and often 
controversial questions are supported by copious notes and references, 
and at the end of each volume are appendixes consisting of extracts 
from state papers and statistics. It should be mentioned that the 
volumes are, as is Mr. Morse's habit, well indexed, each chapter being 
prefaced by a paged abstract of contents and an alphabetical index of 
subjects, with a map of China, being placed at the end of the second 
volume. 

Some may consider the cost of these volumes, Ten Mexican Dollars 
($10) each, as somewhat excessive at the present rates of exchange and 
one could wish that it .had been possible to produce a work of such 
general interest to all foreign residents in China and to many English 
speaking Chinese at something less than £2.0s.O^. a volume. There are 
doubtless good reasons for the high price of these volumes, and as far 
as the writer of this review is concerned he is free to confess that he 
has since reading through their pages changed his original intention of 
borrowing the volumes from time to time from the Club Library, and. 
casting economy to the winds, become the proud possessor of all three 
volumes ! K. H. F. 



The Land Tax in China. By Han Liang Huang, ph.d. New York. 

Columbia University. 
Some Aspects of Japanese Feudal Institutions. By Prof. K. 

ASAKAWA. 

"The purpose of Mr. Huang's book is twofold. It is intended first 
to serve as a basis for the discussion of the land tax reform . . . and 
secondly to form an introduction to a larger study of the early fiscal 
system of the country. . . ." Thus the author. He has given Chapters 
on the Land tax of Antiquity, continuing the narration down through 
the Ch'in to the Sui Dynasty : from the T'ang to the Ming. The bulk 
of the book is concerned with the tax since the Ts'ing Dynasty. This 
is viewed from many points of view and under different heads such as 
the Land Policy, Holdings, the Acquirement and transferrence of 
lands : the Development of the tax : Collection and administration, 
analysis and criticism of the system : concluding with Land tax reform. 
There are useful appendices^giving Bibliography, Units of Measure, 
Names and epochs of the Dynasties, etc. The Bibliography is by no 
means complete. There is for instance not a single reference to articles 
by French writers. 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 227 

The work gives an excellent review of land conditions in China 
from Ancient to Present times. Students of economics and others will 
find it most useful. The author has relied on the histories of China, 
especially on the Wen Hsien T'ung K'ao for records up to the 
thirteenth century. It would have been convenient if he had inserted 
Chinese characters in addition to the romanized forms. Such works as 
these are very welcome. 

Prof. Asakawa's essays is a clear and concise account of Feudal 
institutions. It is very well done. M. 



Gramatica Chino=Espanola. By Rev. Father P. A. Gonzalez, 
Agustinian Missionary of Southern Hunan (China). Quarto, 290 
Pages. Printed by "The Central China Post," Hankow, 1917. 

Those who have learned Chinese cannot help thinking that a 
Chinese Grammar is not a very necessary part of one's equipment to 
study the language, for as far as it is known, the Chinese have no idea 
of grammatical distinctions, as we are accustomed to, indeed, we do 
no know of any Chinese work on such a subject. 

In China, a word may be used as a substantive, adjective or verb, 
the user following his own judgment, and its position only serves as a 
clue in what sense it should be understood. 

Chinese, one of the most monosyllabic tongues known, is rich in 
ideographic symbols. Hence, the vulgar saying that other languages 
speak to the ear, while Chinese speaks to the eye. 

Undoubtedly, to this fact is due that men like Giles, Wade, Parker 
and other well-known sinologues, who have eliminated from their 
work any serious mention of Chinese Grammar, although Abel-Remusat 
(French), Morrison (English), Bazin (French), 1854, Philo-Sinensis 
(Latin), 1842, Edkins (English), Rev. C. W. Mateer and some others, 
have bequeathed to us more or less classical attempts which are more 
confusing than practical, in our opinion. 

It is, therefore, more to be admired, when we think of the en- 
ormous love-labour it represents to compile a Chinese Grammar, in 
Spanish, especially so. Unfortunately, must we confess regretfully, 
that very few of our compatriots dedicate themselves to this language, 
except in the case of a few Spanish Missionaries who reside in China, 
principally in Hunan and Fokien. 

However, it is with natural pride that we go through this work, 
especially as it reminds us that it is not by any means the first attempt 
at a Chinese Grammar in Spanish. In fact, one of the first works of 
this kind ever written in any European language was "Arte de la 
Lengua Chinica, que vulgarmente se llama Mandarina," composed by 



228 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

the Rev. Father Fr. Juan Rodriguez, of the same order as the Author 
of the book under review. This work does not seem to have ever been 
printed, but numerous copies have been taken from it, the original 
manuscript still existing in the Manila Agustinian Convent's Archives, 
and is specially mentioned in the "Monitor de Paris" of 1794. Besides 
this work, we know of one written in Spanish also, by the Rev. Father 
Fr. Juan Masip, of the Dominican Order, published in the beginning 
of the present century. 

With Father Gonzalez's work, the Spanish Missionary possesses an 
extremely important adjunct to his vocabularies, which necessarily 
must help the student. 

We regret though, that in our opinion, it would have been even 
more useful to the cosmopolitan population in China, had the romanisa- 
tion used therein been Wade's, which is generally adopted and found 
the more easy to pronounce. Also we believe it would have improved 
it, if it did not contain that interminable series of accounts, which 
must necessarily puzzle the student. To demonstrate our opinion, we 
have picked up half a dozen words from page 72 of the work, dealing 
with adjectives : 

Gonzalez 
Romanizes : Wade : 

heou-p'i hou p'i 

f ang-cho fang chuo 

leng-suei leng shui 

seng-ren sheng jen 

sin hsin 

siao hsiao 

As it can be seen, unless under the direct supervision of a native 
teacher, no foreigner, not even a Spaniard, can correctly pronounce 
these words, as given in the text. 

Nevertheless, in Father Gonzalez's book, we can find many an 
excellent point and can unreservedly commend his work to the student. 

Juan Mencarini. 



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Poetry. A Magazine of Verse. Chicago. 

This number contains nine pages of translations of poems from 
Chinese Written Wall Pictures. They are under the joint authorship 
of Mrs. Florence Ayscough and Miss Amy Lowell. 

We have often wondered whether it would ever be possible to 
bring out the beauties of Chinese poetry which is often in 'feet' and 
'allusions,' Chinese poetry when translated appears abrupt or insipid : 
and one wonders whether a genius would ever arise to put things right. 
We cannot say that it has yet come but it may be on the way. In 
many ways Mrs. Ayscough is a pioneer, and this idea of hers to 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 229 

extract all she can, and more than others thought they should, may be 
justified in the end. The character invites such a method as the one 
suggested : they seem to command such an attempt. I believe theolo- 
gical professors, men of a serious bent, often suggest to their students 
the studv, of the suggestive pictures of Hebrew words. Fertile ideas 
are wrapped within, — and sermons may be found in roots as well as 
stones. Feeling some interest in the translation of Chinese poetry we 
wish these authors well on the voyage they have embarked on ; and 
trust they will land somewhere with an argosy full of valuable 
merchandise. 

They hope that the verses libres will solve this difficulty of rendering 
Chinese poetry. We have read a most illuminating defence of the 
method by Miss Lowell. It is very suggestive and throws much light 
on this theme. Still being inexperienced it would be difficult to 
criticise it. And one of the chief mazes would come as to when it was 
time to turn back. What is the end of one line, and where the 
beginning of the next? The cadences arising from suitable and 
harmonious combination of words are not always apparent. It 
requires a strong hand and a firm mind to deal with such tempting mis- 
adventures as might ensue in these circumstances. As Dr. Johnson says, 
"he is too apt to lose his way in quest of mistaken beauties." Of course 
the Chinese protests vigorously against such a treatment. Itself being 
under rigid rules, and governed by inexorable laws it seems to object 
at every pore at the idea of being carried too many feet, or, being left 
as a short measure. At present we are neutral and stand by to wait 
and see. All neutrals are we confess, a bad lot, but for the time being 
necessity is laid upon us. M. 



Letters to a Missionary. By E. F. Johnston. (Watts & Co.). 

The well-known author of "From Peking to Mandalav," and 
"Buddhist China," in this book has entered on another field of 
literature — controversial theology. 

The occasion for this departure is explained in his introduction. 
The author sympathized with the Rev. Stanley P. Smith in the dispute 
with the directors of the China Inland Mission over the question of 
the duration of future punishment, and entered upon a correspondence 
with him in regard to that subject. 

From the fact that only the author's letters are published and not 
those of Mr. Stanley Smith, we surmise that Mr. Johnston's object was 
to give us a clear statement of his own views on certain theological 
questions connected with the Christian Religion. 

The book is exceedingly interesting, and contains evidence of wide 
reading and continuous thought on the subject of religion. As the 



230 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

author himself says, he writes "With brutal frankness," but at the 
same time he gives us a strong and lucid criticism of the Christian 
Religion as it appears to him. We are reminded of a similar book 
written by Mr. A. Michie, several years ago — "An Open Letter to 
Missionaries by a Candid Friend." It would be interesting to compare 
the two productions. Unless our memory is at fault Mr. Michie was 
rather more sympathetic with the missionary movement in China than 
Mr. Johnston appears to be. 

The extended review which this book deserves would be more in 
place in a theological or philosophical magazine than in the Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, and hence we feel obliged to curb our 
inclination to deal with all the questions raised by Mr. Johnston, and 
to confine ourselves to pointing out briefly some of the merits and 
defects of his arguments. The author is much incensed by the fact 
that the old fashioned view of a hell of endless duration is so widely 
preached in China, and wants to put a stop to what he considers an 
iniquitious propaganda. 

He concludes his introduction with these words, "If the peoples 
of the West value the souls of the 'heathen' as highly as they profess 
to do they will surely prohibit a traffic which is just as morally inde- 
fensible as the trade in opium or cocaine." 

The use of the word traffic is unfortunate as the missionary 
presents his teaching without charge and does not expect any monetary 
compensation. 

Although his language is somewhat strong we feel much sympathy 
with the writer's moral indignation, but our regret is not caused so 
much by the fact that harm is being done to the people of China as 
by the fact that harm is being done to the cause of Christ. State- 
ments of Christianity which are so much at variance with the spirit 
of the Master Himself must injure His cause, and retard the 
Christianization of the world. 

It does not seem to us to be strictly in accord with facts to 
claim as the author does that the motive of fear is largely absent from 
the popular religion of China. In preaching hell, the missionary 
brings nothing new to China. In fact in order to express himself, 
and make his meaning intelligible to his hearers, he has to rely largely 
upon the vocabulary of the Buddhist religion. 

On page 26, he criticizes some statements made in "Heathenism 
under the Searchlight," by W. Remfry Hunt, in regard to the 
Buddhists terrifying little children with pictures of hell. The state- 
ment may not be accurate, but surely the author must have seen the 
representations of the halls of purgatory to be found in many temples. 
It would be difficult to imagine anything more horribly cruel ! Again 



REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 231 

we repeat the pity of it is that instead of preaching the religion of 
infinite love, some zealous and sincere missionaries proclaim what 
appears to us to be a sad caricature of Christianity. 

We would condemn as strongly as the author does the doctrines of 
a material hell and the eternal condemnation of those who die without 
faith in Christ. At the same time we feel confident that such teaching 
is on the wane and not on the increase. In general, theology on the 
mission field lags behind theology in the homelands, and is more con- 
servative. We have noticed, however, a great change between the 
way Christianity is presented now and the way it was presented thirty 
years ago. 

The eternal duration of punishment, preached by some, does not 
trouble the non-Christian world as much as the author supposes, for 
the idea of eternity is inconceivable by the human mind. 

Although the author commends Mr. Smith for holding more 
moderate views in regard to future punishment, yet at the same time 
he is dissatisfied. He criticizes Mr. Smith for basing the belief on the 
teaching of Scripture. He would like his correspondent to agree to 
reject the doctrine of eternal punishment no matter what the Bible 
may have to say on the subject. In other words he is anxious to 
persuade Mr. Smith to reject the doctrine of the verbal inspiration of 
the Scriptures, and not to regard the Bible as an infallible authority. 
The author claims that the final source of authority must be the 
enlightened moral consciousness of the race (see page 63). 

Here again we nnd much that we can endorse. According to our 
way of thinking the doctrine of the verbal inspiration of Scripture is 
responsible for much that has been a drag on the progress of human 
thought, and the evolution of a higher type of religion. 

In our impatience with the doctrine, however, we do well to 
remember that man is mentally conservative by nature, and that when 
Protestantism revolted against the authority of the Church, it realized 
the danger of every one setting up his own creed, and of individualism 
running mad, and sought a new source of authority in the Scriptures. 
Modern cristicism has, however, won. the victory. Calvinistic theology 
based on the fall of man is doomed by the fact that we can no longer 
regard the book of Genesis as history, and the substitutionary theory of 
the atonement is shaken when we remember that the Priest Code of the 
Old Testament dates back only to Post-exilic days. 

The abandonment of the doctrine of the verbal inspiration of 
Scriptures removes a great incubus from the Church, and as George 
Adam Smith points out makes the belief in God as Christ revealed 
Him free from many difficulties. We do not, however, quite see the 
need of the insistence of the author that a belief in verbal inspiration 



232 REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS 

and a belief in eternal punishment are necessarily connected. There 
are as many passages in Scripture looking forward to the final des- 
truction of evil as there are to the eternal separation of the good and 
the wicked. 

In reading the first three letters of this volume one is led to 
think that the author is championing the cause of a more liberal 
theology, but he soon finds that such is not altogether the case. 

After arraigning the old fashioned views of hell, the personal 
devil, and future punishment, he begins a tilt with the liberal 
theologians, the Broad Churchman, and the Modernist. 

We regret that in his able satire upon his Satonic Majesty he 
failed to remember that ridicule is not argument. This is the only 
section of the book (Letter IV) which is somewhat marred by lack of 
reverence. We don't mean reverence for the devil, but reverence for 
the idea of God. 

In his criticism of liberal theology, the author comes close to con- 
fusing Christianity and orthodoxy, or to put it in another way, he 
appears to think that being a Christian is the same thing as holding 
certain well defined theological propositions. This is a common 
mistake, but we would not expect to find it cropping out in the book 
of a man who is a close student of religion. 

Jesus Christ undoubtedly taught certain great truths, — the Father- 
hood of God, the value of the individual soul, free salvation for all, 
the Kingdom of God on earth, love and service of our fellowmen, life 
through death, and He claimed to speak with authority as Son of God 
and Son of Man, but He did not formulate any extensive creed. The 
test of discipleship which He gave was the following, "If any man 
will be my disciple, let him deny himself, and take up his cross and 
follow me." The human mind naturally tends to formulation, and 
hence it was natural that creeds came into existence, but it still 
remains true that Christianity is a life based on faith rather than an 
intellectual apprehension of mysterious doctrines. 

The author appears to be as much disturbed by the re-interpreta- 
tion of Christian doctrines as he is by the preaching of the doctrine of 
eternal hell. 

Surely he must believe that truth is not static. It is something 
that lives and grows. The glory of the Christian religion is that it is 
capable of development and expansion. It does not like Mohammedan- 
ism arrest all advance in thought. 

He raises the question as to whether a clergyman of the Church 
who feels bound to reinterpret old doctrines in the light of modern 
knowledge should retain his office. He does not charge those who do 
remain in the Church with dishonesty, but he appears to think that at 
least they are in a false position. We agree with him that one who 



REVIEW OF RECENT BOOKS 233 

denies the fundamental verities of the Christian faith has no place in 
the Christian Ministry, but at the same time we hold that a very 
large amount of latitude should be allowed for the reinterpretation of 
the old creeds. 

In "Form and Content in the Christian Tradition" by Sanday 
and Williams, Dr. Sanday makes the following statement : 

"It is so with the Christian Faith. There are the great truths 
about God and Christ, theie are the great fundamental experiences of 
the Christian life. These are permanent and unchangeable. And yet, 
the form under which we conceive of them must of necessity change, 
with the changing apparatus of thought through which they find 
expression. Every age has its own intellectual outfit. It can but use 
the tools that it has. When it is using the language of another age, 
it is like David in Saul's armour : it loses all its freedom and efficiency 
of motion." 

The author naively suggests that because there is much variation 
in the interpretation of Christian doctrine, it would be a good thing 
if all who call themselves Christians could get together and come to 
some common agreement as to what Christianity really teaches before 
the attempt to convert the world is carried on any further. 

Does he really believe that such a thing is possible? Can we ever 
think exactly alike in regard to religion? Having told us there is no 
infallible authority on earth, would he advise our setting one up? 

We can only have glimpses of truth. As Dr. Sanday tells us we 
must leave room for an element of agnosticism. "Perhaps a better 
name than agnoticism would be a sense — a devout sense — of mystery." 

At times it would appear as if the principal object of the author 
was to discredit Christianity, or at least to challenge its claim to 
become a world religion. On the other hand he admires the teaching 
of Christ, and we hardly feel justified in drawing this conclusion. 

He evidently has a high esteem for Buddhism, but we take it that 
the Buddhism which attracts him is not the superstitious cult of the 
present day, but the teaching of Buddha himself. In passing a 
judgment on Christianity, should he not go back of the popular mis- 
representation, to the great underlying truths? 

F. L. Hawks Pott. 



Recherches sur les Superstition* en Chine. Par le P. Henri 
Doke, s.j. Illeme Partie. Popularisation du Confuceisme, du 
Bouddhisme et du Taoisme en Chine. Tome XIII. Chang-hai, 
1918. 
This is one of the most important and useful works in this import- 
ant series. The substantial volume in hand deals with Confucianism 



234 REVIEW OF RECENT BOOKS 

only, and as the title states, the attempt is not a critical study of the 
subject, but an exhibition of the actual beliefs of the Chinese them- 
selves, taken as a whole. As we know, there is little attempt of any 
sort among the Chinese, with the exception of the school of Kang 
Yu-wei, to make critical studies of the Chinese classics ; still less to 
judge On scientific principles what truth of history lies behind the 
accounts in the fragmentary form in which they have reached us. 
Foreign efforts in this direction have been usually governed by a 
wise restraint ; the student was not criticising Holy Writ, — that is, 
not holy to him — in the interpretration of which there were vested 
interests which had to be considered ; interests whose injury or 
destruction would bring sadness and despair to many hearts. But the 
best of such studies has little more than an academic interest, unless 
it becomes more than a fragment, and is integrated with later history 
in such a fashion that some historial wisdom, some ethical value, 
results for the reader. More useful for the student of national ethics 
is a work of the kind before us, wherein we learn many facts, not 
ordinarily accessible, about what' living men are thinking and believ- 
ing ; the tales that move their hearts, the basis of their patriotism. As 
one reads, one begins to look forward eagerly to the volumes on 
Buddhism and Taoism. The work is also of greater probable value 
than some of the earlier volumes, interesting as these were. For one 
thing, it can have a kind of completeness not possible when one is 
trying to illustrate the inumerable sorts of local animistic superstitions. 
And whereas these vary with the region, and come and go with the 
years, the central ganglion for them all is the Confucian system, with 
its reverence for China's greatest man, and its memory of his disciples. 
In detail, the work consists of an illustrated account, taken from 
popular sources, of the life of Confucius and of the lives of his four 
associates, his twelve disciples and his one hundred and twenty-eight 
lesser disciples ; these being the sages whose tablets are to be found in 
the ordinary Confucian temple. The pictures are in the original 
colors, and follow the tradition in their subjects ; so bound is Chinese 
art by the dead hand that present day pictures on these subjects 
largely reproduce the coloring, grouping and landscapes of these 
popular chromos. Other works furnish us with detailed descriptions 
of the Confucian ritual ; the present work confines itself to collecting 
the biographical matter with which the average Chinese has acquain- 
tance. The lack of an index makes the use of this work, and of the 
others in the series, somewhat difficult; doubtless that lack will be 
repaired in the last volume. We are glad to commend the work to the 
student, and to the general reader as well ; whoever reads it will find 
the explanation of much that seems difficult to understand in the 



REVIEW OF RECENT BOOKS 235 

Chinese mind ; and in particular the young student will find it a most 
useful work. H. K. W. 



List of Chinese-Moslem Terms. By Isaac Mason. Mission 
Book Co. 10 cents. 

This useful list of terms is an amplification of one which appeared 
in the Recorder in 1892. A division is given of Miscellaneous : Trans- 
literations : Names of Places, Persons, etc. 

As a first step this little vocabulary will be a help. It will 
however bear addition and emendation. This will come in time. If a 
few notes had been added to show the comparative values of terms in 
Mohammedanism and other Chinese Religions it would have been 
valuable. For Example ^ ^ is a Taoist term, and if the term had been 
discussed from the Taoist and Mohammedan content it would have 
been serviceable. Again if the 3l J§)<i and such like had been specified it 
would have been better. There are some phrases so obscure that it 
was essential to have supplied some explanation of their origin, but this 
is lacking. The translation of some terms require confirmation as |$j ff" 
which is translated "Confession of Faith." Should it not be 
esoterism, or some such word? Under "Forbidden Practices" it would 
have been better to have inserted fellow before Moslem in each case. 
Under N we have Nien Reflection which is unintelligible $£ ]f& 
is supreme Ultimate. But this is Confucian : what is the Moham- 
medan? 

It would have been more methodical to have put all transliterations 
together, as it is we have Talmud, Torah, Usurvy, Sura left under 
Miscellaneous. 

We have no doubt time will put these immaturities right. 



The Chinese Isles of the Blest. By Major W. Perceval Yetts." 
Reprinted from Folk-Lore. 
Major Yetts is quite a dealer in Taoist folk-lore. In this paper 
he takes us to the fairy land. He has made diligent search into all 
Chinese books, even if he hasn't tried to explore the coasts for the 
islands. He has also given a comparative study of the legends. 
Indeed he has dealt very solidly with an airy thing. M. 



NOTES AND QUEBIES 



The Honourable Mrs. Gordon writes to say "whole passages of 
Amido-Kyo have just been found in the Nestorian Stone Inscriptions 
writes Rev. A. Villion to me who (a fine Japanese scholar himself) with 
other scholars and native pundits has been working at it." 



It is hoped to have rubbings with the identical passages marked in 
red ink in the course of time. Will any one interested in this com- 
municate with the Editor? 



The Editor is indebted to Prof. N. Gist Gee of Soochow for help 
in reading the proofs of the article on "The Agriculture, Botany and 
the Zoology of China." 



The most interesting biography of Spencer F. Baird, by W. H. 
Dall, published by J. B. Lippincott Co., has been given to the 
Library. It does not concern China directly and we only mention it 
that readers may know the work can be seen in the Library. 



Can any one explain the origin of the practice of the crossed toes 
of the Yunnanese ? The country is still called the Chiao Chih Kuo 
(25SSih )• The Li Wang Chih says :-« £ fl] B £ # H X » » & * 

Han Wa Tsung Shu & £'& ifi & 



All communications and articles for the Journal should be 
addressed to the Editor. 



Publishers and Authors who desire a review of their books should 
send them early. 2 copies of each work if possible : one for the Library ; 
one for review. 



If any members have odd copies of Journals, Vols. Ill, IV, VI, 
VII, XV, XV, XXIII, the Secretary would be glad to purchase the 
same, as applications are occasionally made for whole sets for public 
libraries, and the numbers mentioned are out of stock. Will anyone 
who can put us in the way of securing copies of any or all of the 
volumes mentioned please communicate with the Secretary? 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRAKY. 

JULY 1918— JUNE 1919. 
(P) — Indicates Book presented. 



052— F 44 

059— Ch 8.1 
059— Ch 9 
059— Ch 15 
062— Ch 1 
128— C 51 
133.4— D 65 



172.4— C 11 

209— Ed 1 
215— T 78 
246— D 34 



274.8- 
294.1- 



-C 84 
-An 3 



294.1— R 34 
294.1— Si 6 
294.1— St 1 
297— M 11 
297— T 34 

321.3— As 1.1 

326.951— An 1 
336.2— H 86 
338.6— M 84 
341.2— C 95 

398.3— L 11 
400— M 91 
495.1— G 59 
495.1— M 13.11 

495.1— St 3 

495.11— H 52.1 



495.11— H 52.11 
524— N 11 

526— Un 1 



The eighteenth Financial and Economic 

Annual of Japan, 1918. 
Index to the China Review. 
The New China Review. 
The West China Missionary News. 
The China Bookman. (Issued quarterly). 
Animism, the seed of religion. 
Recherches sur les Superstitions en Chine. 

Tome XIII. 
Carnegie Endowment for International 

Peace. Year Book for 1917. 
The Religious Condition of the Chinese. 
The Creation and Sundry Pamphlets. 
Studies in East Christian and Roman Art. 

The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. 

Buddhist Art in its relation to Buddhist 
Ideals with Special reference to Buddhism 
in Japan. 

Studies in Japanese Buddhism. 

Esoteric Buddhism. 

Korean Buddhism. 

List of Chinese-Moslem Terms. 

Le Mahometisme en Chine et dans le Turk- 
estan Oriental. 

Some Aspects of Japanese Feudal Institu- 
tion. 

Slavery in China. 

The Land Tax in China. 

The Guilds of China. 

Treaties, Regulations, etc., between Corea 
and other Powers, 1876-1889. 

Totemic Traces Among the Indo-Chinese. 

La Science du Language. 

Gramatica Chino-Espanola. 

Handbook of New Terms and Newspaper 
Chinese. 

Greek-Chinese-English Dictionary of the 
New Testament. 

An English-Chinese Dictionary of Peking 
Colloquial. (New Edition enlarged by 
S. Barton and E. Backhouse). 

The Chinese Language and How to learn it. 

Chen-shan Meteorological Observatory of 
Nantung, Summary Annual 1917 

Annual Report of the Superintendent U.S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey to the 
Secretary of Commerce for the Year 
ended June 30, 1918. 



(P) 

Ferguson, J. C. (P) 

Couling, S. Editor 



Clodd, E. 
Dore, H. 



(P) 
(P) 

(P) 



(P) 

EdJcins, J. 

Tse Tsan Tai (P) 
Dennison, W. and 

Morey, C. R. (P) 
Craigie, W. A. (P) 



Anesaki, M. 
Eeischauer, A. K. 
Sinnett, A. P. (P) 
Starr, F. 
Mason, I. (P) 

Thiersant, P. D. de 

Asakawa, K. (P) 

Huang, H. L. (P) 
Morse, H. B. 

Laufer, B. (P) 

Muller, M. 
Gonzalez, P. A. (P) 

Mateer, A. H. (P) 

Stuart, J. L. (P) 



Hillier, W. 
Hillier, W. 

Nantung, 



(P) 



(P) 



(P) 



238 

551.52— G 11 

553.8— P 11 
589.2— G 27 
591.9— An 1 

591.9— So 9.1 
593.16— Sk 9 

610— R 53 

622— C 63 
622— J 11 

622— J 11.1 

652— L 12 
677— M 92 
677— M 92.1 
677— Od 2 
691.3— En 3 

737— D 11 
738.51— L 36.1 
738.51— P 11 



759.9— An 1 
759.9— Ay 3.11 
759.9— G 37.1 

759.9— H 42 



890.521— 65 
895.1—Oo 1 

895.11— Ay 3 

895.11— G 38 
895.11— J 87 



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©tutuarp* 

EDOUARD CHAVANNES. 

Sinology lias suffered a great loss hy the death of Edouard 
Chavannes. Our society, of which he was an honorary member for so 
many years, has keenly felt this bereavement and mourn him together 
with those who know to appreciate the very considerable work which 
Chavannes has accomplished with regard to the development of sinolo- 
gical studies during the last thirty years. 

The ordinary reader is rather ignorant as regards this point and 
this is hardly to be wondered at considering the fact that even the 
most remarkable specialists rarely get into touch with the general 
public. It is, on the other hand, to be regretted, that a far too large 
proportion of those who write on things Chinese do not know all the 
claims which Chavannes has on their gratitude. His modesty, his 
horror of everything which resembled publicity and advertising have 
certainly something to do with this, but is it not necessary also to 
incriminate the indifference of some of those who make it a profession 
to take an interest in things Chinese? 

As regards the Sinologues they at least know what to think of 
Chavannes. One of them, a worthy descendant of the Jesuit mission- 
aries who in the 18th century laid the foundations of the sinological 
science, has said : "Chavannes is at the very pinnacle of sinology." 
Shortly before the war a German orientalist announced that "Chavannes 
had made sinology a French science." It is furthermore known that 
the famous explorer Sir Aurel Stein has chosen Chavannes, amongst all 
sinologues, to translate the wood slates which he had excavated from 
the sandy wastes of Turkestan — precious documents which date back 
to the beginning of the Christian era. 

Chavannes could have gloried in these, and so many other proofs 
of admiration which he received in the course of a brilliant career. 

Born in 1865 he entered when still quite young the "Ecole 
Normale" so as to prepare himself for his examination for the fellow- 
ship of philosophy. He had hardly left the school before he set out 
for China. 

Let us now give the word of one of those who have lived near him 
and who have known him well — undoubtedly a pupil, certainly an 
enlightened friend, who has published in the "Temps" the following 

lines : 

"His first works, published in 1890, announced the coming of a 
master. He returned from Peking at the age of 28 (in 1893) to 
occupy at the College de France the chair of Abel Remusat and 

16 



212 OBITUARY 

Stanislas Julien. His colleagues had elected him confident that he was 
entitled to the position, without personally knowing him, even without 
having seen him, an exceptional privilege, even more surprising in the 
case of so young a man. Ten years later he entered the 'Institut de 
France.' In the interval the 'Societe Asiatique' had invited him to 
take the place of Darmesteter as its secretary, a position which 
Darmesteter had himself occupied in succession to Renan. Loaded 
with all the favours of fortune he possessed in addition to all these 
honours the exquisite pleasures of the happiest of home-lives. Never- 
theless, in 1907, at the age of 42 when his health had already suffered 
a serious setback, he tore himself away from the delights of his fire-side 
and of society to return to China ; his voyage which had been carefully 
prepared by long researches, was crowned with splendid results. 

"It is difficult to form an adequate idea of the labour which under- 
lies the rapid stage of this brilliant career. Chavannes had from the 
beginning assigned himself as the maintask of his life to translate the 
historical memoirs of Sseu-ma Ts'ien, written during the second 
century before Christ, which contains in a brilliantly conceived monu- 
mental work all the classics of China and which has served as a model 
for all historians of later Periods. He has not been able to accomplish 
this heavy task, interrupted at the publication of the fifth volume, 
but it may be said, that all his other works, irrespective of their 
varied nature, have Sseu-ma Ts'ien as their centre of gravity. 

The classical education had taught him that the narrations of the 
ancient historians, regardless of how scrupulous they may be, must be 
accepted with great caution and that means for their control are within 
reach of the conscientious scholar : the sculptured monuments and the 
inscriptions more especially furnish valuable evidence. The work 
might seem easy ; the Chinese do not possess the historical sense which 
endeavours to establish positive connections between scattered facts 
and between the order of happenings, but they possess, on the other 
hand, a craving for historical knowledge which passionately attaches 
them to the monuments of the past. They have compiled enormous 
treaties on archeological and epigraphical subjects containing a wealth 
of material ; but the scrupulous conscientiousness of Chavannes refused 
to rest satisfied with documents of doubtful authenticity ; he would 
only make use of originals. His first sojourn in China resulted in a 
book which to-day is considered classical. Twenty years later, follow- 
ing another voyage, he published his 'Archeological Mission to Western 
China' which was hailed as a materpiece and which has caused a 
renaissance of our knowledge of Chinese art. 

"Buddhism occupies an important place among the factors of 
Chinese art. Introduced in China during the first century of the 



OBITUARY 243 

Christian era, Buddhism brought in its wake the traditions and the 
sciences of its Indian cradle, augmented by contributions from Greece 
and Iran which it had absorbed during its passage west and east of 
Pamir. It is by Buddhism that China definitely enters the history of 
the world ; hazardous speculations have tried to connect her much 
earlier with the civilizations of the Near East, but it is only in 
connection with Buddhism that facts become obvious, numerous, con- 
tinuous. Chavannes applied his diligent patience to map out the stages 
of this so fertile movement ; he studied the biographies of the pilgrims 
who went from China to India and from India to China to seek or to 
propagate the divine revelation, defying all obstacles, braving the 
dangers of the mountain, the desert, the ocean. In a collection of 
three volumes he gathered together 500 tales and moral fables of Indian 
origin which the preaching of buddhists had made popular in the 
Middle Kingdom. He gathered in a volume which the Academy of 
Petrograd esteemed it an honour to publish, all the texts which throw 
light on the history of the western Tou-Kieue's, that Turkish people 
which was on equally good terms with Byzantium and Persia, the 
Indian Rajahs and the Son of Heaven, open to every influence, wel- 
coming every creed, bonzes as well as monks, Nestorians as well as 
Manicheans. Gradually, almost without being aware of it, Chavannes 
had annexed Central Asia." 

It is to this great savant that Sir Aurel Stein rendered hommage 
by handing him for publication his documents on Central Asia. 

"It is impossible to pretend to mention here, even summarily, all 
the varied activities of this indefatigable worker. The savant who has 
the courage to consecrate himself to special studies too far removed 
from the public, must before entering his career, abandon all hope of 
becoming popular ; a too great want of knowledge separates him from 
the ordinary reader. Nevertheless Chavannes had a right to aspire 
after social success, had he desired to do so ; an article on Confucius in 
the 'Revue de Paris,' a lecture at the Academy on the rewards of 
virtue in China show what he would have been able to accomplish. An 
elegant teacher, a harmonious speaker, rich in broad vistas and ideas he 
could attract and fascinate vast audiences. He preferred to continue 
his daily task in solitude, supported by the estime of his peers and the 
respectful affection of his pupils. 

"The explanation is this, that in Chavannes the man and the scholar 
were inseparable ; the intelligence blended with the character. The 
blue limpidity of the eyes, the graveness, so easily unbent, of the 
handsome face revealed the perfect balance of a delicate sensibility and 
a vigorous rationality. Arrogance was unknown to him ; he listened 
with a respectful attention to opinions which might save him from 



211 OBITUARY 

errors or enable him to rectify them. Truth, truth alone mattered to 
him ; no effort seemed too great to him to attain it. . . . 

"Chavannes was not only the first sinologue of our days; by his 
powers of lucidity, order and simplicity, by the perspicacity of in- 
tuition combined with the stubborn researches of erudition he continued 
the lineage of savants as Abel Remusat and Eugene Burnouf." 



IN MEMORY OF ARTHUR EVANS MOULE. 

Many of our readers will have heard with sincere sorrow of the 
death of Archdeacon A. E. Moule, who was for many years a well 
known, loved, and respected figure both at Shanghai and at Ningpo. 

Arthur Moule, sixth son of the late Henry Moule, was born at 
Fordington Vicarage near Dorchester on 10th April, 1836, and like his 
brothers, of whom the two survivors are Charles, President of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, and Handley, Bishop of Durham, was 
educated at first at home. Unlike his brothers he did not go to 
Cambridge, but continued his education at a College in Malta and 
then at the Church Missionary Society's College at Islington. In 
later life however the Archbishop of Canterbury conferred on him the 
degrees of B.D. (1881) and D.D. (1912) in recognition of his very 
distinguished missionary and literary work. In 1861 he married Agnes 
the daughter of J. H. Bernau, one of the noble band of pioneer 
missionaries who worked under the C. M. S. in its early years, and 
himself joined the C. M. S., reaching Ningpo in August 1861 when the 
T'ai-p'ing rebellion was at its height. He was in the city of Ningpo 
on the eve of its capture (8th December, 1861) and in the Settlement 
during its occupation by the rebels till May the next year. This excit- 
ing beginning to his life in China made a lasting impression on hi« 
mind, and to the end he delighted to tell the story of those far off 
days. He stayed at Ningpo, with one furlough (1869-1871) until 1876, 
when for about two years he was put in charge of the mission work at 
Hangchow. During those two years he made the acquaintance of a 
man named Chou, and through him began the mission work in the 
District of Chu-chi, one of the most interesting and successful fields in 
the Chekiang mission. While at home in 1879 he was offered the new 
bishopric of Mid-China, formed out of the vast diocese then vacant by 
the death of Bishop Russell. With a fine sense of propriety which was 
at once characteristically Christian, Chinese, and his own, he refused 
to be Bishop of a diocese in which his elder brother would be a simple 



OBITUARY 245 

priest ; and in 1882 he followed that brother, made Bishop in his place, 
to China as Archdeacon. 

The next thirteen years, broken by a short furlough, were spent at 
Shanghai, where the Archdeacon won for himself a position among 
both English and Chinese which will not soon be forgotten. A serious 
break-down of health compelled him to return to England in 1894, and 
it was not until 1902 that he was able to come back to China. He 
then settled again at Ningpo, and pursued his beloved work of preach- 
ing the Gospel with a zeal and physical energy which many a younger 
man might envy. In 1908, however, he accepted the living of Burwar- 
ton in Shropshire ; though still to pay one last visit to China in 
1909-10 ; and indeed he was ready to go back there if necessary until 
the return of his illness in 1917. Old age had compelled him to resign 
his living in 1915, and the last years were spent with his youngest son 
at Weymouth, with many journeys at first to speak and preach for the 
missionary cause, and long visits to another son at Damerham Vicarage 
in Wilts. It was in this latter house that he peacefully passed away 
at noon on 26th August, 1918 ; and on the 29th he was laid to rest in 
the churchyard there within sight of the woods of his loved Dorset 
and of Wiltshire Downs. 

No account of Arthur Moule would be at all just which did not 
praise his wife, his absolutely inseparable companion and never-failing 
helper in his work and in his home, in sickness and in health, through 
fifty-seven years, and his children too, of whom six sons and three 
daughters survive him,- — Walter, principal of Ningpo College and 
Archdeacon in his Father's room, Arthur (the eldest son) and Willie, 
famous at Shanghai as missionaries and cricketers, Horace in the 
translating and editorial department of the Bible Society's House in 
London, Herbert, Vicar of Damerham, and Ernest at Weymouth 
College, the two last formerly in Japan, and their sisters well-remem- 
bered in Shanghai. For those who knew him no words are needed and 
for those who did not know him no words are really able to describe 
his eager manner, his kindliness and humour, his way with little 
children, his look, his walk, his smile. 

The Archdeacon was for some years a member of our Society, but 
did not contribute to the Journal. Though a fluent and able speaker 
of Chinese and a contributor of many hymns as well as commentaries 
and other books to Chinese Christian literature, he never did very much 
in the way of technical or antiquarian Chinese study. In English he 
was a most eloquent and persuasive preacher and speaker, and a 
prolific writer both of verses, of which he published several small 
volumes, and of the most readable and valuable books on China of 
which several are quite certain long to survive their author. 



246 OBITUARY 

The following is a complete list of his published works in 
English : — 

Four Hundred Millions. London, 1871 [1870] 

The Service of Song. Dorchester, 1871. 

The Joyful Sound. Dorchester, 1871. 

The Opium Question. London, 1877. 

The Use of Opium. Shanghai, 1877. 

The Story of the Che-kiang Mission. London, 1878, 1879, 1885, 1891. 

Songs of Heaven and Home. London, 1879, 1890, 1905. 

Chinese Stories. London, 1880. 

'Ask, and it shall be given you' ; a sermon preached in Lincoln 
Cathedral. London, 1881. 

China as a Mission Field. London, 1881, 1891. 

The Responsibility of the Church as regards the Opium Traffic with. 
China. London, 1881. 

Personal Recollections of the T'ai-p'ing Rebellion. Shanghai, 1884. 

Reasons for the Hope that is in us. Shanghai, 1884 ; London, 1891. 

The Credibility of the Miraculous. Shanghai, 1885. 

Twenty-five years in East and West. Shanghai, 1885. 

'Fear God and honour the King' ; a sermon preached in Holy 
Trinity Cathedral, Shanghai, at the Jubilee Thanksgiving Service. 
Shanghai, 1887. 

Reminiscences of Mission Life in China. Shanghai, 1890. 

The Glorious Land. London, 1891. 

New China and Old. London, 1891, 1902. 

The Value of Attention to Chinese Etiquette. Shanghai, 1892. 

Looking Backwards. Shanghai, 1902. 

The World's Famine ; a sermon preached before the University. 
Cambridge, 1893. 

Medical Missions in China. London, 1894. 

The China Mission. London, 1902. 

Tufts and Tails. London, 1903. 

The Story of the Mid-China Mission. London, 1904. 

Verses. Tokyo, 1907. 

Young China. London, 1908. 

Ningpo (Ancient and Modern ; under the T'ai-p'ings) ; Confucius. 
Shanghai. 1909. 

Half a Century in China. London, 1911. 

The Splendour of a Great Hope. London, 1911. 

Poems 1907-1913. Dorchester, 1913. 

The Chinese People. London, 1914. 

City Hill and Plain, 1917. 
And many articles in books, magazines, and journals. 



OBITUARY 247 



TIMOTHY RICHARD. 



A familiar figure has disappeared from our meetings : and a 
representative man from foreign life in China. Dr. Timothy Richard 
died suddenly in London on April 17th after an operation, in the 
74th year of his age. He spent much time on his father's farm in his 
youth, gaining such education as the state of the country then offered, 
which was very different from the opportunities of the present day. 
Later he entered the Baptist College at Haverfordwest to prepare for 
the ministry. This somewhat incomplete scholastic preparation was 
compensated for by native genuis, and by the romantic impressions of 
the Tao stamped on his mind by nature as he communed with the hills 
and valleys of his native place. Whether it arose from this harmony 
and peace of nature or was a development of his religious training 
there appeared early in his career the desire of the immediate applica- 
tion of the Kingdom of Heaven to earthly needs. The grinding at the 
dead languages was not long persevered in. They seemed purposeless 
to an eager spirit. This showed that Dr. Richard had the poineer 
spirit. This compelled him, as it did John the Baptist, to go forth 
into the Wastes of the world. When he arrived in China the same 
spirit led him to abandon the rendezvous of missionary societies, who 
located themselves in the Treaty Ports, and to enter the Interior, — and 
get to the people. When he did get there he again departed from the 
usual custom and went out of the beaten track — he sought the Worthy, 
the spiritually elect of the people : and once more he broke away from 
routine and custom by appealing to leaders in authority. In all this 
he was following apostolic injunctions and historical examples as he 
thought. Another new idea took possession of his mind, arising from 
the premises offered by the foregoing, and that was Conversion by 
the Million. It was not quite easy to say what this really meant, 
except that if the Chief is induced to accept the Gospel, he would see to 
the rest. This did not necessarily abandon the individualistic idea of 
evangelicalism. These departures are mentioned to show Dr. Richard's 
trend of mind. The same tendency is seen, although it appears from 
a different point of view, in his Catholic spirit. He would include all. 
Possibly in this he was different from the disciples that penetrated and 
captured the Roman Empire. They were intolerant of anything else 
because of a great purpose and love in their own message. Dr. Richard 
was most tolerant of all religions that had tried to comfort humanity. 
They were exclusive in face of the immorality of the Roman religions, 
he was inclusive because he saw a benevolence and morality in the great 
religion of the East. His last booklet was an appeal to Buddhists on 
common grounds. His final article was a League of Religions. He 



248 OBITUARY 

saw the good in all ; there was no incongruity in flowers of different 
hues growing together in the garden of God. His understanding was 
nature trained and lacked the strict logic of the human mind. 

This general attitude of mind made him a worthy Representative 
man. The approach was easy for him, the reception sincere from them. 
A broad sympathy broke down barriers. The difficulties of colour, 
language, custom, civilization vanished. There remained the cardinal 
virtues and common sentiments. These were enough to begin and end 
with. There was a great deal of the Tao idea in Dr. Richard's mind 
and manner. Without pinning him to that sect in any way, there was 
something of the true Taoist about him. Yet whilst he believed that 
truth would spread by inaction nevertheless he was a man of im- 
mediate action. The Kingdom of God therefore was for immediate 
possession. He was not concerned with theology as such but the 
immediate possession of the benefits of the Kingdom was an urgent 
necessity. Let it be planted at once. Other great ideas followed, one of 
which was International Peace. War was of the savage age. A United 
States of the World and the Parliament of man was a favourite idea. 
The savage state of the world was fed by ignorance. Therefore 
education should be encouraged. That was the great panacea. There- 
fore such an institution as ours would appeal to him. It was a link 
between East and West : it was a centre of information and enlighten- 
ment. It cherished the past and sought guidance for the future from 
it. Possessing this temperament it is easy to see that he was also an 
International man. This he was in feeling, in purpose, and knowledge. 
He knew the leading men of Japan, and other countries. He was a strong 
link in this human brotherhood. An official is an official, a merchant 
a merchant, and the missionary is concerned with a propaganda; all 
these are hampered by their professions. Dr. Richard without losing 
his missionary identity in any way, yet soared beyond — the Taoist 
Spirit again taking possession, and thus he became a valuable inter- 
national asset. The Chinese appreciated Britain all the more through 
knowing him. He was an ornament to his nation ; he was a com- 
mender of the Christian faith. Thus without possessing dogma he 
became a valuable factor in the work of mediation. 

He was a lover of Books. They w T ere his friends. This arose 
from his catholic spirit, 1 imagine. He liked to hear other opinions. 
Books spoke to him. They supplied him with fertile ideas. He had 
always new ideas on hand. This ,catholicity and receptivity helped 
to increase the comprehensiveness of his mind without anchoring him 
to any fixed dogma. Evan Morgan. 



NORTH- CHINA BRANCH 
OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY 



LIST OF MEMBERS 1919 

Members changing address are earnestly requested to inform 
the Secretary at once. 



Name 



Address 



Year of 
Election 



Honorary Members. 



Cordier, Prof. Henri ... . 

Couling, S., m.a 

De Groote, Dr. J. J. M. . 
Ferguson, Dr. John C 

Giles, Prof. Herbert Allen . 
Hirth, Prof. F 

Hosie, Sir Alexander, k.c.m 
Lanman, Prof. Charles B. . 



Lockhart, Sir J. H. Stewart, 

K.C.M.G 

Morse, H. B., ll.d 

Parker, Prof. E. H 

Putnam, Herbert 

Sampatrao, H. H. the Prince .. 
Satow, Rt. Hon. Sir E., g.c.m.g. 

Warren, Sir Pelham, k.c.m. g. .. 



Ecole speciale des Langues orien- 1886 

tales vivantes, Paris 

Medhurst College, Shanghai 1894 

Leyden, Holland 1887 

91 Arlington St. Newton, Mass. 1896 

U.S.A. 

Selwyn Gardens, Cambridge ... 1880 

Columbia University, New York 1877 

City 

Foreign Office, London 1877 

Harvard University, Cambridge, 1908 

Massachusetts 

Weihaiwei 1885 

Arden, Camberly, England 1888 

14 Gambier Terrace, Liverpool ... , 1877 

Library of Congress, Washington 1908 

Gaekwar of Baroda, India 1898 

Beaumont, Ottery St. Mary, 1906 

Devon 

Woodhead & Co., 44 Charing 1904 

Cross, London 



250 



LIST OF MEMBERS 




Corresponding Members. 



Fryer, Prof. John ... . 

Gardner, C. T., c.m.g. . 
Jamieson, George, c.m.g. 
Little, Mrs. Archibald .. 

Volpicelli, Z. H 

Williams, E. T 

Williams, Prof. F. W. . 



University of California, Berkely, 1886 
•California 

Foreign Office, London 1900 

110 Cannon Street, London 1868 

150 St. Jame's Court, Bucking- 1906 

ham-gate, London 

Italian Consulate, Hongkong ... 1886 

Washington 1889 

135 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, 1895 

Connecticut 



Members. 
(The asterisk denotes Life Membership) 



* Abraham, R. D. 
Acheson, Guy 

Adamson, Mrs. A. Q. 
Adolph, W. H., ph.d. 

Alway, Mrs. C. 
Ancell, Rev. B. L. 
Archer, Allan 

Arlington, L. C. ... 
Arnold, Julean H. 
Ayscough, Mrs. F. 



Bahnson, J. J 

Bahr, P. J 

Bahr, A. W 

Barrow, E. P. Graham 

Barton, S., c.m.g 

Bateman, Rev. T. W. .. 

Bates, J. A. E 

*Bayne, Parker M 

Bazin, J. Herve 

*Beauvais, J 

Beebe, Dr. R. C 

Belcher, H. B 

Beltchenko A. T 



3g Peking Road, Shanghai 1914 

Inspectorate General of Customs, 1908 

Peking 

8 Jessfield Road, Shanghai 1919 

Shantung Christian University, 1917 

Tsinan Fu 

c/o Butterfleld & Swire, Tsingtao 1917 

Am. Church Mission, Yangchow ... 1911 

British Consulate, Tsinanfu, Shan- 1915 

tung 

Chinese Post Office, Hangchow ... 1917 

American Legation, Peking 1904 

20 Gordon Road, Shanghai 1906 



G. N. Telegraph Co., Shanghai ... 1909 

165a N. Szechuen Road, Shanghai 1909 

Montross Gallery, 550 Fifth 1909 

Avenue, New York 

Cathedral School, Shanghai 1915 

British Legation, Peking 1906 

C. M. M. Chungking, Sze 1916 

3a Yd Yuen Road, Shanghai 1919 

West China Union University, 1911 

Chengtu 

Aurora University, 55 Avenue 1917 

Dubail, Shanghai 

Consul de France, Canton 1900 

5 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai ... 1889 

Foochow 1917 

Russian Consulate, Hankow 1918 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



251 



Name 



Address 



Year of 
Election 



Bendixsen, N. P 

Bennett, E. S 

Benjamin, Mrs. M 

*Bessell, F. L 

Beytagh, L. M 

Billinghurst, Dr. W. B 

Bishop, C. W 

Black, S 

Blackburn, A. D 

Blake, C. H 

Blickle, K 

Bois-Reymond, Prof. Dr. C. du 

Bondfield, Rev. Dr. G. H 

Bosworth, Miss S. M 

Bowra, C. A. V 

Bowser, Miss H. C 

*Box, Rev. Ernest 

Bradley, H. W 

Brandt, Carl T 

Bremner, Mrs. A. S 

Bristow, H. B 

Bristow, H. H 

Bristow, J. A 

Brooke, C 

Brooke, J. T. W 

Browett, Harold 

*Brown, Sir J. McLeavy, c.m.g. 

Brown, Thomas 

Bruce, Col. C. D 

*Bruce, Edward B. 

Bruce, Rev. J. P 

Brune, H. Prideaux 

Bryant, P. L 

*Buckens, Dr. F , 

Burdick Miss S. M 

Burkill, A. W 

Burkill, Mrs. A, W 

Burns. Mrs 



( ambiagi, Miss Y. G. ... 

Carl, Francis A 

Carter, J. C 

Cassat, Rev. Paul C. ... 

Chatley, Herbert 



G. N. Telegraph Co., Peking 

4 Devonshire Villas, North Parade, 

Belfast 
25 Avenue Edward VII, Shanghai 

Customs, Tientsin 

Ilbert & Co., Shanghai 

8b Peking Road, Shanghai 

University Museum, Phila. Pa. 

U.S.A. 
G. N. Telegraph Co., Peking 
H.B.M.'s Consulate-Gen., S'hai ... 

3 Route Ghisi, Shanghai 

Slevogt & Co., 11 Soochow Road, 

Shanghai 
41 Seymour Road, Shanghai 

B. and F. Bible Society, Shanghai 

18 Peking Road, Shanghai 

Chinese Maritime Customs, Peking 
143 N. Szechuen Road, Shanghai... 

Medhurst College, Shanghai 

Chinese Maritime Customs, Hankow 
c/o Sweetmeat Castle, Shanghai ... 
c/o The Chartered Bank, Shanghai 
H. H. Bristow, British Consulate- 
Gen., Hangchow 

British Consulate, Hangchow 

Standard Oil Co., Shanghai 

Nestle's Milk Co., 8 Nanking 

Road, Shanghai 

Davies & Brooke, Shanghai 

22 Yuenmingyuen Road, Shanghai 
Chinese Legation, 59 Portland 

Place, London, W. 
La Roque, Sutton, Surrey 

80 Wall St., New York. U.S.A. ... 
Shantung Christian University, 

Tsinan 

British Legation, Peking 

6 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 

21 Minami Yamato, Nagasaki ... 
Baptist Mission, West Gate, S'hai 

2 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 

2 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 

c/o Am. Trading Co., 319 Avenue 

Joffre, Shanghai 

c/o Mrs. Levy, 16 Route des 
Soeurs, Shanghai 

C. M. Customs, Canton 

Mactavish & Co., Shanghai 

Shantung Christian University, 

Tsinan 
450g Avenue Joffre, Shanghai 



1913 
1918 

1919 
1905 
1910 
1908 
1919 

1910 
1917 
1914 
1911 

1907 
1900 
1919 
1897 
1914 
1897 
1912 
1896 
1909 
1897 

1909 
1914 
1918 

1915 
1891 
1865 

1885 
1900 
1918 
1916 

1914 
1917 
1915 
1909 
1912 
1912 
1916 



1918 

1906 
1912 
1916 

1916 



252 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Name 


Address 


Year of 

Election 


( 'hatley, Herbert, D.Sc 


450g Avenue Joffre, Shanghai 


1916 


Ch'en Kuo-ch'uan 


403 Hardoon Road, Shanghai 


1913 


Christiansen, J. P 


G. N. Telegraph Co., Nagasak 
Japan 


i, 1913 


Claiborne, Miss Elizabeth 


4 Thibet Road, Shanghai 


1908 


Clark, J. D 


Shanghai Mercury, Shanghai 


1895 


*Clementi, C 


Govt. Secretary's Office, Georj 
Town, British Guiana 


?e 1905 


Coales, 0. E 


British Consulate-Gen., Chengtu 


1906 


Cockell, Capt. 


20 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 


1919 


Cole, Eev. W. B 


M. E. M. Hinghwa 


1917 


Commys, A. J 


Custom House, Shanghai 


1919 


Couling, Mrs. S 


Medhurst College, Shanghai ... 


1916 


Coursier, Mme 


54 Route Doumer, Shanghai ... 


1915 


*Cousland, Dr. P. B 


16 Bluff, Yokohama, Japan ... 


1908 


Craig, A 


The University, Manila 


1914 


Crow, C 


17 Museum Road, Shanghai ... 


1913 


Cunningham, Rev. R 


'C.I.M., Takutang, Kiangsi ... 


1913 


Cupelli, M 


Maritime Customs, Shanghai 


1918 


Cushnie, G-. S. B ... 


North China Insurance Co., S'h 


ai 1916 


Danton, G. H 


Tsing Hua College, Peking ... 


1918 


*D'Anty, Pierre Bons 


French Consulate, Chungking 


1889 


*Davidson, R 


c/o Mrs. Frew, 66 Leamingtc 
Terr. , Edinburgh 


>n 1914 


Davis, Dr. Noel 


Municipal Offices, Shanghai ... 


1910 


Dent, V 


203 Avenue de Roi Albert, S'h 


ai 1912 


*Deas, W. S. P 


Butterfleld & Swire, Shanghai 


1919 


Denham, Mrs. J. E 


30 Connaught Road, Shanghai 


1919 


Dingle, Edwin J 


Far Eastern Geographical Esta 
lishment, Shanghai 


b- 1917 


Dingle, Lilian M 


Box 323, B. P. O., Shanghai 


1917 


Dodson, Miss S. L 


St. Mary's Hall, Jessfield ... 


1917 


Donald, William H 


Far Eastern Review, Shanghai 


1911 


Dorsey, W. Roderick 


U.S.A. Consular Service, Rangoo 
India 


n, 1911 


Dovey, J. W 


Mission Book Co., Shanghai 


1918 


Dowie, Robert G 


Ellis Kadoorie School, Shanghai 


1906 


Drago, G. D 


350 Park Avenue, New York 


1918 


*Drake, F. E 


Peiyang University, Tientsin 


1911 


*Drake, Noah F 


Fayette ville, Arkansas 


1905 


*Drew, E. B ... 


Cambridge, Massachusetts ... 


1882 


Du Monceau, Comte L 


Russo-Asiatic Bank, Yokohama 


1909 


Duyvendak, J. J. L. ... ...... 


Leiden University, Holland ... 


1915 


Edgar, Rev. J. H 


c/o China Inland Mission 


1910 


Edmondston, David C 


Hongkong and Shanghai Ban 
Harbin 


k, 1917 


Edmunds, Dr. C. K 


Canton Christian College, Cant( 


>n 1916 


Eliot, Sir Charles, k.c.m.g. 


Hongkong University, Hongkoi 


lg 1913 


Ely, John A 


St. John's University, Shanghai 


1917 


Ely, Mrs. J. A 


St. John's University, Shanghai 


1917 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



253 



Name 



Address 



Engel, Max. M 

*Eriksen, A. H 

Essex Institute, Librarian ... 
Evans, Edward ... 

Evans, Joseph J 

Exter, Bertus van 



Fardel, H. L 

Fearn, Mrs. J. B 

Ferguson, J. W. H 

Ferguson, T. T. H 

Fergusson, W. N., f.r.g.s. 

Fischer, Emil, S 

Fisk, G. W 

Fitch, Eobert F., d.d 

Flemons, Sidney 

Fletcher, W. J. B 

Fowler, J. A. 

Fox, Harry H., c.m.g. 
Fraser, Sir Everard, k.c.m.g. 

Fraser, Miss Jean 

Freer, Charles L 

Fryer, George B 



Gage, Rev. Brownell .. 
Gale, Esson M 

Gardner, H. G 

Garner, Dr. Emily 

*Garritt, Rev. J. C. .. 

Ghiselin, Rev. C 

Ghisi, E 

Gibson, H. E 

Gilchrist, Edward 

Gilliam, J 

Gillis, Captain J. H. .. 
Gimbel, C, M.Sc. 
Gish, Rev. E. P. .... .. 

Gladki, P. M 

Godfrey, C. H 

Grant, J. B 

Graves. Bp. F. R., d.d. 
Grierson, R. C. 



105 Avenue Road, Shanghai 

Telegraph Dept., Ministry of Com- 
munications, Peking 

Salem, Massachusetts 

Missionary Home, 38 Quinsan 
Road, Shanghai 

Evans & Sons, 30 North Szechuen 
Road, Shanghai 

Netherlands Harbour Works, 
Chefoo 

Municipal School for Boys, S'hai 
30 Route Pichon, Shanghai ... ... 

Inspectorate General of Customs, 

Statistical Department 

C. M. Customs, Peking 

B. & F. B. S., Chengtu 

Tientsin 

British Emigration Bureau, Wei- 

hsien 

Hangchow 

4 Monkham's Terrace, Shanghai ... 

British Consulate, Hoihow 

cjo Wagons Lits Hotel, Peking ... 
British Consulate-General, S'hai 
British Consul-General, Shanghai 

1 Yates Road, Shanghai 

Detroit, Michigan 

4 Edinburgh Road, Shanghai 



Administration, 
Bank, 



Changsha 

Chinese Salt Rev. 

Hankow 
Hongkong and Shanghai 

Hankow 
Margaret Williamson Hospital, 

West Gate, Shanghai 

Nanking 

A. P. Mission, Taichow 

Via Kuintino, Salla No. 4, Milano, 

Italy 
12 Weihaiwei Road, Shanghai 

C. M. Customs, Ningpo 

22 Museum Road, Shanghai 

American Legation, Peking ... ... 

Hailar, (Mixed Court Assessor) ... 

Nanking 

C. E. Railway, Control Dept., 

New Town, Harbin 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

11 Wayside Road, Shanghai 

St. John's University, Shanghai ... 
C. M. Customs, Shanghai 



Year of 
Election 



1911 
1915 

1906 
1917 

1916 

1916 



1918 
1911 
1910 

1900 
1916 
1894 
1919 

1918 
1917 
1916 
1913 
1907 
1907 
1912 
1910 
1901 



1915 
1911 

1906 

1911 

1907 
1918 
1893 

1915 
1918 
1915 
1911 
1914 
1919 
1915 

1909 
1916 
1918 
1918 



■r, i 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Name 



*Grodtmann, Johans 

Green, J. R 

Grosse, V 

Grove, F 

Gull, E. Manico ... 

*Gunsberg, Baron G. de 
G wynne, T. H. ... . 




*Hackmann, H. 
*Hall, J. C. .. 



Hamilton, A. de C. 
Hammond, Miss Louisa 

Hancock, H. T 

Handley-Derry, H. F. ... 

Harding, H. I 

Hardstaff, Dr. E. J. ... 

Hardy, Dr. W. M. ... 

Harpur, C 

Hays, Mrs. John 

Healey, Leonard C. 
Heeren, Rev. J. J., ph.d. 

Heidenstam, H. von ... 
Henke, Frederick G., ph.d 

Hers, Joseph 

'Hildebrandt, Adolf ... 
Hinckley, F. E., ph.d. 



Hindson, A. E. C. 
*Hippisley, A. E. ... 

Hobson, H. E. ... 

Hodges, Mrs. F. E. 

*Hodous, Rev. L. ... 

Hoettler, A 

Hogg, E. Jenner ... 

Hogg, J. D 

Houghton, Charles 
Howell, E. B. 
Howells, W 

Hudson, Mrs. Alfred 
Hughes, A. J. 

Hughes, E. R, 

Hummel, A. W. ... 
Hummel, R. Ure ... 



10 Kiangse Road, Shanghai 

c/o Mustard & Co., Shanghai 
Russian Consul-General, Shanghai 
Nanking-Hunan Railway, Nanking 
British Chamber of Commerce, 

Shanghai 
9 Rue Pommera (XVI), Paris 
Directorate General of Posts, 

Peking 



49 Broadhurst Gardens, Hamp- 
stead, N.W. 

Andersen, Meyer & Co., Tientsin 

A.C.M., Wusih 

Standard Oil Co., Shanghai 

British Consulate, Tientsin 

British Legation, Peking 

C.A.M.C. c/o Army Post Office, 
London 

Box 884, Cincinnati, 0., U.S.A. ... 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

125 Route Prosper Paris, Shanghai 

Public School for Chinese, S'hai 

Shantung Christian. University, 
Tsinan 

6 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 

747 Baldwin St., Meadville, Penn- 
sylvania, U.S.A. 

Lunghai Railway, Peking 

Merchants Exchange Building, San 

Francisco 

20 Foochow Road, Shanghai 

Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, 

London 
St. Michaels, Glastonbury, England 
16 Ford Lane, Shanghai ... 

Foochow 

Ill Avenue Road, Shanghai 

4 Jinkee Road, Shanghai 

British Legation, Bangkok 

3 Peitaiho Lane, Shanghai 

693 Great Western Road, Shanghai 

N. Szechuen Road Police Station, 

Shanghai 

Ningpo • 

China United Assurance Society, 

Shanghai 
London Mission, Tingchow, via 

Amoy 

Fenchow, Shansi 

Bisset & Co., Shanghai 



1898 
1918 
1912 
1915 
1915 

1908 
1913 



1903 

1888 

1918 
1917 
1914 
1903 
1914 
1918 

1912 
1901 
1911 
1913 
1915 

1916 
1912 

1907 
1907 
1907 

1914 
1876 

1868 
1915 
1913 
1910 
1908 
1917 
1908 
1909 
1917 

1909 
1909 

1918 

1919 
1911 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



255 



Name 



Address 



Year of 
Election 



Huston, J. C. 
Hutchison, J. 
Huston, Rev. 
Hynd, R. R. 
Hynes, A. C. 



L. 
J. 



Ironside, William ... . 
Irvine, Miss Elizabeth 

Irvine, D. A 

Islef. J. P 



Jamieson, J. W. ... 
Jenks, Prof. J. W. 

Jensen, C. A 

Jernigan, T. R. 

Jessel, W 

Jesus, C. Montalto de 
Johnson, N. T. 

Johnston, R. F. 

Joly, P. B 

Jones, J. Frank 
Jong, Th. de J. de 
Jorgensen, 

*Jost, A 

Justesen, M. L. 



Kahn, Gaston 

Kano, Dr. N 

Kanzaki, S 

Karlbeck, 

Kashiwada, T 

Keeler, Henry B 

Kellogg, W. R 

Kemp, G. S. Foster 

Kennet, W. B 

Kent, A. S 

*Kern, D. S 

Kilner, E 

King, G. W. P 

King, Louis M 

King, Paul H 

King, Dr. G. E 

Kinnear, Henry R. 

Klein, Darre 

*Kliene, Charles, f.r.g.s. 



American Legation, Hankow 

c/o China Inland Mission 

Hongkong & Shanghai Bank, S'hai 
Hongkong & Shanghai Bank, S'hai 



Butterfield & Swire, Hankow 
39 Arsenal Road, St. Catherine's 
Bridge, Shanghai 

Chungking 

G. N. Telegraph Co., Shanghai ... 



British Consul-General, Shanghai 

13 Astor Place, New York 

G. N. Telegraph Co., Peking 
3 Hongkong Road, Shanghai 
Giesel & Co., Shanghai 

c/o Department of State, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Weihaiwei 

C. M. Customs, Moukden ... ... 

66, Szechuen Road, Shanghai 

Netherlands Legation, Peking 

G. N. Telegraph Co., Copenhagen, 
Denmark 

Sulzer, Rudolf & Co., Shanghai ... 

c/o R. Martens & Co., 1 The Bund 
Shanghai 



Kyoto University, Kyoto 
Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Shanghai 

Chuchow, Anhui 

1 Balfour Road, Shanghai 

Standard Oil Co., Soochow 

Foochow 

Public School for Chinese, S'hai 
British Cigarette Co., Shanghai ... 
c/o Chinese Post Office, Moukden 

C.M.M. Chengtu, Szechuen 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

4 Monkham's Terrace Wayside, 

Shanghai 
British Consulate, Chungking, Sze 
26 Old Queen St., Westminster, 

London, S.W. 

Lanchow, Kansu 

c/o Gibb, Livingston & Co., S'hai 

20 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 

C. M. Customs, Shanghai 



1917 
1916 
1914 
1913 
1919 



1919 
1910 

1913 
1917 



1888 
1903 
1918 
1906 
1912 
1902 
1912 

1907 
1913 
1916 
1914 
1913 

1912 
1913 



1913 
1902 
1906 
1914 
1918 
1916 
1919 
1908 
1918 
1913 
1912 
1909 
1917 

1911 
1886 

1919 
1907 
1917 
1916 



256 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Name 



Klubiem, J 

Klubiem, S. A. 

Kopp, E. C 

*Kranz 5 Rev. Paul .. 

Krapf, Dr 

*Krebs, E 

Krill, Joseph ... ., 

Krisel, A. ... ., 

Krumling, Dr. F. .. 

Kulp, D. H 

*Kunisawa Shimbei 



Lacy, Rev. Dr. W. H. 

Laforest, L 

Lake, Capt., P. M. B. ... 

Lambertz, H 

Landesen, Arthur C. von 

Lanning, George- 

Lanning, V. H 

*Latourette, K. S 

*Laufer, Berthold, Dr. ... 

*Laver, Capt. H. E. ... 

Lay, W. G 

Leach, W. A. B 

Leavens, D. H 

^Leavenworth, Chas. S. 

Leete, W. Rockwell, ... 

Leslie, T 

Lester, Miss E. S 

Leveson, W. E 

Liddell, C. Oswald ... 



*Lindsay, Dr. A. W. 
♦Little, Edward S. .., 

Lobenstine, Rev. E. 

Loehr, A. G 

Lockwood, W. W. 

Lord, Rev. R. D. .. 

Lucas, S. E 

Lutgens, Alfred .. 

Luthy, Charles 

*Luthy, Emil 

*Lyall, Leonard A. .. 

Lyon, Dr. D. W. .. 



Mabee, Fred C. 
Macbeth, Miss A. 



C. 



Address 



Tear of 
Election 



C. M. Customs, Wuhu 

C. M. Customs, Swatow 

6 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 

Griinenwald Str., 6 Steglitz, Berlin 
119 Avenue Road, Shanghai 



17 Yuenmingyuen Road, Shanghai 

Tung j en, Kweichow 

Shanghai College 

270 Hyakunin-cho, Ohkubo, Tokyo 



10 Woosung Road, Shanghai 

C. F. Tramways, Shanghai ... ... 

cjo Jardine, Matheson & Co., 
Shanghai 

H.I.R.M.'s Vice-Consul, Kobe ... 
14 Medhurst Road, Shanghai 

Denison University, Gronville, Ohio 
Field Museum of Natural History, 

Chicago 
c/o Messrs. W. Stupledon & Sons, 

Portsaid, Egypt. 
Commissioner of Customs, Swatow 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

Yale College, Changsha 

313 Norton St., Newhaven, Conn., 

U.S.A. 

Fenchu, Shansi 

445c Honan Road, Shanghai 

McTyeire School, Hankow Road, 

Shanghai 

Shirenewton Hall, near Chepstow, 
Monmouthshire 

Chengtu, Szechuen 

12 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 
5 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai 
American Consulate, Shanghai ... 

2 Barchet Road, Shanghai 

Tsinan Fu, Shantung 

Chartered Bank, Peking 

7 Jinkee Road, Shanghai ... .... 

17 Yuen Ming Yuen Road, S'hai 

C. M. Customs, Shanghai 

4 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai 



Baptist College, Shanghai 

9 Wong Ka Shaw Gardens, S'hai 



1913 

1917 

1919 

1897 

1912 

1895 

1912. 

1914 

1912 

1915 

1917 



1909 
1917 
1916 

1915 
1909 
1908 
1916 
1912 
1901 

1912 

1902 
1914 
1917 
1901 

1918 
1914 
1919 

1905 
1908 

1910 
1910 
1916 
1916 
1913 
1918 
1906 
1913 
1910 
1917 
1892 
1919 



1912 
1915 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



25' 




MacDonell 

MacGillivray, Rev. Dr. Donald 

Macleod, Dr. N 

McNulty, Rev. Henry A. 
Matzokin, N. P. ....:. 

Macoun, J. H 

McRae, J. D 

MaGrath, CD 

MaGrath, Mrs. C. D. ... 
Main, Dr. Duncan 

K Marsh, Dr. E. L 

Marshall, R. ('aider ... 
Marsoulies, A. du Pac de 
Martin, C. H. 
Martin, Mrs. W. A. 
Ma .son, Isaac ... 
Mather, B. 
Mathieson, N. 
Maxwell, Dr. J. Preston 



Maybon, ( 'harles B. 
' Mayers, Frederick J. f 
Mayers, Sydney F. 

McEuen, K. J. 
McFarlane, Rev. A. J. 
Mclnnes, Miss O. ... 
McNeill, Mrs. Duncan 

Mead, E. W 

Mell, Rudolf 

Mencarini, -J 

Mengel, E 

M( ie, D 

Menzies, Rev. J. M. 
Merriman, Mrs. W. L. 
Merrins, Dr. E. M. 
Mesny, H. P 

Mesny, General W. 
Milhorat, A. T. ... 

Millard, T. F. 
M iskin, Stanley C. 
Moninger, Miss M. M. 
'Moore! Dr. A. 
Morgan Rev. Evan 
Morris, Dr. H. H. 
Morriss, H. E. 
Morrison. Dr. G. E. 
Morse. ('. J 

Moule, Rev. A. ('. 
M iinter, I,. S 



it.c 



6 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 

143 N. Szechuen Road, Shanghai 

8b Peking Road, Shanghai 

A. C. Mission, Soochow 

Russian Orientalists' Society, 
Harbin 

C. M. Customs, Nanking 

Changte fu, Honan 

c/o John A. Lane, Esq., 46 Maiden 
Lane, New York City, U.S. A 

Hangchow 

8b Peking Road, Shanghai ... . 

32a Nanking Road, Shanghai 

67 Route Vallon, Shanghai ... 

Russia-Asiatic Bank, Shanghai . 

Bridge House, Nanking 

143 N. Szechuen Road, Shanghai 

Yung Ching, Peking 

Butterfield & Swire, Shanghai 

31 Hammelton Road, Bromley, 
Kent, England 

247 Avenue JofTre, Shanghai 

C. M. Customs, Chinkiang 

The British and Chinese Corpora- 
tion, Ltd., Peking 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

London Mission, Hanyang 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

The Chestnut, Tangbourne, England 

British Legation, Peking 

1b Kiukiang Road, Shanghai 
Supt. Chinese Telegraphs, Yun- 

nanfu 
A. S. Watson & Co 

15 Ferry Road, Shanghai 

St. John's Universitv, Shanghai 

c/o H. & W. Greer, Ltd., 20* Kiu- 
kiang Road 

Hankow 

508, 2nd St. Carlstadt, New Jersey, 
U.S.A. 

The China Press, Shanghai 

Asiatic Petroleum Co.. Hankow ... 

A. P.M. Kachek, Hoihow, Hainan 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

143 N. Szechuen Road, Shanghai 

St. Luke's Hospital, Shanghai ... 

118 Route Pere Robert, Shanghai 

Peking ... 

1825 Asbury Avenue, Evanston, 
Illinois 

Littlebredy, Dorchester 

G. N. Telegraph Co., Peking 



1918 
1908 
1915 
1918 
1917 

1894 
1910 
1910 

1900 
1908 
1908 
1917 
1918 
1916 
1916 
1918 
1915 
1917 

1911 
1917 
1907 

1908 
1915 
1913 
1915 
1916 
1911 



1913 

1916 
1914 
1910 
1916 
1911 

1914 
1919 

1911 
1913 
1916 
1913 
1909 
1914 
1919 
1917 
1901 

1902 
1910 



l>:>s 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Name 




Neild, Dr. F. M 

Nfewbery, Miss E. E. .. 
Newcomb, ( 'apt. Frank 

N icholson, -J. B 

Nicholson. William 

* Nielsen, Albert 

Norman, H. C 



Oakes W. L 

'O'Brien -Butler, P. E. 
Ogilvie, Rev. C. L. 

•Ohlmer, E 

Ottewill, H. A. 
Ouskouli, M. H. A. 



Paddock. Rev. B. H 

Pagh, E. K 

* 'Palmer, W. M. ... 

Papini, E 

Parker, Rev. Dr 



A. P. 



Parsons. E. E 

Partington, T. Bowen ... 

Patrick, Dr. H. C. ... 

Pearson, C. Dearne 

Peet, Alice L 

Peet, Gilbert E. ... ... 

*Peiyang University Librarian 

Penfold, F. G 

Perkins, M. F 

Perntzsch, Dr. Gerhard 

Perry, E. W 

Petersen, A 

Petersen, V 

Petersen, V. A 

*Pettus, W. B 

Pfeffer, Nathaniel 

Phillips, H 

Phillips, Rev. L. Gordon 
*Plancey, ('. Colin de ... 

Piatt. Robert 

Polevoy, S. A 

Polk, Dr. Marget. H. ... 

Pott, Rev. Dr. F. L. Hawks 

Pott, W. S. A 

Pousty, F. E. ... 

Powell, J. B 

Pratt. J. T 

Prentice, John 

Price, Mrs. Maurice ... 
*Pye, Rev. Watts 0. ... 



3a Peking Road. Shanghai 1916 

Cathedral School, Shanghai 1918 

c/o Butterfield & Swire, S'hai ... 1917 

American Consulate, Changsha ... 1919 

Butterfield & Swire, Hongkong .. 1919 

C. M. Customs, Kashing 1894 

The China Press, Shanghai 1912 



W. M. S., Changsha 1919 

British Consulate, Moukden 1886 

American Pres. Mission, Peking ... 1913 

1885 

H.B.M. Consulate, Chinkiang ... 1913 

126 Szechuen Road, Shanghai ... 1917 



Yen Ping Fu, Foochow 1916 

G. N. Telegraph Co., Shanghai ... 1908 

Changchun, Manchuria 1914 

52 Boone Road, Shanghai 1916 

Anglo-Chinese College, 19 Quinsan 1901 

Road, Shanghai 

12 Hankow Road, Shanghai 1916 

Kingsclere Private Hotel, H'kong 1917 

22 Whangpoo Road, Shanghai ... 1912 

69 Kiangse Road, Shanghai 1908 

6 Jinkee Road, Shanghai 1918 

6 Jinkee Road, Shanghai 1918 

Tientsin 1911 

32a Nanking Road, Shanghai ... 1916 

American Consulate, Shanghai ... 1914 

1910 

A. P.M. South Gate, Shanghai ... 1919 

East Asiatic Co., Hankow 1913 

Chinese Telegraphs, Peking 1906 

G. N. Telegraph Co., Shanghai ... 1915 

Y.M.C.A., Peking 1915 

China Press, Shanghai 1918 

British Consulate-Gen., Shanghai 1912 

London Mission, Amoy 1917 

12 me de Varize, Paris XVIc ... 1877 

Chicago University, Chicago, 111. 1917 

38 Davenport Road, Tientsin ... 1917 

110 Range Road, Shanghai 1915 

St. John's University, Shanghai ... 1913 

St. John's University, Shanghai ... 1914 

Ningpo ". 1915 

Millard's Review, 113 Avenue 1918 

FTdward VII 

British Consulate, Tsinanfu 1909 

47 Yangtszepoo Road, Shanghai ... 1885 

30 Szechuen Road, Shanghai ... 1919 

Oberlin, Ohio. U.S. A 1917 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



250 




Quien, F. C 

Quin, Mrs. J 

Raaschou, T 

Raeburn, P. D. ... ... 

Rankin, C. W 

Rees, A. H. Hopkyn ... . 
Rees, Rev. Dr. W. Hopkyn 
Reid, Rev. Dr. Gilbert 

Reinsch, Dr. Paul 

Richert, G 

Ritchie, W. W 

Roberts, D 

Robinson, F. Alan ... . 

Robinson, Mrs. F. A 

Rogers, J. M 

Roots, Rt. Rev. L. H. 

Ros, G. 

Rose, Archibald, c.i.e. 
Rowe, E. S. B 

*Sahara, T. ... 

Sammons, Hon. T. 

Sanders, Arthur H 

Sargent, G. T 

*Sarkar, Prof. B. K. ... . 

Sawdon, E. W. 

Schab, Dr. von 

Schmidt, K 

Schroder, H 

*Segalen, Dr. Victor 
"Shaw, Norman 

Sheartone, T. W 

*Shelton, Dr. A. L. 

Shengle, J. C. 

Shipley, J. A. G 

Silsby, Rev. J. A 

Simpson, B. Lenox 

Sites, F. R 

Skinner, Dr. A. H. ... 

Skvortzow 

Smallbones, J. A 

Smith. J. Langford 

Sophoxloff, G. A '.. 

Sowerby. A. de C. 
Spiker. Clarence J. 
'Stanley, Dr. A 



Netherlands Harbor Works, Peking 
77 Avenue de Roi Albert, S'hai 

Danish Consul-General, Shanghai 

C. M. Customs, Shanghai 

18 Quinsan Road, Shanghai 

Asiatic Petroleum Co., Shanghai 
143 North Szechuen Road, S'hai 

United States Minister, Peking ... 
Whangpoo Conservancy Board, 

Shanghai 
Postal Commissioner, Shanghai ,.. 
St. John's University, Shanghai ... 
British Supreme Court for China, 

Shanghai 

179 North Szechuen Rd., Shanghai 
American Church Mission, Hankow 
Italian Consulate-Gen., Hankow ... 

British Legation, Peking 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 

Shanghai Mercury, Shanghai 
American Consul-Gen., Shanghai 
U. E. Mission, Chaling, Hunan ... 
c/o Ningpo Hotel, Ningpo 

Friends' High School, Chungking, 

Sze. 
20 Whangpoo Road, Shanghai ... 

28 The Bund, Shanghai 

Chee Hsin Cement Works, Tang- 

shan 
5 Cite d'Antin, Brest, France ... 
C. M. Customs, Shanghai 
8 Museum Road, Shanghai .. 
Batang, via Tachienlu, Sze. .. 
23 Ferry Road, Shanghai 
Bedford City, Va. U.S.A. ... 
Presbyterian Mission, South Gate, 

Shanghai 

Peking 

U.S. Steel Product Co., Shanghai 

Hankow 

c/p C. M. Customs, Foochow 

M. C. Electricity Department, 66 

Szechuen Road, Shanghai 

British Consulate, Ichang 

Chinese Eastern Railway, Chiao- 

she-chu, Harbin 

8 Gordon Road, Tientsin 

U. S. Consulate-Gen., Shanghai ... 
Municipal Offices, Shanghai 



1913 
1916 

1912 
1916 
1915 
1917 
1914 
1907 
1916 
1919 

1907 
1916 
1914 

1918 
1918 
1916 
1908 
1901 
1907 

1908 
1915 
1917 
1917 
1915 
1916 

1901 
1888 
1916 

1917 
1912 
1918 
1918 
1905 
1911 
1911 

1916 
1916 
1919 
1918 
1913 

1908 
1915 

1893 
1918 
1905 



260 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Name 


Address 


Year of 
Election 


St. ( iroix, F. A. de 


The Gables, East Blatchington, 
Seaford, Sussex, England 


1912 


Stapleton-Cotton, W. V 


Directorate General of Posts, Peking 


1916 


Stedeford, E. T. A 


Blyth Hospital, Wenchow 


1919 


Stephen, Alex. G 


Hongkong & Shanghai Bank, S'hai 


1911 


Stevenson, Spencer B 


c/oJ. H. & C. K. Eagle, Shanghai 


1917 


Stewart, Rev. J. L 


Union University, Chengtu 


1916 


Stewart, K. D 


Maitland & Co., Shanghai 


1912 


Stockton, G. C 


American School, Shanghai 


1914 


Strehlneek, E. A 


45 Haskell Road, Shanghai 


1909 


Streib, U. 


Rohde & Co., Shanghai 




Stursberg, W. A 


17 Hart Road, Shanghai 


1919 


*South Manchuria Railway Co. 






Library 


Dairen 


1910 


Sykes, E. A 


Reiss & Co., Shanghai 


1909 


Tachibana, M. 


Kiaochow Customs House, Tsing- 
tau 


1881 


Talbot, R, M 




1915 


Tanner, Paul von ... 


C. M. Customs, Kiukiang 


1885 


Tayler, A. LI 


Arts and Crafts, Ltd., Shanghai 


1885 


"Taylor, C. H. Brewitt 


Commissioner of Customs, Mukden 


1885 


Teesdale, J. H 


3a Peking Road, Shanghai 


1916 


Tenney, Dr. CD. 


American Legation, Peking ... :.. 


1913 


Thellefsen, E. S 


G. N. Telegraph Co., Shanghai ... 


1913 


Thomas, J. A. T 


Mustard & Co., Shanghai 


1890 


Throop, M. H 


St. John's University, Shanghai ... 


1912 


Ting I-hsien 


C. M. Customs, Shanghai 


1902 


Toller, W. Stark 


British Consulate, Chungking 


1907 


*Tochtermann, Karl 


C. M. Customs, Shanghai 


1900 


Touche, J. D. la 


C. M. Customs, Shasi 


1911 


Toussaint, G. C 


Consulate General de France, S'hai 


1917 


*Trollope, lit. Rev. Bishop M.N. 


Seoul, Korea 


1911 


Tucker, G. E. 


5 Peking Road, Shanghai 


1915 


Tucker, Mrs. G. E 


5 Peking Road, Shanghai 


1915 


Turner, R. C. 


Municipal Offices, Shanghai 


1915 


Turner, Skinner, Judge 


British Supreme Court for China, 
Shanghai 


1916 


Twentyman, J. R. 


24 Yuenmingyuen Road, Shanghai 


1894 


Tyler, W. F 


C. M. Customs, Shanghai 


1915 


1 in win, F. S 


The Angela, Victoria B. C. Canada 


1914 


Upham, F. S 


S.M.C., P.W.D., Shanghai 


1919 


Van Corback, T. B 


c/o A. E. Algar, Shanghai 


1913 


Van der Woude, R 


8 Nanyang Road, Shanghai 


1915 


Van Norden,. Warner M 


Lotos Tea Concern, Wall & South 
Street 


1910 


Verbert, L 


20 The Bund, Shanghai 


1913 


Veryard, Robert K. 


Y.M.C.A., Changsha 


1917 


Vizenzinovitch, Mrs. V 


1 Kiangwan Road, Shanghai 


1914 


Wade, R. H. R 


C. M. Customs, Shanghai 


1918 


Waller, A. J 


Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., Shanghai ... 


1916 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



261 




Wang Chung-hui, Dr 

Ward, F. Kingdon 

Warren, Rev. G. G 

Washbrook, H. G 

Watkins, Miss J 

Weatherall, M. E 

Webb, Mrs. C. H 

Webster, Rev. James 

Werner, E. T. C 

Westbrook, E. J 

Wheeler, Rev. W. R 

Wheelock, T. R 

White, Rev. H. W 

White, Miss Laura M 

White, Rt. Rev. Wm. C 

Wilde, Mrs. H. R 

Wilden, H. A 

Wilhelm, Rev. Dr. Richard 

Wilkinson, E. S 

Wilkinson, F. E 

Wilkinson, H. P 

Williams, C. A. S 

Williams, Capt. C. C 

Wilson, R. E 

Wilton, E. C 

Witt, Miss E. N 

Woets, J 

Wood, A. G 

Wood, Dr. Julia N 

Wright, Rev. H. K 

*Wright, S. F 

*Wu Lien-teh, Dr 

YVu Ting-fang, Dr 

Yetts, Dr. W. Perceval 

Yokoyama, R. 

Young, R. C 

Zwemer, Rev. Samuel M., d.d.. 

f.r.g.s. 



142b North Szechuen Road, S'hai 1913 

116th Mahrattas, Z. E. F. D. 1910 

c/o Postmaster, Bombay 

W^esleyan Mission, Changsha ... 1909 

6 Shih Ta Jen Hu t'ung, Peking ... 1908 

Soochow 1914 

52 Ta Fang-chia Hu t'ung, Peking 1919 

Astor House, Shanghai 1919 

c/o Wesleyan Missionary Society, 1911 

24 Bishopsgate, London, E.C. 2 

Liang Kuo Ch'ang, Peking 1915 

Asiatic Petroleum Co., Shanghai 1916 

A.P.M., Hangchow 1919 

Wheelock & Co., Shanghai 1914 

Yancheng, Kiangsu 1915 

30 Kinnear Road, Shanghai 1916 

Anglican Bishop of Honan, Kai- 1913 

fengfu 

1.5 Ferry Road, Shanghai 1915 

French * Consulate, Rue du Con- 1917 

sulate, Shanghai 

Tsingtau 1910 

P.O. Box. No. 41, Yokohama ... 1911 

British Consulate, Foochow 1909 

3 Balfour Buildings, Shanghai ... 1909 

Inspectorate General of Customs, 1919 

Peking 
c/o Butterfield & Swire, Shanghai ;i 1918 

6 Jinkee Road, Shanghai ... ... 1918 

British Legation, Peking 1900 

16 Queensborough Terr., Hyde 1912 

Park, London, W. 

Credit foncier d'Extreme Orient, 1919 

Shanghai 

Gibb, Livingston & Co., Shanghai 1879 

c/o H. P. Mohnk, West Falls, 1914 

Eric Country, New York 

143 North Szechuen Rd., Shanghai 1919 

29 Medhurst Road, Shanghai ... 1916 

Customs Buildings, Harbin 1913 

3 Gordon Road, Shanghai 1913 

Junior United Service Club, 1909 

London 

Tokyo Mercantile Agency, S'hai 1918 

Municipal Offices, Shanghai 1912 

5 Imad id din, Cairo 1917 



TOTALS : 

Classifield as :—= 

Honorary Members .„ ... ... 15 

Corresponding Members ... 7 

Life Members 64 

Ordinary Members 437 



523 



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